Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 164
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256860, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) therapy is widely used in the management of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). However, up to a third of patients do not respond to induction therapy and another third of patients lose response over time. To aid patient stratification, polygenetic risk scores have been identified as predictors of response to anti-TNFα therapy. We aimed to replicate the association between polygenetic risk scores and response to anti-TNFα therapy in an independent cohort of patients, to establish its clinical validity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Primary non-response, primary response, durable response and loss of response to anti-TNFα therapy was retrospectively assessed for each patient using stringent definitions. Genome wide genotyping was performed and previously described polygenetic risk scores for primary non-response and durable response were calculated. We compared polygenetic risk scores between patients with primary response and primary non-response, and between patients with durable response and loss of response, using separate analyses for CD and UC. RESULTS: Out of 334 patients with CD, 15 (4%) patients met criteria for primary non-response, 221 (66%) for primary response, 115 (34%) for durable response and 35 (10%) for loss of response. Out of 112 patients with UC, 12 (11%) met criteria for primary non-response, 68 (61%) for primary response, 19 (17%) for durable response and 20 (18%) for loss of response. No significant differences in polygenetic risk scores were found between primary non-responders and primary responders, and between durable responders and loss of responders. CONCLUSIONS: We could not replicate the previously reported association between polygenetic risk scores and response to anti-TNFα therapy in an independent cohort of patients with CD or UC. Currently, there is insufficient evidence to use polygenetic risk scores to predict response to anti-TNFα therapy in patients with IBD.

2.
Nutr Rev ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486663

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Conflicting practice-based dietary recommendations are sometimes given to patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); whereas intake of fiber should increase during remission, it should be avoided during relapse. Moreover, European countries set daily requirements of total fiber and do not specify any types. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review appraised data from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of the types of fibers beneficial for patients in the treatment of IBD to guide dietary fiber advice. DATA SOURCES: The PubMED database was searched following PRISMA guidelines. DATA EXTRACTION: RCTs evaluating the effects of any type of fiber on clinical and physiological outcomes in patients with IBD were assessed. Quality assessment of the selected full-text articles was conducted using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. DATA ANALYSIS: Eight studies were included reporting on 5 types of fibers. In 2 RCTs, germinated barley foodstuff (GBF) was shown to lower pro-inflammatory cytokines and clinical disease activity scores. Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) were demonstrated to lower IBD Questionnaire scores (lower well-being), in contrast to inulin, which decreased disease activity scores. An RCT could not find lower remission rates in the psyllium treatment group, while another RCT reported that administration led to less symptoms in patients. In RCTs, no concrete evidence was found that wheat bran improves disease course. CONCLUSIONS: Although the evidence is sparse, GBF and inulin seem propitious and merit further exploration. Evidence on wheat bran and psyllium is still too limited. Adequately powered long-term human RCTs with objective outcomes are needed to improve dietary advice on types of fiber in IBD.

3.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Protein profiling in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes is underexplored in IBD. This study analysed the association between phenotype, genotype and the plasma proteome in IBD. METHODS: Ninety-two (92) inflammation-related proteins were quantified in plasma of 1,028 patients with IBD (567 Crohn's disease [CD]; 461 ulcerative colitis [UC]) and 148 healthy individuals to assess protein-phenotype associations. Corresponding whole-exome sequencing and global screening array data of 919 patients with IBD were included to analyse the effect of genetics on protein levels (protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) analysis). Intestinal mucosal RNA sequencing and fecal metagenomic data were used for complementary analyses. RESULTS: Thirty-two (32) proteins were differentially abundant between IBD and healthy individuals, of which 22 proteins independent of active inflammation. Sixty-nine (69) proteins were associated with 15 demographic and clinical factors. Fibroblast growth factor-19 levels were decreased in CD patients with ileal disease or a history of ileocecal resection. Thirteen novel cis-pQTLs were identified and 10 replicated from previous studies. One trans-pQTL of the fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) gene (rs602662) and two independent cis-pQTLs of C-C motif chemokine 25 (CCL25) affected plasma CCL25 levels. Intestinal gene expression data revealed an overlapping cis-expression (e)QTL-variant (rs3745387) of the CCL25 gene. The FUT2 rs602662 trans-pQTL was associated with reduced abundances of fecal butyrate-producing bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that genotype and multiple disease phenotypes strongly associate with the plasma inflammatory proteome in IBD and identifies disease-associated pathways that may help to improve disease management in the future.

