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1.
Circ J ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attenuation-compensated (AC) technique was recently introduced to improve the plaque characterization of optical coherence tomography (OCT). Histological validation demonstrated promising results but the efficacy and reproducibility of this technique for assessing in-vivo tissue composition remains unclear.Methods and Results:OCT images portraying native (n=200) and stented (n=200) segments and 31 histological cross-sections were analyzed. AC-OCT appeared superior to conventional (C)-OCT in detecting the external elastic lamina (EEM) borders (76% vs. 65.5%); AC-OCT enabled larger EEM arc detection compared with C-OCT (174.2±58.7° vs. 137.5±57.9°; P<0.001). There was poor agreement between the 2 techniques for detection of lipid in native and lipid and calcific tissue in stented segments (κ range: 0.164-0.466) but the agreement of C-OCT and AC-OCT was high for calcific tissue in native segments (κ=0.825). Intra and interobserver agreement of the 2 analysts was moderate to excellent with C-OCT (κ range: 0.681-0.979) and AC-OCT (κ range: 0.733-0.892) for all tissue types in both native and stented segments. Ex-vivoanalysis demonstrated that C-OCT was superior to AC-OCT (κ=0.545 vs. κ=0.296) for the detection of the lipid component in native segments. CONCLUSIONS: The AC technique allows better delineation of the EEM but it remains inferior for lipid pool detection and neointima characterization. Combined AC- and C-OCT imaging may provide additional value for complete assessment of plaque and neointima characteristics.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673850

RESUMO

We aimed to quantitatively assess a possible difference of the neointimal quality between biodegradable polymer- (BP-) and durable polymer drug-eluting stents (DP-DESs). We conducted a single-center all-comer prospective cohort study: the RESTORE registry (UMIN000033009). All patients who received successful OCT examination at planned 3-month follow-up after DES implantation were analyzed. Study population was divided into 2 groups, BP-DES versus DP-DES groups. We evaluated standard OCT variables, coverage percent, and the quantitative light property values including light intensity, attenuation, and backscatter. We performed OCT analyses of 121 lesions in 98 patients (BP-DES 55 lesions in 51 patients vs. DP-DES 66 lesions in DP-DES 53 patients). Lesion and procedural characteristics were overall well-balanced between both groups. At 3-month follow-up, neointimal thickness (BP-DES 49.3 [38.2, 57.7] µm versus DP-DES 54.7 [45.1, 70.7] µm, p = 0.059) and coverage percent (BP-DES 94.5 [89.8, 97.0]% vs. DP-DES 95.8 [91.1, 98.1]%, p = 0.083) did not significantly differ. Light intensity of superficial neointima in the BP-DES was lower than that in the DP-DES, whereas that of deep neointima did not differ between both groups. Both superficial and deep neointima of the BP-DES presented significantly lower light attenuation and backscatter than those of the DP-DES did. Almost complete coverage at 3 months in both contemporary BP- and DP-DES would support the ultra-short DAPT strategy in the upcoming decade. Nevertheless, there was a significant difference in the neointimal characteristics on OCT light property 3 months after BP- versus DP-DES implantation.Trial Registration UMIN000033009.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667662

RESUMO

Heterogeneous neointimal response has been observed after implantation of all generations of coronary stents. Our aim was assessing local factors of shear stress (SS) and plaque characteristics in neointimal response after implantation of bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) in bifurcations. Ten patients from the BIFSORB pilot study were analysed. Follow-up optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) was performed at 1 month and 2 years. Coronary lumen and BRS structure were reconstructed by fusion of OFDI and angiography and were used for subsequent flow simulation. Plaque arc degree and SS were quantified using post-procedural OFDI data and were matched with follow-up OFDI using anatomical landmarks. Strut-level and segment-level analysis were performed for 1-month and 2-year follow-up respectively. A total of 444 struts (54 jailing struts) were included at 1-month follow-up. Time-average SS (TASS) was significantly lower for covered struts than for uncovered struts in non-bifurcation segments (TASS: 1.81 ± 1.87 vs. 3.88 ± 3.72 Pa, p < 0.001). The trend remained the same for jailing struts, although statistically insignificant (TASS: 10.85 ± 13.12 vs. 13.64 ± 14.48 Pa, p = 0.328). For 2-year follow-up, a total of 66 sub-regions were analysed. Neointimal hyperplasia area (NTA) was negatively correlated with TASS in core-segments (ρ = - 0.389, p = 0.037) and positively correlated with plaque arc degree in non-core segments (ρ = 0.387, p = 0.018). Slightly stronger correlations with NTA were observed when combining TASS and plaque arc degree in both core segments (ρ = - 0.412, p = 0.026) and non-core segments (ρ = - 0.395, p = 0.015). Hemodynamic microenvironment and baseline plaque characteristics may regulate neointimal response after BRS implantation in bifurcation. These findings underline the combined role of plaque characteristics and local hemodynamics in vessel healing after stent implantation.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395436

