Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 45
Filtrar
1.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 708339, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621194

RESUMO

Background: The longer-term impact of the pandemic on autistic adults' sleep are yet to be revealed, with studies concentrating on sleep in autistic children or mental health outcomes and coping strategies of autistic adults. Given the prevalence of sleep problems experienced by autistic adults and the changes in routine that have occurred as a result of COVID-19 societal restrictions, this study assessed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on sleep problems via a longitudinal subjective assessment method. Methods: Sleep data were gathered at three time points from 95 autistic adults, namely prior to the pandemic, at the start of COVID-19 and several months into COVID-19 to obtain a rich longitudinal dataset ascertaining how/if sleep patterns have changed in autistic adults over these several months. Results: In comparison to pre-lockdown, several sleep components were shown to improve during the lockdown. These improvements included reduced sleep latency (time taken to fall asleep), longer sleep duration, improved sleep efficiency, improved sleep quality, as well as improved daytime functioning. Pre-sleep cognitive arousal scores were found to decrease compared to pre-lockdown, meaning cognitive arousal improved. Approximately 65% of participants reported that they felt their sleep had been impacted since COVID-19 since Time 1, with the most common reasons reported as waking up exhausted (36.92%), not being able to get to sleep (33.85%), waking up in the night (29.23%), having a disrupted sleep pattern (27.69%), and nightmares (18.46%). Conclusions: Improvements in sleep may be related to societal changes (e.g., working from home) during the pandemic. Some of these changes are arguably beneficial for autistic adults in creating a more autism-inclusive society, for example telehealth opportunities for care. Further exploration of the associations between mental health and sleep are warranted.

2.
Trials ; 22(1): 690, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Young children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) often have slowed processing speed associated with reduced brain white matter integrity, low oxygen saturation, and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), related in part to enlarged adenoids and tonsils. Common treatments for SDB include adenotonsillectomy and nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), but adenotonsillectomy is an invasive surgical procedure, and CPAP is rarely well-tolerated. Further, there is no current consensus on the ability of these treatments to improve cognitive function. Several double-blind, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated the efficacy of montelukast, a safe, well-tolerated anti-inflammatory agent, as a treatment for airway obstruction and reducing adenoid size for children who do not have SCA. However, we do not yet know whether montelukast reduces adenoid size and improves cognition function in young children with SCA. METHODS: The Study of Montelukast In Children with Sickle Cell Disease (SMILES) is a 12-week multicentre, double-blind, RCT. SMILES aims to recruit 200 paediatric patients with SCA and SDB aged 3-7.99 years to assess the extent to which montelukast can improve cognitive function (i.e. processing speed) and sleep and reduce adenoidal size and white matter damage compared to placebo. Patients will be randomised to either montelukast or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary objective of the SMILES trial is to assess the effect of montelukast on processing speed in young children with SCA. At baseline and post-treatment, we will administer a cognitive evaluation; caregivers will complete questionnaires (e.g. sleep, pain) and measures of demographics. Laboratory values will be obtained from medical records collected as part of standard care. If a family agrees, patients will undergo brain MRIs for adenoid size and other structural and haemodynamic quantitative measures at baseline and post-treatment, and we will obtain overnight oximetry. DISCUSSION: Findings from this study will increase our understanding of whether montelukast is an effective treatment for young children with SCA. Using cognitive testing and MRI, the SMILES trial hopes to gain critical knowledge to help develop targeted interventions to improve the outcomes of young children with SCA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04351698 . Registered on April 17, 2020. European Clinical Trials Database (EudraCT No. 2017-004539-36). Registered on May 19, 2020.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Quinolinas , Acetatos/efeitos adversos , Anemia Falciforme/diagnóstico , Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ciclopropanos , Humanos , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sulfetos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574806