4.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371860

RESUMO

Identification of low muscle mass becomes increasingly relevant due to its prognostic value in cancer patients. In clinical practice, mid-upper arm muscle circumference (MAMC) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) are often used to assess muscle mass. For muscle-mass assessment, computed tomography (CT) is considered as reference standard. We investigated concordance between CT, BIA, and MAMC, diagnostic accuracy of MAMC, and BIA to detect low muscle mass and their relation with the clinical outcome malnutrition provided with the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment Short Form (PG-SGA SF). This cross-sectional study included adult patients with advanced esophageal and gastrointestinal cancer. BIA, MAMC, and PG-SGA-SF were performed. Routine CT-scans were used to quantify psoas muscle index (PMI) and skeletal muscle area. Good concordance was found between CTPMI and both BIAFFMI (fat free mass index) (ICC 0.73), and BIAASMI (appendicular skeletal muscle index) (ICC 0.69) but not with MAMC (ICC 0.37). BIAFFMI (94%), BIAASMI (86%), and MAMC (86%) showed high specificity but low sensitivity. PG-SGA-SF modestly correlated with all muscle-mass measures (ranging from -0.17 to -0.43). Of all patients with low muscle mass, 62% were also classified with a PG-SGA-SF score of ≥4 points. Although CT remains the first choice, since both BIA and MAMC are easy to perform by dieticians, they have the potential to be used to detect low muscle mass in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Impedância Elétrica , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico , Idoso , Braço/diagnóstico por imagem , Braço/fisiopatologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Neoplasias Esofágicas/complicações , Neoplasias Esofágicas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/complicações , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/complicações , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
5.
Virchows Arch ; 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338882

RESUMO

Colitis is a common, but poorly understood, adverse event of immune checkpoint inhibitors that are standard-of-care for an expanding range of cancer types. This explorative study aimed to describe the immune infiltrates in the colon from individuals developing checkpoint inhibitor colitis and compare them to well-known immunophenotypes of acute graft-versus-host disease, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease. Colon biopsies (n = 20 per group) of patients with checkpoint inhibitor colitis, acute graft-versus-host disease, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, all colitis treatment-naïve, and of individuals with a normal colon were analyzed using immunohistochemistry: CD8 for cytotoxic T cells, CD4 for T helper cells, and CD68 to identify cells of macrophage lineage. CD8 + T cell, CD4 + T cell, and CD68 + cell counts were performed. Cell infiltration was scored as scattered/patchy or band-like in the superficial and deep gut mucosa. Checkpoint inhibitor colitis was found to be heavily infiltrated by CD8 + T cells. Comparative analysis between groups showed that both CD8 + T cell counts (P < 0.01) and immune cell infiltration patterns in checkpoint inhibitor colitis were most similar to those observed in ulcerative colitis, with a deep band-like CD4 + T cell infiltration pattern and a superficial band-like CD68 + cell infiltration pattern in both. In conclusion, this is the first immunohistopathological study comparing infiltrate characteristics of checkpoint inhibitor colitis, acute graft-versus-host disease, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease. Checkpoint inhibitor colitis samples are heterogeneous, heavily infiltrated by CD8 + T cells, and show an immune cell infiltration pattern that is more similar to ulcerative colitis than to colonic acute graft-versus-host disease or colonic Crohn's disease.

6.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) express increased mucosal levels of pH-sensing receptors compared with non-IBD controls. Acidification leads to angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling. We aimed to determine the expression of pH-sensing G protein-coupled receptor 4 (GPR4) in fibrotic lesions in Crohn's disease (CD) patients. We further evaluated the effect of deficiency in Gpr4 or its pharmacologic inhibition. METHODS: Paired samples from fibrotic and nonfibrotic terminal ileum were obtained from CD patients undergoing ileocaecal resection. The effects of Gpr4 deficiency were assessed in the spontaneous Il-10-/- and the chronic dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) murine colitis model. The effects of Gpr4 deficiency and a GPR4 antagonist (39c) were assessed in the heterotopic intestinal transplantation model. RESULTS: In human terminal ileum, increased expression of fibrosis markers was accompanied by an increase in GPR4 expression. A positive correlation between the expression of procollagens and GPR4 was observed. In murine disease models, Gpr4 deficiency was associated with a decrease in angiogenesis and fibrogenesis evidenced by decreased vessel length and expression of Edn, Vegfα, and procollagens. The heterotopic animal model for intestinal fibrosis, transplanted with terminal ileum from Gpr4-/- mice, revealed a decrease in mRNA expression of fibrosis markers and a decrease in collagen content and layer thickness compared with grafts from wild type mice. The GPR4 antagonist decreased collagen deposition. The GPR4 expression was also observed in human and murine intestinal fibroblasts. The GPR4 inhibition reduced markers of fibroblast activation stimulated by low pH, notably Acta2 and cTgf. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of GPR4 positively correlates with the expression of profibrotic genes and collagen. Deficiency of Gpr4 is associated with a decrease in angiogenesis and fibrogenesis. The GPR4 antagonist decreases collagen deposition. Targeting GPR4 with specific inhibitors may constitute a new treatment option for IBD-associated fibrosis.

