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1.
Int J Cardiol ; 301: 127-134, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604655

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Arrhythmia contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) or cardiomyopathy (CMP). It also has the potential to worsen symptoms and is particularly detrimental to patients with advanced heart failure awaiting cardiac transplantation. We report our experience using catheter ablation to treat recurrent arrhythmia in patients with CHD or CMP considered for transplantation. METHODS: Five consecutive patients (3 female, mean age 47.8 ±â€¯12.8 years) with complex CHD or CMP (tricuspid atresia, mitral atresia, double inlet left ventricle, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, left ventricular non-compaction) presented with either atrial (n = 3) or ventricular (n = 2) arrhythmias. All ablations were guided by three-dimensional (3D) electro-anatomical mapping, plus remote magnetic navigation in 3 patients. RESULTS: Patients underwent a median of 2 ablation procedures for a total number of 26 tachycardias. None of the 5 patients experienced further arrhythmia at a median of 939 days (range 4-1375) from their last ablation. During a median follow up of 31 months (range 1-70), three patients underwent successful transplantation at 1375, 1062 and 321 days following their last ablation. One patient with a Fontan circulation died from hepatic cancer and one from end-stage heart failure despite urgent transplant listing. CONCLUSIONS: Catheter ablation is feasible in complex cardiac patients considered for heart transplantation and should be offered for rhythm management and patient optimization until a suitable donor is found.

2.
Heart ; 106(6): 455-461, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444268

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cardiac surgery or catheter interventions are nowadays commonly performed to reduce volume loading of the right ventricle in adults with congenital heart disease. However, little is known, on the effect of such procedures on pre-existing tricuspid regurgitation (TR). We assessed the potential reduction in the severity of TR after atrial septal defect (ASD) closure and pulmonic valve replacement (PVR). METHODS: Demographics, clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of consecutive patients undergoing ASD closure or PVR between 2005 and 2014 at a single centre who had at least mild preoperative TR were collected and analysed. RESULTS: Overall, 162 patients (mean age at intervention 41.6±16.1 years, 38.3% male) were included: 101 after ASD closure (61 transcatheter vs 40 surgical) and 61 after PVR (3 transcatheter vs 58 surgical). Only 11.1% received concomitant tricuspid valve surgery (repair). There was significant reduction in the severity of TR in the overall population, from 38 (23.5%) patients having moderate or severe TR preoperatively to only 11 (6.8%) and 20 (12.3%) at 6 months and 12 months of follow-up, respectively (McNemar p<0.0001). There was a significant reduction in tricuspid valve annular diameter (p<0.0001), coaptation distance (p<0.0001) and systolic tenting area (p<0.0001). The reduction in TR was also observed in patients who did not have concomitant tricuspid valve (TV) repair (from 15.3% to 6.9% and 11.8% at 6 and 12 months, respectively, p<0.0001). On multivariable logistic regression including all univariable predictors of residual TR at 12 months, only RA area remained in the model (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.37, p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: ASD closure and PVR are associated with a significant reduction in tricuspid regurgitation, even among patients who do not undergo concomitant tricuspid valve surgery.

3.
Chest ; 157(1): 89-98, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) may develop pulmonary hypertension (PH), often disproportionate to the severity of the ILD. The right ventricular to left ventricular diameter (RV:LV) ratio measured at CT pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) has been shown to provide valuable information in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension and to predict death or deterioration in acute pulmonary embolism. METHODS: Demographic characteristics, ILD subtype, echocardiography, and detailed CTPA measurements were collected in consecutive patients undergoing both CTPA and right heart catheterization at the Royal Brompton Hospital between 2005 and 2015. Fibrosis severity was formally scored according to CT criteria. The RV:LV ratio at CTPA was evaluated by using three different methods. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to assess the relation of CTPA-derived parameters to predict death or lung transplantation. RESULTS: A total of 92 patients were included (64% male; mean age 65 ± 11 years) with an FVC 57 ± 20% predicted, corrected transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide 22 ± 8% predicted, and corrected transfer coefficient of the lung for carbon monoxide 51 ± 17% predicted. PH was confirmed at right heart catheterization in 78%. Of all the CTPA-derived measures, an RV:LV ratio ≥ 1.0 strongly predicted mortality or transplantation at univariate analysis (hazard ratio, 3.26; 95% CI, 1.49-7.13; P = .003), whereas invasive hemodynamic data did not. The RV:LV ratio remained an independent predictor at multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.44-7.10; P = .004), adjusting for an ILD diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and CT imaging-derived ILD severity. CONCLUSIONS: An increased RV:LV ratio measured at CTPA provides a simple, noninvasive method of risk stratification in patients with suspected ILD-PH. This should prompt closer follow-up, more aggressive treatment, and consideration of lung transplantation.