RESUMO

Autistic adults have a high prevalence of sleep problems and psychiatric conditions. In the general population sleep problems have been associated with a range of demographic and lifestyle factors. Whether the same factors contribute to different types of disturbed sleep experienced by autistic adults is unknown and served as the main aim of this study. An online survey was conducted with 493 autistic adults. Demographic information (e.g., age, gender), about lifestyle (e.g., napping), and information about comorbid conditions was collected. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep quality and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was used to assess daytime somnolence. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to examine predictors of each subscale score on the PSQI, as well as PSQI and ESS total scores. Results indicated that individuals who reported having a diagnosis of anxiety and insomnia were more likely to have poorer sleep quality outcomes overall. Furthermore, individuals who reported habitually napping had higher daytime dysfunction, increased sleep disturbances, and increased daytime sleepiness. These results provide novel insights into the demographic and lifestyle factors that influence sleep quality and daytime somnolence in autistic adults and can be used for targeted sleep interventions.

4.
J Pers Med ; 11(9)2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575671

RESUMO

Previous research has examined several parental, child-related, and contextual factors associated with parental quality of life (QoL) among parents with a child or an adolescent with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); however, no systematic review has examined the relationship between parental QoL and parental involvement in intervention. To fill this gap, a systematic review was conducted using four electronic databases and checked reference lists of retrieved studies. Records were included in the systematic review if they presented original data, assessed parental QoL, and involvement in intervention for children or adolescents with ASD, were published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2020, and were written in English. Among the 96 screened full-texts, 17 articles met the eligibility criteria. The selected studies included over 2000 parents of children or adolescents with ASD. Three categories of parental involvement (i.e., none, indirect, direct) were identified, which varied across studies, although most had direct parental involvement. The results from this review show that increased parental involvement in the intervention for children or adolescents with ASD may be one way to promote their QoL. However, further research specifically focused on parental involvement during the intervention for children and adolescents with ASD is warranted.