7.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806061

RESUMO

Diet plays a pivotal role in the onset and course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Patients are keen to know what to eat to reduce symptoms and flares, but dietary guidelines are lacking. To advice patients, an overview of the current evidence on food (group) level is needed. This narrative review studies the effects of food (groups) on the onset and course of IBD and if not available the effects in healthy subjects or animal and in vitro IBD models. Based on this evidence the Groningen anti-inflammatory diet (GrAID) was designed and compared on food (group) level to other existing IBD diets. Although on several foods conflicting results were found, this review provides patients a good overview. Based on this evidence, the GrAID consists of lean meat, eggs, fish, plain dairy (such as milk, yoghurt, kefir and hard cheeses), fruit, vegetables, legumes, wheat, coffee, tea and honey. Red meat, other dairy products and sugar should be limited. Canned and processed foods, alcohol and sweetened beverages should be avoided. This comprehensive review focuses on anti-inflammatory properties of foods providing IBD patients with the best evidence on which foods they should eat or avoid to reduce flares. This was used to design the GrAID.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Dieta/métodos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/dietoterapia , Animais , Café , Laticínios , Ovos , Fabaceae , Frutas , Mel , Humanos , Carne , Alimentos Marinhos , Chá , Triticum , Verduras
8.
Gut ; 70(7): 1287-1298, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The microbiome directly affects the balance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses in the gut. As microbes thrive on dietary substrates, the question arises whether we can nourish an anti-inflammatory gut ecosystem. We aim to unravel interactions between diet, gut microbiota and their functional ability to induce intestinal inflammation. DESIGN: We investigated the relation between 173 dietary factors and the microbiome of 1425 individuals spanning four cohorts: Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome and the general population. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing was performed to profile gut microbial composition and function. Dietary intake was assessed through food frequency questionnaires. We performed unsupervised clustering to identify dietary patterns and microbial clusters. Associations between diet and microbial features were explored per cohort, followed by a meta-analysis and heterogeneity estimation. RESULTS: We identified 38 associations between dietary patterns and microbial clusters. Moreover, 61 individual foods and nutrients were associated with 61 species and 249 metabolic pathways in the meta-analysis across healthy individuals and patients with IBS, Crohn's disease and UC (false discovery rate<0.05). Processed foods and animal-derived foods were consistently associated with higher abundances of Firmicutes, Ruminococcus species of the Blautia genus and endotoxin synthesis pathways. The opposite was found for plant foods and fish, which were positively associated with short-chain fatty acid-producing commensals and pathways of nutrient metabolism. CONCLUSION: We identified dietary patterns that consistently correlate with groups of bacteria with shared functional roles in both, health and disease. Moreover, specific foods and nutrients were associated with species known to infer mucosal protection and anti-inflammatory effects. We propose microbial mechanisms through which the diet affects inflammatory responses in the gut as a rationale for future intervention studies.

