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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; : e017740, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287626

RESUMO

Background Atherosclerosis in >1 vascular bed (ie, polyvascular disease), often a feature of peripheral artery disease (PAD), is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We sought to identify risk factors for polyvascular involvement in patients with PAD. Methods and Results We performed 2-sample Mendelian randomization using an inverse-variance-weighted approach, to assess 60 exposures including size and lipid content of atherogenic lipoproteins, blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin, and smoking as causal mediators for polyvascular disease in patients with PAD. Genetic instruments for these exposures were obtained from prior genome-wide association studies. Patients with PAD were from the Mayo Vascular Disease Biorepository, and polyvascular disease (ie, concomitant coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and/or abdominal aortic aneurysm) was ascertained by validated phenotyping algorithms. Of 3279 patients with PAD, 61% had polyvascular disease. Genetically predicted levels of the lipid content and/or particle measures of very small and small size very low-density lipoprotein, intermediate-density lipoprotein, and large low-density lipoprotein were associated with polyvascular disease: odds ratios (OR) of 1.80 (95% CI, 1.23-2.61), 1.70 (95% CI, 1.17-2.61), and 1.40 (95% CI, 1.09-1.80) per 1 SD increase in genetically determined levels, respectively. Both genetically predicted diastolic and systolic blood pressure were associated with polyvascular disease; OR per 10 mm Hg genetic increase in diastolic and systolic blood pressure were 1.66 (95% CI, 1.19-2.33) and 1.31 (95% CI, 1.07-1.60), respectively. Conclusions Lifetime exposure to increased lipid content and levels of very small and small very low-density lipoprotein, intermediate-density lipoprotein, and large low-density lipoprotein particles as well as elevated blood pressure are associated with polyvascular involvement in patients with PAD. Reduction in levels of such exposures may limit progression of atherosclerosis in patients with PAD.

2.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) plays an essential role in food intake and energy homeostasis. More than 170 MC4R variants have been described over the past two decades, with conflicting reports regarding the prevalence and phenotypic effects of these variants in diverse cohorts. To determine the frequency of MC4R variants in large cohort of different ancestries, we evaluated the MC4R coding region for 20,537 eMERGE participants with sequencing data plus additional 77,454 independent individuals with genome-wide genotyping data at this locus. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The sequencing data were obtained from the eMERGE phase III study, in which multisample variant call format calls have been generated, curated, and annotated. In addition to penetrance estimation using body mass index (BMI) as a binary outcome, GWAS and PheWAS were performed using median BMI in linear regression analyses. All results were adjusted for principal components, age, sex, and sites of genotyping. RESULTS: Targeted sequencing data of MC4R revealed 125 coding variants in 1839 eMERGE participants including 30 unreported coding variants that were predicted to be functionally damaging. Highly penetrant unreported variants included (L325I, E308K, D298N, S270F, F261L, T248A, D111V, and Y80F) in which seven participants had obesity class III defined as BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2. In GWAS analysis, in addition to known risk haplotype upstream of MC4R (best variant rs6567160 (P = 5.36 × 10-25, Beta = 0.37), a novel rare haplotype was detected which was protective against obesity and encompassed the V103I variant with known gain-of-function properties (P = 6.23 × 10-08, Beta = -0.62). PheWAS analyses extended this protective effect of V103I to type 2 diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, and chronic renal failure independent of BMI. CONCLUSIONS: MC4R screening in a large eMERGE cohort confirmed many previous findings, extend the MC4R pleotropic effects, and discovered additional MC4R rare alleles that probably contribute to obesity.