4.
Int J Cardiol ; 299: 131-135, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), is a rare and progressive disease with a high morbidity and mortality. Prostanoid pulmonary vasodilators are the most effective treatment for idiopathic and connective tissue associated PAH. Nonetheless, data examining their safety and efficacy in patients with Eisenmenger syndrome the most severe form of PAH, that is, related to cyanotic congenital heart disease (CHD-PAH) remains limited. AIM: To evaluate safety and the clinical efficacy of nebulised iloprost in patients with Eisenmenger syndrome who are on maximum background oral PAH therapy. METHODS: This pilot study was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Patients were randomised to receive nebulised placebo or iloprost for 12 weeks and were then crossed over, with a 7-14-day washout. The primary endpoint was a change in 6-minute walk distance (6MWD). RESULTS: Sixteen patients (11 females, aged 47.3 ±â€¯9.8 year) were recruited, twelve completed the study. All were in WHO-FC III, with a resting oxygen saturation of 84 [81-87] % and a median 6MWD of 290 [260-300] m. There was no significant difference in the primary endpoint between nebulised iloprost (0[-4-9]m) and placebo (10 [-15-51]m), p = 0.58. There were no safety concerns with nebulised iloprost. CONCLUSIONS: Our pilot study provides preliminary evidence that the addition of nebulised iloprost to maximum oral PAH therapy did not improve the primary endpoint of 6MWD. Nebulised iloprost was well tolerated with no significant safety concerns in CHD-PAH.

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(21): e012744, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657270

RESUMO

Background There are limited data about cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in adult congenital heart disease. We aimed to assess early and late outcomes of CRT among patients with adult congenital heart disease. Methods and Results We retrospectively studied 54 patients with adult congenital heart disease (median age, 46 years; range, 18-73 years; 74% men) who received CRT implantation (biventricular paced >90%) between 2004 and 2017. Clinical and echocardiographic data were analyzed at baseline and early (mean±SD: 1.8±0.8 years) and late (4.7±0.8 years) follow-up after CRT. Compared with baseline, CRT was associated with significant improvement at early follow-up in New York Heart Association functional class, QRS duration, and cardiothoracic ratio (P<0.05 for all); improvement in New York Heart Association class was sustained at late follow-up. Among patients with a systemic left ventricle (LV; n=39), there was significant increase in LV ejection fraction and reduction in LV end-systolic volume at early and late follow-up (P<0.05 for both). For patients with a systemic right ventricle (n=15), there was a significant early but not late reduction in systemic right ventricular basal and longitudinal diameters. Eleven patients died, and 2 had heart transplantation unrelated to systemic ventricular morphological characteristics. Thirty-five patients (65%) responded positively to CRT, but only baseline QRS duration was predictive of a positive response. Conclusions CRT results in sustained improvement in functional class, systemic LV size, and function. Patients with a systemic LV and prolonged QRS duration, independent of QRS morphological characteristics, were most likely to respond to CRT.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479199

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic role of multiparameter flow cytometry (FC) in patients with idiopathic cytopenia of undetermined significance (ICUS) and clonal cytopenia of undetermined significance (CCUS). METHODS: We performed FC using a standardized panel and two different diagnostic algorithms (Ogata, Wells) in a well-characterized cohort of 79 patients with ICUS/CCUS and compared it with a retrospective blinded morphological evaluation and data from targeted next-generation DNA sequencing of 20 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)-related genes. RESULTS: Our data show that FC has low sensitivity in distinguishing CCUS from ICUS patients (40.5% for Ogata score and 59.5% for Wells score). The Wells score was suggestive of dysplasia in ICUS/CCUS patients with concurrent morphological signs of dysplasia in the bone marrow (following re-evaluation by two hematopathologists) and in CCUS patients with a higher mutational burden. Eight patients with ICUS/CCUS from our cohort progressed to another myeloid malignancy (MDS, acute myeloid leukemia, or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia), all showing flow cytometric signs of dysplasia. CONCLUSION: FC performs poorly in diagnosing CCUS versus ICUS. However, it can potentially provide prognostic information in cytopenic patients by identifying a subgroup of patients with a higher grade of dysplasia, higher mutational burden, and higher risk of progression and, together with mutational screening, also identify a group of patients who might require morphological reassessment of dysplastic changes in their bone marrow.

