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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17595, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475457

RESUMO

Pandemics such as the Covid-19 pandemic have shown to impact our physical and mental well-being, with particular challenges for children and families. We describe data from 43 adults (31♀, ages = 22-51; 21 mothers) and 26 children (10♀, ages = 7-17 years) including pre-pandemic brain function and seven assessment points during the first months of the pandemic. We investigated (1) changes in child and adult well-being, (2) mother-child associations of mental well-being, and (3) associations between pre-pandemic brain activation during mentalizing and later fears or burden. In adults the prevalence of clinically significant anxiety-levels was 34.88% and subthreshold depression 32.56%. Caregiver burden in parents was moderately elevated. Overall, scores of depression, anxiety, and caregiver burden decreased across the 11 weeks after Covid-19-onset. Children's behavioral and emotional problems during Covid-19 did not significantly differ from pre-pandemic levels and decreased during restrictions. Mothers' subjective burden of care was associated with children's emotional and behavioral problems, while depression levels in mothers were related to children's mood. Furthermore, meeting friends was a significant predictor of children's mood during early restrictions. Pre-pandemic neural correlates of mentalizing in prefrontal regions preceded later development of fear of illnesses and viruses in all participants, while temporoparietal activation preceded higher subjective burden in mothers.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , COVID-19 , Depressão , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico por imagem , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Criança , Depressão/diagnóstico por imagem , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico por imagem , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
2.
Neuroimage ; 237: 118186, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020019

RESUMO

The ability to enhance motivated performance through incentives is crucial to guide and ultimately optimise the outcome of goal-directed behaviour. It remains largely unclear how motivated behaviour and performance develops particularly across adolescence. Here, we used computational fMRI to assess how response speed and its underlying neural circuitry are modulated by reward and loss in a monetary incentive delay paradigm. We demonstrate that maturational fine-tuning of functional coupling within the cortico-striatal incentive circuitry from adolescence to adulthood facilitates the ability to enhance performance selectively for higher subjective values. Additionally, during feedback, we found developmental sex differences of striatal representations of reward prediction errors in an exploratory analysis. Our findings suggest that a reduced capacity to utilise subjective value for motivated behaviour in adolescence is rooted in immature information processing in the incentive system. This indicates that the neurocircuitry for coordination of incentivised, motivated cognitive control acts as a bottleneck for behavioural adjustments in adolescence.

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