9.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909062

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ustekinumab is a monoclonal antibody that selectively targets p40, a shared subunit of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23. It is registered for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. We assessed the two-year effectiveness and safety of ustekinumab in a real world, prospective cohort of patients with Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: Patients who started ustekinumab were prospectively enrolled in the nationwide Initiative on Crohn and Colitis (ICC) Registry. At week 0, 12, 24, 52 and 104, clinical remission (HBI ≤ 4 points), biochemical remission (fecal calprotectin (FC) ≤200 µg/g and/or CRP ≤5 mg/L), peri-anal fistula remission, extra-intestinal manifestations, ustekinumab dosage and safety outcomes were determined. The primary outcome was corticosteroid-free clinical remission at week 104. RESULTS: In total, 252 CD patient with at least two years of follow up were included. Of all included patients, the proportion of patients in corticosteroid-free clinical remission was 32.3% (81/251), 41.4% (104/251), 39% (97/249) and 34.0% (84/247), at week 12, 24, 52 and 104, respectively. In patients with combined clinical and biochemical disease activity at baseline (n=122), the corticosteroid-free clinical remission rates were 23.8% (29/122), 35.2% (43/122), 40.0% (48/120) and 32.8% (39/119) at week 12, 24, 52 and 104, respectively. The probability of remaining on ustekinumab treatment after 52 and 104 weeks in all patients was 64.3% and 54.8%, respectively. The main reason for discontinuing treatment after 52 weeks was loss of response (66.7%). No new safety issues were observed. CONCLUSION: After 104 weeks of ustekinumab treatment, one third of CD patients were in corticosteroid-free clinical remission.

10.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatigue is one of the most frequently reported symptoms by patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), both during active disease phases as well as during clinical remission. This study addressed whether different trajectories of fatigue over time can be identified among patients with IBD. Subsequently, we compared the demographic and clinical characteristics between trajectories. METHODS: The current study included 849 patients with IBD diagnosed with either Crohn disease (CD; n = 511) or ulcerative colitis (UC; n = 338) who visited the University Medical Center in Groningen (the Netherlands) at least 3 times during a 9-year follow-up. We conducted latent class growth analyses to identify distinct trajectories. RESULTS: In all patients with IBD (and in the subgroup with CD), we found 5 trajectories for fatigue. In the UC subgroup, we found 4 fatigue trajectories. One trajectory present in both patients with CD (11.45%) and patients with UC (4.75%) was characterized by chronic elevated levels of fatigue across time. Women and parents were more prevalent in trajectories with higher fatigue severity. We also found significant associations among the fatigue trajectories with disease activity and psychological well-being. CONCLUSIONS: The results clearly showed the existence of distinct fatigue paths over time in patients with IBD. Those reporting more chronic elevated levels of fatigue also reported greater disease activity and reduced well-being. Therefore, reducing disease activity may be important for the treatment of fatigue. In addition, given the significant association with well-being, it is possible that reducing fatigue may improve self-reported well-being.

11.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and treated with originator infliximab are increasingly being switched to biosimilars. Some patients, however, are "reverse switched" to treatment with the originator. Here we assess the prevalence of reverse switching, including its indication and outcomes. METHODS: In this retrospective multicenter cohort study, data on patients with IBD from 9 hospitals in the Netherlands were collected. All adult patients with IBD were included if they previously had been switched from originator infliximab to the biosimilar CT-P13 and had a follow-up time of at least 52 weeks after the initial switch. The reasons for reverse switching were categorized into worsening gastrointestinal symptoms, adverse effects, or loss of response to CT-P13. Drug persistence was analyzed through survival analyses. RESULTS: A total of 758 patients with IBD were identified. Reverse switching was observed in 75 patients (9.9%). Patients with reverse switching were predominantly female (70.7%). Gastrointestinal symptoms (25.5%) and dermatological symptoms (21.8%) were the most commonly reported reasons for reverse switching. In 9 patients (12.0%), loss of response to CT-P13 was the reason for reverse switching. Improvement of reported symptoms was seen in 73.3% of patients after reverse switching and 7 out of 9 patients (77.8%) with loss of response regained response. Infliximab persistence was equal between patients who were reverse-switched and those who were maintained on CT-P13. CONCLUSIONS: Reverse switching occurred in 9.9% of patients, predominantly for biosimilar-attributed adverse effects. Switching back to originator infliximab seems effective in patients who experience adverse effects, worsening gastrointestinal symptoms, or loss of response after switching from originator infliximab to CT-P13.