5.
Clocks Sleep ; 3(3): 465-481, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563055

RESUMO

Children with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) experience significantly higher rates of sleep disturbances than their typically developing (TD) peers. Pre-sleep anxiety and waking emotional content is known to affect the content and frequency of nightmares, which can be distressing to children and caregivers. This is the first study to analyse nightmare frequency and content in FASD, and to assess its association with psychometric outcomes. Using online caregiver questionnaires, we assessed reports from 277 caregivers of children with ASD (n = 61), FASD (n = 112), and TD children (n = 104) using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS), and the Behaviour Rating Inventory for Executive Functioning (BRIEF). Within the ASD group, 40.3% of caregivers reported their children had nightmares. Within the FASD group, 73.62% of caregivers reported their children had nightmares, and within the TD group, 21.36% of caregivers reported their children had nightmares. Correlation analysis revealed significant associations between anxiety and nightmares, maladaptive behaviour and nightmares, and executive functioning and nightmares in the TD and FASD groups, but not ASD group. This paper adds to the emerging body of work supporting the need for sleep interventions as part of clinical practice with regard to children with ASD and FASD. As a relatively niche but important area of study, this warrants much needed further research.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental health problems are prevalent among university students in Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on university students' mental health and sleep in Saudi Arabia. METHOD: A total of 582 undergraduate students from Saudi Arabia aged between 18 and 45 years old (M = 20.91, SD = 3.17) completed a cross-sectional online questionnaire measuring depression, anxiety, stress, resilience, and insomnia during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020). Analysis included an independent samples t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Hierarchical regression analysis. RESULTS: Undergraduate students reported high levels of depression, anxiety, and perceived stress and low levels of resilience (p < 0.001) during the pandemic. In addition, students reported experiencing insomnia. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that lower resilience, high levels of insomnia, having a pre-existing mental health condition, and learning difficulties (such as dyslexia, dyspraxia, or dyscalculia) were significantly associated with high levels of depression and stress. In addition, lower resilience, a high level of insomnia, and pre-existing mental health conditions were significantly associated with high levels of anxiety. Finally, a lower level of psychological resilience and a high level of insomnia were significantly associated with increased levels of depression, anxiety and stress within university students. CONCLUSION: This study has provided evidence that a lower level of psychological resilience and insomnia were associated with mental health problems among undergraduate students in Saudi Arabia, thus enhancing psychological resilience and interventions to support sleep and mental health are vital to support student well-being outcomes throughout the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Sono , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
7.
Res Dev Disabil ; 117: 104057, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic brought significant movement restrictions and national lockdowns. These drastic changes impacted routines, social life and support networks for the autistic community. AIMS: This study investigated the lived experiences of autistic adults with social expectations before and during the first Covid-19 lockdown in Spain. METHODS: A qualitative Reflexive Thematic Analysis was applied to 10 Photo Elicitation Interviews using images provided by five autistic adults. Interviews were conducted at two time points, before the pandemic and during the first lockdown. FINDINGS: Three themes before the pandemic were identified: (1) everyday interactions, (2) finding sense of belonging, and (3) fractured wellbeing, which revealed the participants' eagerness to fit in socially whilst experiencing rejection, weakening their mental health. During the first Covid-19 lockdown, two master themes were identified: (1) daily, positive experiences, and (2) surfacing failures, which emphasised an increased lived stigma as well as an ineffective autism support network, contributing to a heightened anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: The current study provides further support to the recent findings highlighting lack of appropriate mental health support for the autistic communities during the pandemic, across the world. Future research should aim to provide more data on the experiences and needs of autistic communities when sudden societal changes are imposed.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , COVID-19 , Adulto , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha
8.
Res Dev Disabil ; 117: 104031, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Developmental disabilities have been largely studied in the past years. Their etiological mechanisms have been underpinned to the interactions between genetic and environmental factors. These factors show variability across the world. Thus, it is important to understand where the set of knowledge obtained on developmental disabilities originates from and whether it is generalizable to low- and middle-income countries. AIMS: This study aims to understand the origins of the available literature on developmental disabilities, keeping a focus on parenting, and identify the main trend of research. METHODS AND PROCEDURE: A sample of 11,315 publications from 1936 to 2020 were collected from Scopus and a graphical country analysis was conducted. Furthermore, a qualitative approach enabled the clustering of references by keywords into four main areas: "Expression of the disorder", "Physiological Factors", "How it is studied" and "Environmental factors". For each area, a document co-citation analysis (DCA) on CiteSpace software was performed. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: Results highlight the leading role of North America in the study of developmental disabilities. Trends in the literature and the documents' scientific relevance are discussed in details. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Results demand for investigation in different socio-economical settings to generalize our knowledge. What this paper adds? The current paper tries to provide insight into the origins of the literature on developmental disabilities with a focus on parenting, together with an analysis of the trends of research in the field. The paper consisted of a multi-disciplinary and multi-method review. In fact, the review tried to integrate the analysis of the relation between developmental disabilities with a closer look at the scientific contributions to the field across the world. Specifically, the paper integrates a total of 11,315 papers published on almost a century of research (from 1936 to 2020). An initial qualitative analysis on keywords was combined to a subsequent quantitative approach in order to maximize the comprehension of the impact of almost a century of scientific contributions. Specifically, documents were studied with temporal and structural metrics on a scientometric approach. This allowed the exploration of patterns within the literature available on Scopus in a quantitative way. This method not only assessed the importance of single documents within the network. As a matter of fact, the document co-citation analysis used on CiteSpace software provided insight into the relations existing between multiple documents in the field of research. As a result, the leading role of North America in the literature of developmental disabilities and parenting emerged. This was accompanied by the review of the main trends of research within the existing literature.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Publicações , Projetos de Pesquisa
9.
Front Psychol ; 12: 678839, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276498