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Zilver PTX nitinol self-expanding drug-eluting stent with paclitaxel coating is effective for treatment of superficial femoral artery (SFA) disease. However, as with any stent, it induces a measure of vascular inflammatory response. The current clinical trial (NCT02734836) aimed to assess vascular patency, remodeling, and inflammatory markers with intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with SFA disease treated with Zilver PTX stents. METHODS: Serial OCT examinations were performed in 13 patients at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Variables evaluated included neointimal area, luminal narrowing, thrombus area, stent expansion as well as measures of inflammation including, peri-strut low-intensity area (PLIA), macrophage arc, neovascularization, stent strut apposition and coverage. RESULTS: Percentage of malapposed struts decreased from 10.3 ±â€¯7.9% post-intervention to 1.1 ±â€¯2.2% at 12-month follow-up, but one patient showed late-acquired stent malapposition (LASM). The percent of uncovered struts at follow-up was 3.0 ±â€¯4.5%. Average expansion of stent cross-sectional area from baseline to follow-up was 35 ±â€¯19%. The average neointimal area was 7.8 ±â€¯3.8 mm2. Maximal luminal narrowing was 61.1 ±â€¯25.0%, and average luminal narrowing was 35.4 ±â€¯18.2%. Average peri-strut low-intensity area (PLIA) per strut was 0.017 ±â€¯0.018 mm2. Average number of neovessels per mm of stent was 0.138 ±â€¯0.181. Average macrophage angle per frame at follow-up was 7 ±â€¯11°. Average thrombus area at follow-up was 0.0093 ±â€¯0.0184 mm2. CONCLUSION: At 12-month follow-up, OCT analysis of Zilver PTX stent shows outward remodeling and minimal neointimal growth, but evidence of inflammation including PLIA, neovessels, thrombus and macrophages. SUMMARY: Thirteen patients with PAD had paclitaxel-coated stents implanted in their SFAs and were then imaged with OCT at baseline and 12-month follow-up. OCT proxy metrics of inflammation were quantified.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422135

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this first-in-human pilot study of intravascular polarimetry were to investigate polarization properties of coronary plaques in patients and to examine the relationship of these features with established structural characteristics available to conventional optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) and with clinical presentation. BACKGROUND: Polarization-sensitive OFDI measures birefringence and depolarization of tissue together with conventional cross-sectional optical frequency domain images of subsurface microstructure. METHODS: Thirty patients undergoing polarization-sensitive OFDI (acute coronary syndrome, n = 12; stable angina pectoris, n = 18) participated in this study. Three hundred forty-two cross-sectional images evenly distributed along all imaged coronary arteries were classified into 1 of 7 plaque categories according to conventional OFDI. Polarization features averaged over the entire intimal area of each cross section were compared among plaque types and with structural parameters. Furthermore, the polarization properties in cross sections (n = 244) of the fibrous caps of acute coronary syndrome and stable angina pectoris culprit lesions were assessed and compared with structural features using a generalized linear model. RESULTS: The median birefringence and depolarization showed statistically significant differences among plaque types (p < 0.001 for both, 1-way analysis of variance). Depolarization differed significantly among individual plaque types (p < 0.05), except between normal arteries and fibrous plaques and between fibrofatty and fibrocalcified plaques. Caps of acute coronary syndrome lesions and ruptured caps exhibited lower birefringence than caps of stable angina pectoris lesions (p < 0.01). In addition to clinical presentation, cap birefringence was also associated with macrophage accumulation as assessed using normalized standard deviation. CONCLUSIONS: Intravascular polarimetry provides quantitative metrics that help characterize coronary arterial tissues and may offer refined insight into coronary arterial atherosclerotic lesions in patients.