12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1122, 2021 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602935

RESUMO

More than 240 genetic risk loci have been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but little is known about how they contribute to disease development in involved tissue. Here, we hypothesized that host genetic variation affects gene expression in an inflammation-dependent way, and investigated 299 snap-frozen intestinal biopsies from inflamed and non-inflamed mucosa from 171 IBD patients. RNA-sequencing was performed, and genotypes were determined using whole exome sequencing and genome wide genotyping. In total, 28,746 genes and 6,894,979 SNPs were included. Linear mixed models identified 8,881 independent intestinal cis-expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTLs) (FDR < 0.05) and interaction analysis revealed 190 inflammation-dependent intestinal cis-eQTLs (FDR < 0.05), including known IBD-risk genes and genes encoding immune-cell receptors and antibodies. The inflammation-dependent cis-eQTL SNPs (eSNPs) mainly interact with prevalence of immune cell types. Inflammation-dependent intestinal cis-eQTLs reveal genetic susceptibility under inflammatory conditions that can help identify the cell types involved in and the pathways underlying inflammation, knowledge that may guide future drug development and profile patients for precision medicine in IBD.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Inflamação/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Intestinos/patologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
13.
J Crohns Colitis ; 15(8): 1305-1315, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diet is associated with the onset of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. Up to half of IBD patients believe that diet contributes to flares. However, studies on this topic are sparse and merely focus on specific nutrients, food items or food groups. We aimed to analyse the association between dietary patterns and flare occurrence in two geographically distinct Dutch cohorts. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, 724 IBD patients [Northern cohort: n = 486, Southern cohort: n = 238] were included and followed for 2 years. Habitual dietary intake was obtained via semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires at baseline. Principal component analysis [PCA] was conducted on 22 food groups to identify dietary patterns. Flare occurrence was analysed in 427 patients in remission at baseline, using multivariable Cox proportional hazards. RESULTS: Compared to the Southern cohort, patients in the Northern cohort were younger at diagnosis, comprised more females, and had lower overall energy intakes [all p < 0.05]. PCA revealed three dietary patterns explaining 28.8% of the total variance. The most pronounced pattern [explaining 11.6%] was characterized by intake of grain products, oils, potatoes, processed meat, red meat, condiments and sauces, and sugar, cakes and confectionery. Of the 427 patients, 106 [24.8%] developed an exacerbation during follow-up. The above dietary pattern was associated with flare occurrence (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-2.18, p = 0.029), as was female sex [HR: 1.63, 95% CI 1.04-2.55, p = 0.032]. CONCLUSIONS: A dietary pattern, which can be seen as a 'traditional [Dutch]' or "Western' pattern was associated with flare occurrence. Confirmation in prospective studies is needed.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease are at increased risk of colorectal neoplasia (CRN) due to mucosal inflammation. As current surveillance guidelines form a burden on patients and healthcare costs, stratification of high-risk patients is crucial. Cigarette smoke reduces inflammation in ulcerative colitis (UC) but not Crohn's disease (CD) and forms a known risk factor for CRN in the general population. Due to this divergent association, the effect of smoking on CRN in IBD is unclear and subject of this study. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, 1,386 IBD patients with previous biopsies analyzed and reported in the PALGA register were screened for development of CRN. Clinical factors and cigarette smoke were evaluated. Patients were stratified for guideline-based risk of CRN. Cox-regression modeling was used to estimate the effect of cigarette smoke and its additive effect within the current risk stratification for prediction of CRN. RESULTS: 153 (11.5%) patients developed CRN. Previously described risk factors, i.e. first-degree family member with CRN in CD (p-value=.001), presence of post-inflammatory polyps in UC (p-value=.005), were replicated. Former smoking increased risk of CRN in UC (HR 1.73; 1.05-2.85), whereas passive smoke exposure yielded no effect. For CD, active smoking (2.20; 1.02-4.76) and passive smoke exposure (1.87; 1.09-3.20) significantly increased CRN risk. Addition of smoke exposure to the current risk-stratification model significantly improved model fit for CD. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to describe the important role of cigarette smoke in CRN development in IBD patients. Adding this risk factor improves the current risk stratification for CRN surveillance strategies.