RESUMO

Purpose: Sleep is essential for optimal learning across the developmental pathways. This study aimed to (1) explore whether school start and end times and screen time influenced sleep disturbances in adolescents during the lockdown in China and (2) investigate if sleep disturbances at night and sleep-related impairment (daytime fatigue) influenced adolescents' academic performance and anxiety levels. Methods: Ninety-nine adolescents aged 15-17 years old were recruited from two public schools in Baishan City Jilin Province, China. An online questionnaire was distributed including questions on adolescents' demographics, screen time habits, academic performance, anxiety level, sleep disturbances, and sleep-related impairment. Results: Adolescents who started school earlier and ended school later had a greater severity of sleep disturbances and sleep-related impairment compared with students who started school later and finished earlier. Adolescents who engaged in screen time at bedtime were more likely to have a greater severity of sleep-related impairment than students who reported no screen time use at bedtime. Adolescents who had a greater severity of sleep disturbances had higher anxiety and higher academic achievements than adolescents with less sleep disturbances. Finally, 79.7% of adolescents reported their total sleep duration as <8 h. Conclusions: Adolescents are experiencing sleep disturbances to manage academic demands during COVID-19, which in turn is having a wider impact on their mental health. Many schools internationally have continued to provide online education to students, longitudinal studies on how COVID-19 has influenced adolescents sleep and mental health would be beneficial in understanding the impact of the pandemic.

10.
Autism ; 25(8): 2412-2417, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966490

RESUMO

LAY ABSTRACT: Sleep problems are one of the most common complaints by autistic adults. This study aimed to report the perspectives of autistic adults on treatment of their sleep problems; 288 autistic adults living in the United Kingdom completed an online survey which assessed their sleep quality. We also gathered data on experiences and preferences of sleep treatment with UK healthcare professionals and their experiences of self-management of their sleep; 58% of autistic adults never had a visit with a healthcare professional regarding their sleep problem, despite 90% meeting the criteria for poor sleep quality. Some of those who attended a consultation for their sleep were prescribed medication (72%), but 60% were not satisfied with the outcome. The participants also reported that sleep self-management was not effective (80%); 41% reported a preference for non-medication including education, advice and talking therapies for sleep treatment. This report highlights the need for a fundamental shift in treatment of sleep problems in autistic adults. The current treatments are not resolving sleep issues; hence, it is imperative to develop management strategies that considers autistic adults' preferences, reduces sleep problems and thus improves quality of life for autistic adults.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Adulto , Transtorno Autístico/complicações , Transtorno Autístico/terapia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/terapia , Reino Unido
11.
Front Psychol ; 12: 668930, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34025533

RESUMO

Individuals with chronic pain often experience co-existing sleep problems and depression-related states. Chronic pain, sleep problems, and depression interrelate, and have been shown to exacerbate one another, which negatively impacts quality of life. This study explored the relationships between pain severity, pain interference, sleep quality, and depression among individuals with chronic pain. Secondly, we tested whether sleep quality may moderate the relationship between pain and depression. A cross-sectional survey was completed by 1,059 adults with non-malignant chronic pain conditions (M age 43 years, 88% identified as women) and collected measures related to pain severity, pain interference, sleep quality, and depression. Multiple regression analyses found that pain severity, pain interference, and sleep quality are all significantly associated with depression. Secondly, moderated regression analyses revealed that sleep quality moderates the relationship between pain interference and depression among individuals with chronic pain such that good sleep quality attenuates the effect of pain interference on depression, and poor sleep quality amplifies the effect of pain interference on depression. These findings suggest that sleep quality may be a relevant therapeutic target for individuals with chronic pain and co-existing depression.

12.
Brain Sci ; 11(4)2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810398

RESUMO

Sleep is crucial for development across cognitive, physical, and social-emotional domains. Sleep quality and quantity impact domains of daytime functioning, attainment, and global development. Previous work has explored sleep profiles in typically developing children and children with developmental disorders such as Down syndrome and Williams Syndrome, yet there is a complete absence of published work regarding the sleep profiles of children with vision impairment aged 4-11 years. This is the first known study that examines the sleep profiles in children with vision impairment (n = 58) in comparison to 58 typically developing children (aged 4-11 years) in the UK. Sleep was measured using the Childhood Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ; parental report), actigraphy and sleep diaries. Results showed group differences in subjective CSHQ scores but not objective actigraphy measures. Surprisingly, the findings revealed disordered sleep (namely, poor sleep quantity) in both groups. Discordance between CSHQ and actigraphy measures could represent heightened awareness of sleeping problems in parents/caregivers of children with vision impairment. The implications of this study extend beyond group comparison, examining disordered sleep in 'typically developing' children, exploring the potential role of light perception and the importance of sleep quality and quantity in both groups.