7.
EuroIntervention ; 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289016

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess acute performance of the 95-µm ArterioSorb oriented poly L-lactic acid (PLLA) scaffold in comparison with the Xience metallic drug-eluting stent (DES) in porcine coronary arteries. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 15 nonatherosclerotic Yucatan mini pigs, ArterioSorb in 3.0/14 mm and Xience in 3.0/15 mm were implanted in 25 and 15 vessels, respectively. Acute performance was evaluated by using quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Following three-dimensional reconstruction of coronary arteries, endothelial shear stress (ESS) was quantified using non-Newtonian steady-flow simulation. Acute recoil measured by QCA was comparable in the two arms. Post-procedural flow and scaffold/stent area by OCT did not differ between the two devices. ESS post-procedure was comparable between ArterioSorb and Xience (2.21±1.97 vs. 2.25±1.71 Pa, p=0.314). CONCLUSIONS: Acute recoil, luminal dimensions and ESS in ArterioSorb oriented-PLLA scaffold with thin struts of 95 µm were comparable to Xience metallic DES.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215995

RESUMO

AIMS: Scaffold design and plaque characteristics influence implantation outcomes and local flow dynamics in treated coronary segments. Our aim is to assess the impact of strut embedment/protrusion of bioresorbable scaffold on local shear stress distribution in different atherosclerotic plaque types. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifteen Absorb everolimus-eluting Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffolds were implanted in human epicardial coronary arteries. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed post-scaffold implantation and strut embedment/protrusion were analysed using a dedicated software. OCT data were fused with angiography to reconstruct 3D coronary anatomy. Blood flow simulation was performed and wall shear stress (WSS) was estimated in each scaffolded surface and the relationship between strut embedment/protrusion and WSS was evaluated. There were 9083 struts analysed. Ninety-seven percent of the struts (n = 8840) were well-apposed and 243 (3%) were malapposed. At cross-section level (n = 1289), strut embedment was significantly increased in fibroatheromatous plaques (76 ± 48 µm) and decreased in fibrocalcific plaques (35 ± 52 µm). Compatible with strut embedment, WSS was significantly higher in lipid-rich fibroatheromatous plaques (1.50 ± 0.81 Pa), whereas significantly decreased in fibrocalcified plaques (1.05 ± 0.91 Pa). After categorization of WSS as low (<1.0 Pa) and normal/high WSS (≥1.0 Pa), the percent of low WSS in the plaque subgroups were 30.1%, 31.1%, 25.4%, and 36.2% for non-diseased vessel wall, fibrous plaque, fibroatheromatous plaque, and fibrocalcific plaque, respectively (P-overall < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The composition of the underlying plaque influences strut embedment which seems to have effect on WSS. The struts deeply embedded in lipid-rich fibroatheromas plaques resulted in higher WSS compared with the other plaque types.

9.
Cardiovasc Revasc Med ; 20(9): 768-774, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) experience drastic hemodynamic systemic changes (i.e., blood pressure) during the different phases of the procedure. Optical coherence tomography is often used to unveil the underlying cause of STEMI (pre-PCI) and to optimize stent implantation (post-PCI). The impact of blood pressure variability on coronary lumen remains uncertain. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between blood pressure variability, before and after PCI, and coronary arterial lumen dimensions of the infarct-related artery. METHODS: We measured systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure (SBP, DBP, and MAP; respectively) at pre- and post-PCI. Frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) imaging was performed at the same time points. Offline quantitative image analyses were performed to assess the average and minimum lumen area (LA). Δ blood pressure (after and before the PCI) was then calculated. RESULTS: A total of 14 ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients were included. 84.2% of enrolled patients were male with a mean age of (58 ±â€¯10.7 years). Roughly two-thirds (57.8%) had hypertension. The mean SBP was (112.6 mm Hg ±â€¯16.1) and (117.2 mm Hg ±â€¯20.9), pre- and post-stenting, respectively; the range of the observed SBP differences (between pre- and post-PCI) went from -25 to +23 mm Hg. Pre- and post-stenting mean average LA were (7.1 ±â€¯2.5 mm2 and 6.8 ±â€¯2.3 mm2; respectively). There were poor correlations between ΔSBP and Δ mean minimum LA. A similar pattern was observed with ΔDBP and ΔMAP. CONCLUSION: Despite significant hemodynamic variability, the difference in lumen cross-sectional area, between pre- and post-coronary artery stenting was minimal. This study supports the use of OCT lumen areas to inform clinical decisions during PPCI.