3.
Circulation ; 142(17): 1633-1646, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an important cause of cardiovascular mortality; however, its genetic determinants remain incompletely defined. In total, 10 previously identified risk loci explain a small fraction of AAA heritability. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study in the Million Veteran Program testing ≈18 million DNA sequence variants with AAA (7642 cases and 172 172 controls) in veterans of European ancestry with independent replication in up to 4972 cases and 99 858 controls. We then used mendelian randomization to examine the causal effects of blood pressure on AAA. We examined the association of AAA risk variants with aneurysms in the lower extremity, cerebral, and iliac arterial beds, and derived a genome-wide polygenic risk score (PRS) to identify a subset of the population at greater risk for disease. RESULTS: Through a genome-wide association study, we identified 14 novel loci, bringing the total number of known significant AAA loci to 24. In our mendelian randomization analysis, we demonstrate that a genetic increase of 10 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure (odds ratio, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.24-1.66]; P=1.6×10-6), as opposed to systolic blood pressure (odds ratio, 1.06 [95% CI, 0.97-1.15]; P=0.2), likely has a causal relationship with AAA development. We observed that 19 of 24 AAA risk variants associate with aneurysms in at least 1 other vascular territory. A 29-variant PRS was strongly associated with AAA (odds ratioPRS, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.18-1.36]; PPRS=2.7×10-11 per SD increase in PRS), independent of family history and smoking risk factors (odds ratioPRS+family history+smoking, 1.24 [95% CI, 1.14-1.35]; PPRS=1.27×10-6). Using this PRS, we identified a subset of the population with AAA prevalence greater than that observed in screening trials informing current guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: We identify novel AAA genetic associations with therapeutic implications and identify a subset of the population at significantly increased genetic risk of AAA independent of family history. Our data suggest that extending current screening guidelines to include testing to identify those with high polygenic AAA risk, once the cost of genotyping becomes comparable with that of screening ultrasound, would significantly increase the yield of current screening at reasonable cost.

5.
J Pers Med ; 10(3)2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717811

RESUMO

Electronic health record (EHR)-based clinical decision support (CDS) can address the low awareness and undertreatment of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), a disorder associated with a markedly increased risk of coronary heart disease. We aimed to incorporate provider perspectives into the development and implementation of a CDS tool for FH. An implementation science framework and a user-centered design process were used to create a CDS tool for FH. Primary care physicians and specialist physicians participated in qualitative interviews, usability testing and an implementation survey. The CDS was configured in two formats-a best practice alert (BPA) and an in-basket message and subsequently deployed in the EHR in silent mode. The key themes that emerged from the analysis of interview transcripts included understanding and awareness of FH, clinical workflow, physician preferences and value of CDS tools, perspectives on patient needs and values and dissemination and implementation. Recommendations related to usability included preferred CDS format and placement, content, timing and frequency, and level of alert urgency/prioritization. In response to the survey, 84.6% of physicians agreed that the CDS would improve early FH diagnosis and 92.3% agreed that it would help them identify and manage FH patients. Physician feedback led to iterative CDS refinement. In summary, we developed a CDS tool for FH using an implementation science framework and physician feedback. Initial deployment revealed a significant burden of FH and the potential for the CDS tool to have a large impact.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(5): 707-716, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386537

RESUMO

Because polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for coronary heart disease (CHD) are derived from mainly European ancestry (EA) cohorts, their validity in African ancestry (AA) and Hispanic ethnicity (HE) individuals is unclear. We investigated associations of "restricted" and genome-wide PRSs with CHD in three major racial and ethnic groups in the U.S. The eMERGE cohort (mean age 48 ± 14 years, 58% female) included 45,645 EA, 7,597 AA, and 2,493 HE individuals. We assessed two restricted PRSs (PRSTikkanen and PRSTada; 28 and 50 variants, respectively) and two genome-wide PRSs (PRSmetaGRS and PRSLDPred; 1.7 M and 6.6 M variants, respectively) derived from EA cohorts. Over a median follow-up of 11.1 years, 2,652 incident CHD events occurred. Hazard and odds ratios for the association of PRSs with CHD were similar in EA and HE cohorts but lower in AA cohorts. Genome-wide PRSs were more strongly associated with CHD than restricted PRSs were. PRSmetaGRS, the best performing PRS, was associated with CHD in all three cohorts; hazard ratios (95% CI) per 1 SD increase were 1.53 (1.46-1.60), 1.53 (1.23-1.90), and 1.27 (1.13-1.43) for incident CHD in EA, HE, and AA individuals, respectively. The hazard ratios were comparable in the EA and HE cohorts (pinteraction = 0.77) but were significantly attenuated in AA individuals (pinteraction= 2.9 × 10-3). These results highlight the potential clinical utility of PRSs for CHD as well as the need to assemble diverse cohorts to generate ancestry- and ethnicity PRSs.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances
7.
PLoS Genet ; 16(3): e1008684, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226016