13.
Adv Child Dev Behav ; 60: 261-283, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641796

RESUMO

This chapter addresses sleep research challenges for the study of neurodevelopmental disorders drawing upon two disorders such as Down Syndrome and Williams syndrome. General sleep problems are outlined here, however particular consideration is given to the syndrome-specific issues or challenges that may be crucial to advancing our understanding of sleep-related cognitive and behavioral issues.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669583

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that sleep is influenced and shaped by cultural factors, including cultural values, beliefs and practices. However, a systematic understanding of how cultural factors in countries may influence sleep duration and sleep disturbances is still lacking. Therefore, we focused on a comparison of sleep duration and disturbances in young populations between countries. We report cross-cultural differences between the child, parent and environmental factors, and their association with sleep duration and disturbances. The review is based on literature searches of seven databases published until December 2020. Studies were included if they investigated sleep duration and disturbances of individuals up to 18 years across at least two or more countries. The results of this review have shown that sleep duration and disturbances vary between countries and regions and certain factors (e.g., bedtime routines, sleeping arrangement, physical activity and psychological functioning) have been associated with sleep duration or disturbances. This review also demonstrates that certain factors which were associated with sleep duration or disturbances in one country, were not shown in other countries, suggesting a need for recommendations for age-related sleep duration and sleep interventions to consider cultural differences that influence sleep duration or disturbances in individual countries or regions.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Criança , Família , Humanos , Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia
15.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 637770, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738270

RESUMO

Background: Children with neurodevelopmental conditions (NDC) often experience sleep problems which are long-lasting and more complex than typically developing children. These sleep problems impact their families and there is little guidance for management specifically for sleep for families of children with neurodevelopmental conditions. The present study aims to use parental report to evaluate sleep disturbances and sleep patterns in a large sample of children with NDC. We aim to identify associations with age, diagnosis, and medication groups. Methods: Data on 601 children aged between 2 and 17 years was analyzed from a UK non-profit service for sleep for families of children with NDC. Parents/carers completed the children's sleep habit questionnaire, a 7 day sleep diary, and information on child age, diagnosis, and medication. Parents also reported previous sleep management techniques they had tried. Results: Overall, we found differences between age, diagnosis, and medication use groups for sleep disturbances and sleep diary parameters in these populations. Sensory conditions were associated with high night time waking duration. Parents reported their child's short sleep duration was the most common problem for them. Conclusions: Key areas for further research are outlined including the long term considerations for parental presence at bedtime for sleep anxiety, melatonin use and efficacy, and consideration for interventions to reduce daytime fatigue in children aged 7-11 years old.

16.
J Health Psychol ; : 1359105321995962, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601977

RESUMO

Changes to wellbeing in a community-based sample of 638 adults with non-malignant chronic pain were assessed during a period of mandated lockdown measures in the UK to control the COVID-19 outbreak. Participants completed an online survey pre-lockdown and were followed up during lockdown. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that decreased ability to self-manage pain, restricted access to healthcare and increased dependence on others were associated with negative wellbeing outcomes related to sleep, anxiety and depression. Essential but non-urgent services are required during periods of lockdown to maintain independence and self-management in order to preserve wellbeing in this population.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with intellectual and developmental difficulties often experience sleep problems, which in turn may impact parental sleep patterns. This study explored the role of parental sleep knowledge as a moderator on the relationship between child sleep and parental sleep impairment. METHODS: 582 parents or caregivers (92.6% mothers) of children with different developmental disabilities (Age M = 9.34, 29.5% females) such as Down's syndrome, participated in an online survey. Multiple regression analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Parental sleep knowledge of child sleep was a moderating variable in the relationship between child sleep nocturnal duration and parental sleep impairment. Although overall, sleep knowledge was high in this sample, two specific knowledge gaps were identified namely child sleep duration requirements, and the recognition of signs of a well-rested child. CONCLUSION: This study has provided evidence that increased parental sleep knowledge can positively impact both child and parental sleep outcomes.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pais/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Brain Sci ; 10(12)2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327459