10.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 35(7): 1199-1210, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053981

RESUMO

We aimed to evaluate feasibility, early healing and self-correcting properties of the Desolve 150 bioresorbable scaffold (BRS) implanted in bifurcation lesions, using the simple, provisional side branch (SB) stenting technique. BIFSORB pilot was a proof-of-concept study enrolling 10 patients with stable angina pectoris and a bifurcation lesion with SB ≥ 2.5 mm and less than 50% diameter stenosis. Procedure and 1-month outcome was evaluated by optical coherence tomography (OCT) to assess scaffold performance and healing patterns. Nine patients were treated with Desolve 150 BRS and one delivery to the target bifurcation failed. Thrombus formation in the jailed SB ostium was seen in three cases, but was completely resolved at 1-month. OCT confirmed acute self-correcting properties. No clinical events were reported after six months. Scaffold diameter by OCT increased in the proximal main vessel from 3.09 ± 0.16 mm to 3.34 ± 0.18 mm (p = 0.01) and in distal main vessel from 2.82 ± 0.26 mm to 3.02 ± 0.29 mm (p < 0.01) at one-month follow-up. SB ostial diameter stenosis improved from 42 ± 15% to 34 ± 12% (p = 0.01). Malapposition was effectively reduced after 1 month from 4.1 (1.4; 6.1)% to 0.1 (0; 0.6)% (p = 0.002). Treatment of bifurcation lesions using Desolve 150 BRS was feasible except for a delivery failure and unsettling thrombus formation behind jailing SB struts, which was completely resolved at 1-month. Self-correcting and even self-expanding properties were confirmed.


Assuntos
Implantes Absorvíveis , Angina Estável/cirurgia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Estenose Coronária/cirurgia , Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Cicatrização , Idoso , Angina Estável/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Projetos Piloto , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Estudos Prospectivos , Desenho de Prótese , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005542

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to derive a biomechanical stress metric that was based on the multifactorial assessment of coronary plaque morphology, likely related to the propensity of plaque rupture in patients. BACKGROUND: Plaque rupture, the most frequent cause of coronary thrombosis, occurs at locations of elevated tensile stress in necrotic core fibroatheromas (NCFAs). Finite element modeling (FEM), typically used to calculate tensile stress, is computationally intensive and impractical as a clinical tool for locating rupture-prone plaques. This study derived a multifactorial stress equation (MSE) that accurately computes peak stress in NCFAs by combining the influence of several morphological parameters. METHODS: Intravascular ultrasound and optical frequency domain imaging were conducted in 30 patients, and plaque morphological parameters were defined in 61 NCFAs. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to derive the MSE and compute a peak stress metric (PSM) that was based on the analysis of plaque morphological parameters. The accuracy of the MSE was determined by comparing PSM with FEM-derived peak stress values. The ability of the PSM in locating plaque rupture sites was tested in 3 additional patients. RESULTS: The following parameters were found to be independently associated with peak stress: fibrous cap thickness (p < 0.0001), necrotic core angle (p = 0.024), necrotic core thickness (p < 0.0001), lumen area (p < 0.0001), necrotic core including calcium areas (p = 0.017), and plaque area (p = 0.003). The PSM showed excellent correlation (R = 0.85; p < 0.0001) with FEM-derived peak stress, thus confirming the accuracy of the MSE. In only 56% (n = 34) of plaques, the thinnest fibrous cap thickness was a determining parameter in identifying the cross section with highest PSM. In coronary segments with plaque ruptures, the MSE precisely located the rupture site. CONCLUSIONS: The MSE shows potential to calculate the PSM in coronary lesions rapidly. However, further studies are warranted to investigate the use of biomechanical stress profiling for the prognostic evaluation of patients with atherosclerosis.