15.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 36(4): 1022-1034, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: While major efforts were made studying the complex etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) including environmental factors, less is known about underlying causes leading to the heterogeneous and highly variable course of disease. As cigarette smoking cessation is the best-known environmental factor with beneficial effect in Crohn's disease (CD), more exposome factors are likely involved. Further insights into the role of the exposome in heterogeneity of disease might not only further knowledge of underlying pathways, but also allow for better risk stratification. METHODS: Seven hundred twenty-eight IBD patients completed the validated Groningen IBD Environmental Questionnaire, collecting exposome data for 93 exposome factors. Associations with disease course, that is, for need for surgery or biological therapy, were evaluated using univariate and multivariate-adjusted logistic regression modeling. RESULTS: No significant associations were seen after Bonferroni correction. However, 11 novel exposome factors were identified with P < 0.05. Two factors were associated with course of CD and ulcerative colitis (UC): beer (CD OR0.3/UC OR0.3) and cannabis (0.5/2.2). While in CD, carpet flooring (0.5) was associated with biological use, and four factors were associated with surgery: working shifts (1.8), appendectomy (2.4), frequent tooth brushing (2.8), and large household size (0.1). For UC, migrants more often required biologicals (10.2). Childhood underweight (3.4), amphetamine use (6.2), and cocaine use (4.8) were associated with surgery. Five factors were replicated. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 16 environmental factors nominally associated with biological use and surgery in established IBD. These new insights form an important stepping stone to guide research on biological pathways involved, risk stratification, tailor-made interventions, and preventive strategies in IBD.

16.
Gut ; 70(2): 285-296, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Both the gut microbiome and host genetics are known to play significant roles in the pathogenesis of IBD. However, the interaction between these two factors and its implications in the aetiology of IBD remain underexplored. Here, we report on the influence of host genetics on the gut microbiome in IBD. DESIGN: To evaluate the impact of host genetics on the gut microbiota of patients with IBD, we combined whole exome sequencing of the host genome and whole genome shotgun sequencing of 1464 faecal samples from 525 patients with IBD and 939 population-based controls. We followed a four-step analysis: (1) exome-wide microbial quantitative trait loci (mbQTL) analyses, (2) a targeted approach focusing on IBD-associated genomic regions and protein truncating variants (PTVs, minor allele frequency (MAF) >5%), (3) gene-based burden tests on PTVs with MAF <5% and exome copy number variations (CNVs) with site frequency <1%, (4) joint analysis of both cohorts to identify the interactions between disease and host genetics. RESULTS: We identified 12 mbQTLs, including variants in the IBD-associated genes IL17REL, MYRF, SEC16A and WDR78. For example, the decrease of the pathway acetyl-coenzyme A biosynthesis, which is involved in short chain fatty acids production, was associated with variants in the gene MYRF (false discovery rate <0.05). Changes in functional pathways involved in the metabolic potential were also observed in participants carrying rare PTVs or CNVs in CYP2D6, GPR151 and CD160 genes. These genes are known for their function in the immune system. Moreover, interaction analyses confirmed previously known IBD disease-specific mbQTLs in TNFSF15. CONCLUSION: This study highlights that both common and rare genetic variants affecting the immune system are key factors in shaping the gut microbiota in the context of IBD and pinpoints towards potential mechanisms for disease treatment.

17.
Gut ; 70(7): 1266-1274, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046558

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the long-term health outcomes of children born to mothers with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and to assess the impact of maternal IBD medication use on these outcomes. DESIGN: We performed a multicentre retrospective study in The Netherlands. Women with IBD who gave birth between 1999 and 2018 were enrolled from 20 participating hospitals. Information regarding disease characteristics, medication use, lifestyle, pregnancy outcomes and long-term health outcomes of children was retrieved from mothers and medical charts. After consent of both parents, outcomes until 5 years were also collected from general practitioners. Our primary aim was to assess infection rate and our secondary aims were to assess adverse reactions to vaccinations, growth, autoimmune diseases and malignancies. RESULTS: We included 1000 children born to 626 mothers (381 (61%) Crohn's disease, 225 (36%) ulcerative colitis and 20 (3%) IBD unclassified). In total, 196 (20%) had intrauterine exposure to anti-tumour necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF-α) (60 with concomitant thiopurine) and 240 (24%) were exposed to thiopurine monotherapy. The 564 children (56%) not exposed to anti-TNF-α and/or thiopurine served as control group. There was no association between adverse long-term health outcomes and in utero exposure to IBD treatment. We did find an increased rate of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) in case thiopurine was used during the pregnancy without affecting birth outcomes and long-term health outcomes of children. All outcomes correspond with the general age-adjusted population. CONCLUSION: In our study, we found no association between in utero exposure to anti-TNF-α and/or thiopurine and the long-term outcomes antibiotic-treated infections, severe infections needing hospital admission, adverse reactions to vaccinations, growth failure, autoimmune diseases and malignancies.