RESUMO

Young individuals with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) experience sleep disturbances and often experience daytime tiredness, which in turn may impact on their daytime functioning and academic attainment, but there are few longitudinal data. METHODS: Data on sleep habits and behaviour were taken on the same day as an in-hospital polysomnography. This study assesses the developmental sleep profiles of children and young adults aged 4-23 years old with SCA. We examined retrospective polysomnography (PSG) and questionnaire data. RESULTS: A total of 256 children with a median age of 10.67 years (130 male) were recruited and 179 returned for PSG 1.80-6.72 years later. Later bedtimes and a decrease in total sleep time (TST) were observed. Sleep disturbances, e.g., parasomnias and night waking, were highest in preschool children and young adults at their first visit. Participants with lower sleep quality, more movement during the night and increased night waking experienced daytime sleepiness, potentially an indicator of lower daytime functioning. Factors influencing sleep quantity included age, hydroxyurea prescription, mean overnight oxygen saturation, sleep onset latency, periodic limb movement, socioeconomic status and night waking. CONCLUSION: Sleep serves an important role for daytime functioning in SCA; hence, quantitative (i.e., PSG for clinical symptoms, e.g., sleep-disordered breathing, nocturnal limb movement) and qualitative (i.e., questionnaires for habitual sleep behaviour) assessments of sleep should be mutually considered to guide interventions.

19.
Res Dev Disabil ; 107: 103795, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of child disabilities might affect the amount of caregiving attention the child receives, with potential ramifications on the development of the child and increasing the likelihood of developing a more severe condition. Little is known about the association between child disabilities and caregiving practices in less developed countries, penalized by both lack of data and a research bias toward western societies. METHOD: In this study, we apply data mining methods on a large (N = 29,525) dataset from UNICEF to investigate the association between caregiving practices and developmental disabilities of the children, and highlight the differences between intellectual and other disabilities. RESULTS: Our results highlight that, compared to other types of disabilities, intellectual disabilities increased the risk of being neglected by the caregiver in those activities oriented to the cognitive development. The education of the caregiver and the socioeconomical development of the country are actively involved in the moderation of the risk. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that educational policies of parental training, such as psychoeducation regarding intellectual disabilities and destigmatization campaigns, are needed to benefit parental practices in low- and middle-income countries.

20.
Brain Sci ; 10(11)2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207724

RESUMO

Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) experience significantly higher rates of sleep disturbances than their typically developing peers. However, little is known about the association between sleep and the cognitive phenotype in these clinical populations. Structural damage affecting cortical and subcortical connectivity occurs as a result of prenatal alcohol exposure in children with FASD, whilst it is believed an abundance of short-range connectivity explains the phenotypic manifestations of childhood ASD. These underlying neural structural and connectivity differences manifest as cognitive patterns, with some shared and some unique characteristics between FASD and ASD. This is the first study to examine sleep and its association with cognition in individuals with FASD, and to compare sleep in individuals with FASD and ASD. We assessed children aged 6-12 years with a diagnosis of FASD (n = 29), ASD (n = 21), and Typically Developing (TD) children (n = 46) using actigraphy (CamNTech Actiwatch 8), digit span tests of working memory (Weschler Intelligence Scale), tests of nonverbal mental age (MA; Ravens Standard Progressive Matrices), receptive vocabulary (British Picture Vocabulary Scale), and a choice reaction time (CRT) task. Children with FASD and ASD presented with significantly shorter total sleep duration, lower sleep efficiency, and more nocturnal wakings than their TD peers. Sleep was significantly associated with scores on the cognitive tests in all three groups. Our findings support the growing body of work asserting that sleep is significant to cognitive functioning in these neurodevelopmental conditions; however, more research is needed to determine cause and effect.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...