RESUMO

Lipid levels are important markers for the development of cardio-metabolic diseases. Although hundreds of associated loci have been identified through genetic association studies, the contribution of genetic factors to variation in lipids is not fully understood, particularly in U.S. minority groups. We performed genome-wide association analyses for four lipid traits in over 45,000 ancestrally diverse participants from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study, followed by a meta-analysis with several European ancestry studies. We identified nine novel lipid loci, five of which showed evidence of replication in independent studies. Furthermore, we discovered one novel gene in a PrediXcan analysis, minority-specific independent signals at eight previously reported loci, and potential functional variants at two known loci through fine-mapping. Systematic examination of known lipid loci revealed smaller effect estimates in African American and Hispanic ancestry populations than those in Europeans, and better performance of polygenic risk scores based on minority-specific effect estimates. Our findings provide new insight into the genetic architecture of lipid traits and highlight the importance of conducting genetic studies in diverse populations in the era of precision medicine.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Lipídeos/análise , Masculino , Metagenômica/métodos , Grupos Minoritários , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
J Biomed Inform ; 99: 103293, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Implementation of phenotype algorithms requires phenotype engineers to interpret human-readable algorithms and translate the description (text and flowcharts) into computable phenotypes - a process that can be labor intensive and error prone. To address the critical need for reducing the implementation efforts, it is important to develop portable algorithms. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of phenotype algorithms developed in the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) network and identified common customization tasks required for implementation. A novel scoring system was developed to quantify portability from three aspects: Knowledge conversion, clause Interpretation, and Programming (KIP). Tasks were grouped into twenty representative categories. Experienced phenotype engineers were asked to estimate the average time spent on each category and evaluate time saving enabled by a common data model (CDM), specifically the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) model, for each category. RESULTS: A total of 485 distinct clauses (phenotype criteria) were identified from 55 phenotype algorithms, corresponding to 1153 customization tasks. In addition to 25 non-phenotype-specific tasks, 46 tasks are related to interpretation, 613 tasks are related to knowledge conversion, and 469 tasks are related to programming. A score between 0 and 2 (0 for easy, 1 for moderate, and 2 for difficult portability) is assigned for each aspect, yielding a total KIP score range of 0 to 6. The average clause-wise KIP score to reflect portability is 1.37 ±â€¯1.38. Specifically, the average knowledge (K) score is 0.64 ±â€¯0.66, interpretation (I) score is 0.33 ±â€¯0.55, and programming (P) score is 0.40 ±â€¯0.64. 5% of the categories can be completed within one hour (median). 70% of the categories take from days to months to complete. The OMOP model can assist with vocabulary mapping tasks. CONCLUSION: This study presents firsthand knowledge of the substantial implementation efforts in phenotyping and introduces a novel metric (KIP) to measure portability of phenotype algorithms for quantifying such efforts across the eMERGE Network. Phenotype developers are encouraged to analyze and optimize the portability in regards to knowledge, interpretation and programming. CDMs can be used to improve the portability for some 'knowledge-oriented' tasks.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/classificação , Informática Médica/métodos , Algoritmos , Genômica , Humanos , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
J Biomed Inform ; 96: 103253, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Implementing clinical phenotypes across a network is labor intensive and potentially error prone. Use of a common data model may facilitate the process. METHODS: Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) sites implemented the Observational Health Data Sciences and Informatics (OHDSI) Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) Common Data Model across their electronic health record (EHR)-linked DNA biobanks. Two previously implemented eMERGE phenotypes were converted to OMOP and implemented across the network. RESULTS: It was feasible to implement the common data model across sites, with laboratory data producing the greatest challenge due to local encoding. Sites were then able to execute the OMOP phenotype in less than one day, as opposed to weeks of effort to manually implement an eMERGE phenotype in their bespoke research EHR databases. Of the sites that could compare the current OMOP phenotype implementation with the original eMERGE phenotype implementation, specific agreement ranged from 100% to 43%, with disagreements due to the original phenotype, the OMOP phenotype, changes in data, and issues in the databases. Using the OMOP query as a standard comparison revealed differences in the original implementations despite starting from the same definitions, code lists, flowcharts, and pseudocode. CONCLUSION: Using a common data model can dramatically speed phenotype implementation at the cost of having to populate that data model, though this will produce a net benefit as the number of phenotype implementations increases. Inconsistencies among the implementations of the original queries point to a potential benefit of using a common data model so that actual phenotype code and logic can be shared, mitigating human error in reinterpretation of a narrative phenotype definition.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Coleta de Dados , Humanos , Informática Médica , National Human Genome Research Institute (U.S.) , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Fenótipo , Projetos de Pesquisa , Software , Estados Unidos
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