12.
Cardiovasc Pathol ; 39: 25-29, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597423

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Improve mapping and registration of longitudinal view on histopathology vessels in a three-dimensional alignment procedure for postmortem quantitative coronary plaque analyses. This new procedure is applied and results shown using calcified coronary plaque analyses within post-mortem computed tomography angiography (PMCTA), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the gold standard of histopathology. RESULTS: In total, 338 annotated histopathology images were included, 166 PMCTA transversal images and 285 OCT images were aligned in the comparison. The results from the comparison using the alignment procedure showed overall that the calcified plaques seem to be overestimated by PMCTA and underestimated by OCT. CONCLUSIONS: The 3D fusion approach, aligning the images of PMCTA, OCT and histopathology as gold standard allowed for a slice-based comparison of the different modalities. The results showed that PMCTA overestimates the calcified plaques while OCT underestimates these, compared to histopathology.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Placa Aterosclerótica , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/patologia , Autopsia , Biópsia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Humanos , Imagem Multimodal , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Calcificação Vascular/mortalidade
13.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 35(4): 711-723, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552522

RESUMO

A dedicated software package that could semi-automatically assess differences in aortic maximal cross-sectional diameters from consecutive CT scans would most likely reduce the post-processing time and effort by the physicians. The aim of this study was to present and assess the quality of a new tool for the semi-automatic quantification of thoracic aorta dilation dimensions. Twenty-nine patients with two CTA scans of the thoracic aorta for which the official clinical report indicated an increase in aortic diameters were included in the study. Aortic maximal cross-sectional diameters of baseline and follow-up studies generated semi-automatically by the software were compared with corresponding manual measurements. The semi-automatic measurements were performed at seven landmarks defined on the baseline scan by two operators. Bias, Bland-Altman plots and intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated between the two methods and, for the semi-automatic software, also between two observers. The average time difference between the two scans of a single patient was 1188 ± 622 days. For the semi-automatic software, in 2 out of 29 patients, manual interaction was necessary; in the remaining 27 patients (93.1%), semi-automatic results were generated, demonstrating excellent intraclass correlation coefficients (all values ≥ 0.91) and small differences, especially for the proximal aortic arch (baseline: 0.19 ± 1.30 mm; follow-up: 0.44 ± 2.21 mm), the mid descending aorta (0.37 ± 1.64 mm; 0.37 ± 2.06 mm), and the diaphragm (0.30 ± 1.14 mm; 0.37 ± 1.80 mm). The inter-observer variability was low with all errors in diameters ≤ 1 mm, and intraclass correlation coefficients all ≥ 0.95. The semi-automatic tool decreased the processing time by 40% (13 vs. 22 min). In this work, a semi-automatic software package that allows the assessment of thoracic aorta diameters from baseline and follow-up CTs (and their differences), was presented, and demonstrated high accuracy and low inter-observer variability.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aortografia/métodos , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Software , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Aorta Torácica/patologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/patologia , Automação , Dilatação Patológica , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Fluxo de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
14.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 20(8): 916-924, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590578

RESUMO

AIMS : Second-generation drug-eluting absorbable metal scaffold (DREAMS 2G) is an alternative novel device for treating coronary lesions. However, the relationship between in-scaffold dimensions after implantation of DREAMS 2G and vessel healing and luminal results at follow-up is unknown. The aim of this study is, therefore, to investigate whether the expansion index after implantation of DREAMS 2G as assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT) impacts late luminal status and healing of the vessel wall. METHODS AND RESULTS : This study comprises of a total 65 out of 123 patients who were enrolled in the BIOSOLVE-II trial. We assessed both qualitative and quantitative OCT findings and the expansion index of DREAMS 2G after implantation frame by frame using OCT. Expansion index was defined as minimum scaffold area/mean reference lumen area. The over-expansion group was also defined with expansion index >1.0. The total number of analysed frames at post-procedure and 6-month follow-up was 8243 and 8263 frames, respectively. At 6-month follow-up, in-scaffold healing was documented by the reduction of 82% in dissections, 93% in attached intra-luminal mass (ILM), 65% in non-attached ILM, and 76% in jailed side branch. The over-expansion group had significantly greater in-scaffold luminal volume loss (LVL) compared with the non-over-expansion group [over-expansion: 35.0 (18.5-52.1) mm3 vs. non-over-expansion: 21.0 (11.6-37.9) mm3, P = 0.039]. CONCLUSION : Excellent in vivo healing process after implantation of DREAMS 2G was observed at 6 months. We found that higher expansion indices were associated with higher in-scaffold LVL at 6 months assessed by OCT.