18.
Eur J Nutr ; 60(1): 345-356, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since evidence-based dietary guidelines are lacking for IBD patients, they tend to follow "unguided" dietary habits; potentially leading to nutritional deficiencies and detrimental effects on disease course. Therefore, we compared dietary intake of IBD patients with controls. METHODS: Dietary intake of macronutrients and 25 food groups of 493 patients (207 UC, 286 CD), and 1291 controls was obtained via a food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: 38.6% of patients in remission had protein intakes below the recommended 0.8 g/kg and 86.7% with active disease below the recommended 1.2 g/kg. Multinomial logistic regression, corrected for age, gender and BMI, showed that (compared to controls) UC patients consumed more meat and spreads, but less alcohol, breads, coffee and dairy; CD patients consumed more non-alcoholic drinks, potatoes, savoury snacks and sugar and sweets but less alcohol, dairy, nuts, pasta and prepared meals. Patients with active disease consumed more meat, soup and sugar and sweets but less alcohol, coffee, dairy, prepared meals and rice; patients in remission consumed more potatoes and spreads but less alcohol, breads, dairy, nuts, pasta and prepared meals. CONCLUSIONS: Patients avoiding potentially favourable foods and gourmandizing potentially unfavourable foods are of concern. Special attention is needed for protein intake in the treatment of these patients.


Assuntos
Dieta , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos
19.
Ann Surg ; 273(3): 557-563, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188225

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess time trends in intestinal resection and re-resection in Crohn's disease (CD) patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: CD treatment has changed considerably over the past decades. The effect of these advances on the necessity of intestinal resections and the risk of re-resection is unclear. METHODS: In this nationwide cohort study, adult CD patients with ileocolonic, small bowel, colon, or rectum resections between 1991 and 2015 were included. Data were retrieved from the Dutch nationwide network and registry of histopathology and cytopathology (PALGA). Time trends were analyzed with a broken stick model and Cox proportional hazard model with smoothing splines. RESULTS: The identified cohort comprised 8172 CD patients (3293/4879 male/female) in whom 10,315 intestinal resections were performed. The annual intestinal resection rate decreased nonlinearly from 22.7/100,000 CD patients (1991) to 2.5/100,000 (2015). A significantly steeper decrease was observed before 1999 (slope -1.56) as compared to subsequent years (slope -0.41) (P < 0.001). Analogous trends were observed for ileocolonic, small bowel, and colon resections. Overall cumulative risk of re-resection was 10.9% at 5 years, 18.6% at 10 years, and 28.3% at 20 years after intestinal resection. The hazard for intestinal re-resection showed a nonlinear decreasing trend, with hazard ratio 0.39 (95% confidence interval 0.36-0.44) in 2000 and hazard ratio 0.25 (95% confidence interval 0.18-0.34) in 2015 as compared to 1991. CONCLUSION: Over the past 25 years, intestinal resection rate has decreased significantly for ileocolonic, small bowel, and colonic CD. In addition, current postoperative CD patients are at 75% lower risk of intestinal re-resection.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Colorretal/tendências , Doença de Crohn/cirurgia , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Sistema de Registros
20.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 15(2): 115-126, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094654

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Developments in enhanced and magnified endoscopy have signified major advances in endoscopic imaging of ileocolonic pathology in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Artificial intelligence is increasingly being used to augment the benefits of these advanced techniques. Nevertheless, treatment of IBD patients is frustrated by high rates of non-response to therapy, while delayed detection and failures to detect neoplastic lesions impede successful surveillance. A possible solution is offered by molecular imaging, which adds functional imaging data to mucosal morphology assessment through visualizing biological parameters. Other label-free modalities enable visualization beyond the mucosal surface without the need of tracers. AREAS COVERED: A literature search up to May 2020 was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE in order to find relevant articles that involve the (pre-)clinical application of high-definition white light endoscopy, chromoendoscopy, artificial intelligence, confocal laser endomicroscopy, endocytoscopy, molecular imaging, optical coherence tomography, and Raman spectroscopy in IBD. EXPERT OPINION: Enhanced and magnified endoscopy have enabled an improved assessment of the ileocolonic mucosa. Implementing molecular imaging in endoscopy could overcome the remaining clinical challenges by giving practitioners a real-time in vivo view of targeted biomarkers. Label-free modalities could help optimize the endoscopic assessment of mucosal healing and dysplasia detection in IBD patients.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...