15.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 12(8 Pt 1): 1518-1528, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553686

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study assessed changes in optical coherence tomography (OCT)-defined plaque composition in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) receiving high-intensity statin treatment. BACKGROUND: OCT is a high-resolution modality capable of measuring plaque characteristics including fibrous cap thickness (FCT) and macrophage infiltration. There is limited in vivo evidence regarding the effects of statins on OCT-defined coronary atheroma composition and no evidence in the context of STEMI. METHODS: In the IBIS-4 (Integrated Biomarker Imaging Study-4), 103 patients underwent intravascular ultrasonography and OCT of 2 noninfarct-related coronary arteries in the acute phase of STEMI. Patients were treated with high-dose rosuvastatin for 13 months. Serial OCT imaging was available in 153 arteries from 83 patients. We measured FCT by using a semi-automated method. Co-primary endpoints consisted of the change in minimum FCT (measured in fibroatheromas) and change in macrophage line arc. RESULTS: At 13 months, median low-density lipoprotein cholesterol had decreased from 128 mg/dl to 73.6 mg/dl. Minimum FCT, measured in 31 lesions from 27 patients, increased from 64.9 ± 19.9 µm to 87.9 ± 38.1 µm (p = 0.008). Macrophage line arc decreased from 9.6° ± 12.8° to 6.4° ± 9.6° (p < 0.0001). The secondary endpoint, mean lipid arc, decreased from 55.9° ± 37° to 43.5° ± 33.5°. In lesion-level analyses (n = 191), 9 of 13 thin-cap fibroatheromata (TCFAs) at baseline (69.2%) regressed to non-TCFA morphology, whereas 2 of 178 non-TCFA lesions (1.1%) progressed to TCFAs. CONCLUSIONS: In this observational study, we found significant increase in minimum FCT, reduction in macrophage accumulation, and frequent regression of TCFAs to other plaque phenotypes in nonculprit lesions of patients with STEMI treated with high-intensity statin therapy.

16.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209110, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Analysis of intracoronary thrombus type by optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging is highly subjective. We aimed to compare a newly developed image analysis method to subjective visual classification of thrombus type identified by OCT. METHODS: Thirty patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction were included. Thrombus type visually classified by two independent readers was compared with analysis using QCU-CMS software. RESULTS: Repeatability of the computer-based measurements was good. By using a ROC, area under curve values for discrimination of white and red thrombi were 0.92 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.83-1.00) for median attenuation, 0.96 (95% CI 0.89-1.00) for mean backscatter and 0.96 (95% CI 0.89-1.00) for mean grayscale intensity. Median attenuation of 0.57 mm-1 (sensitivity 100%, specificity 71%), mean backscatter of 5.35 (sensitivity 92%, specificity 94%) and mean grayscale intensity of 120.1 (sensitivity 85%, specificity 100%) were identified as the best cut-off values to differentiate between red and white thrombi. CONCLUSIONS: Attenuation, backscatter and grayscale intensity of thrombi in OCT images differentiated red and white thrombi with high sensitivity and specificity. Measurement of these continuous parameters can be used as a less user-dependent method to characterize in vivo thrombi. The clinical significance of these findings needs to be tested in further studies.


Assuntos
Trombose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Curva ROC , Software
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488262

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Automatically extracted coronary artery trees (CATs) from coronary computed tomography angiography images could contain incorrect extractions which require manual corrections before they can be used in clinical practice. A model-guided method for improving the extracted CAT is described to automatically detect potential incorrect extractions and improve them. METHODS: The proposed method is a coarse-to-fine approach. A coarse improvement is first applied on all vessels in the extracted CAT, and then a fine improvement is applied only on vessels with higher clinical significance. Based upon a decision tree, the proposed method automatically and iteratively performs improvement operations for the entire extracted CAT until it meets the stop criteria. The improvement in the extraction quality obtained by the proposed method is measured using a scoring system. 18 datasets were used to determine optimal values for the parameters involved in the model-guided method and 122 datasets were used for evaluation. RESULTS: Compared to the initial automatic extractions, the proposed method improves the CATs for 122 datasets from an average quality score of 87 ± 6 to 93 ± 4. The developed method is able to run within 2 min on a typical workstation. The difference in extraction quality after automatic improvement is negatively correlated with the initial extraction quality (R = - 0.694, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Without deteriorating the initially extracted CATs, the presented method automatically detects incorrect extractions and improves the CATs to an average quality score of 93 guided by anatomical statistical models.

19.
Int J Cardiol ; 272: 7-12, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30293579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the implications of endothelial shear stress (ESS) distribution in the formation of neoatherosclerotic lesions. METHODS: Thirty six patients with neoatherosclerotic lesions on optical coherence tomography (OCT) were included in this study. The OCT data were used to reconstruct coronary anatomy. Blood flow simulation was performed in the models reconstructed from the stent borders which it was assumed that represented the lumen surface at baseline, immediate after stent implantation, and the estimated ESS was associated with the neointima burden, neoatherosclerotic burden and neointima characteristics. In segments with neointima rupture blood flow simulation was also performed in the model representing the lumen surface before rupture and the ESS was estimated at the ruptured site. RESULTS: An inverse association was noted between baseline ESS and the incidence and the burden of neoatherosclerotic (ß = -0.60, P < 0.001, and ß = -4.05, P < 0.001, respectively) and lipid-rich neoatherosclerotic tissue (ß = -0.54, P < 0.001, and ß = -3.60, P < 0.001, respectively). Segments exposed to low ESS (<1 Pa) were more likely to exhibit macrophages accumulation (28.2% vs 10.9%, P < 0.001), thrombus (11.0% vs 2.6%, P < 0.001) and evidence of neointima discontinuities (8.1% vs 0.9%, P < 0.001) compared to those exposed to normal or high ESS. In segments with neointima rupture the ESS was high at the rupture site compared to the average ESS over the culprit lesion (4.00 ±â€¯3.65 Pa vs 3.14 ±â€¯2.90 Pa, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Local EES is associated with neoatherosclerotic lesion characteristics, which suggests involvement of ESS in the formation of vulnerable plaques in stented segments.

20.
Med Phys ; 2018 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30039851

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) is widely used for analysis of the coronary artery disease. Its high spatial resolution allows for visualization of arterial tissue components in detail. There are different OCT systems on the market, each of which produces data characterized by its own intensity range and distribution. These differences should be taken into account for the development of image processing algorithms. In order to overcome this difference in the intensity range and distribution, we developed a framework for matching intensities based on the exact histogram matching technique. METHODS: In our method, the key step for using the exact histogram matching is to determine the target histogram. For this, we proposed two schemes: a global scheme that uses a single histogram as the target histogram for all the pullbacks, and a local scheme that selects for each single image a target histogram from a predefined database. These two schemes are compared on a unique dataset containing pairs of pullbacks that were acquired shortly after each other with systems from two vendors, St. Jude and Terumo. Pullbacks were aligned according to anatomical landmarks, and a database of matched histogram pairs was created. A leave-one-out cross validation was used to compare performance of the two schemes. The matching accuracy was evaluated by comparing: (a) histograms using Euclidean (dx2 ) and Kolmogorov-Smirnov (dKS ) distances, and (b) median intensity level within anatomical regions of interest. RESULTS: Leave-one-out validation indicated that both matching schemes yield comparably high accuracies across the entire validation dataset. The local scheme outperforms the global scheme with marginally lower dissimilarities at both histogram level and intensity level. High visual similarity was observed when comparing the matched images to their aligned counterparts. CONCLUSION: Both local and global schemes are robust and produce accurate intensity matching. While local scheme performs marginally better than the global scheme, it requires a predefined histogram dataset and is more time consuming. Thus, for offline standardization of the images, the local scheme should be preferred for being more accurate. For online standardization or when another system is involved, the global scheme can be used as a simple and nearly-as-accurate alternative.

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