11.
Am Heart J ; 214: 142-155, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glomerular filtration rate is a key physiologic variable with a central role in clinical decision making and a strong association with prognosis in diverse populations. Reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is common among adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD). METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of outpatient ACHD ≥18 years old seen in 2012-2017. Creatinine and cystatin C were measured; eGFR was calculated using either the creatinine or cystatin C Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration equation (CKD-EPICr and CKD-EPICysC, respectively). Survival analysis was performed to define the relationship between eGFR and both all-cause mortality and a composite outcome of death or nonelective cardiovascular hospitalization. RESULTS: Our cohort included 911 ACHD (39 ±â€¯14 years old, 49% female). Mean CKD-EPICr and CKD-EPICysC were similar (101 ±â€¯20 vs 100 ±â€¯23 mL/min/1.73 m2), but CKD-EPICr estimates were higher for patients with a Fontan circulation (n = 131, +10 ±â€¯19 mL/min/1.73 m2). After mean follow-up of 659 days, 128 patients (14.1%) experienced the composite outcome and 31 (3.4%) died. CKD-EPICysC more strongly predicted all-cause mortality (eGFR <60 vs >90 mL/min/1.73 m2: CKD-EPICysC unadjusted HR = 20.2 [95% CI 7.6-53.1], C-statistic = 0.797; CKD-EPICr unadjusted HR = 4.6 [1.7-12.7], C-statistic = 0.620). CKD-EPICysC independently predicted the composite outcome, whereas CKD-EPICr did not (CKD-EPICysC adjusted HR = 3.0 [1.7-5.3]; CKD-EPICr adjusted HR = 1.5 [0.8-3.1]). Patients reclassified to a lower eGFR category by CKD-EPICysC, compared with CKD-EPICr, were at increased risk for the composite outcome (HR = 2.9 [2.0-4.3], P < .0001); those reclassified to a higher eGFR class were at lower risk (HR = 0.5 [0.3-0.9], P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Cystatin C-based eGFR more strongly predicts clinical events than creatinine-based eGFR in ACHD. Creatinine-based methods appear particularly questionable in the Fontan circulation.

12.
Pulm Circ ; 9(2): 2045894019859474, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246163

RESUMO

A 36-year-old woman presented with recurrent pulmonary emboli (PE) despite oral anticoagulation. She was a type I diabetic with severe gastroparesis requiring insertion of multiple long-term peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) over a 10-year period. Imaging at presentation demonstrated a PICC-associated mobile mass in the right atrium and signs of pulmonary hypertension (PH). She was thrombolyzed and fully anticoagulated, and diabetic management without PICC strongly recommended. PH persisted, however, and she developed chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), for which successful pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) surgery led to symptomatic and hemodynamic improvement. This was the first case of CTEPH reported related to long-term PICC use outside the setting of malignant disease, and a novel observation that the PEA specimen contained multiple plastic fragments. Long-term PICC placement increases the risk of CTEPH, a life-threatening, albeit treatable, complication.

13.
Europace ; 21(9): 1334-1344, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168581

RESUMO

AIMS: Advances in surgical techniques allow an increasing number of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) to reach adulthood. As patients grow older, atrial fibrillation (AF) is evolving into a major clinical concern and can be difficult to manage medically. Primary AF catheter ablation may, therefore, have a role in this setting but few reports have evaluated its efficacy in CHD patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively reviewed 58 consecutive patients [median age 51, interquartile range (IQR) 44-63 years, 57% male] with AF (45% paroxysmal) who underwent 122 ablation procedures in our tertiary centre in the last decade. The majority had CHD of moderate or severe complexity (57%, Bethesda Class 2 or 3) with a dilated left atrium (LA) (81%) and/or right atrium (86%). At 1-year from the first ablation, 32.8% of patients remained in sinus rhythm. Multiple procedures were required in 35 (60%) patients. Freedom from AF at 1-year after the 2nd and 3rd ablation was 40.9% and 36.5%, respectively. Multivariable predictors of AF recurrence were underlying anatomic complexity [hazard ratio (HR) in Bethesda 3 1.98, P = 0.006], type of AF (HR for persistent 1.87, P = 0.004), and indexed LA dimensions (HR for cm2/m2 1.06, P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: While ablation may be a valid option for the treatment of AF in CHD patients, multiple procedures are likely to be required. Early referral and careful patient selection are essential to optimize the results of AF ablation, achieving a low rate of recurrence. Further studies are needed to validate our prognostic model and guide clinical practice.

15.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 17(6): 449-459, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120797

RESUMO

Introduction: Eisenmenger syndrome (ES) is the most advanced form of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). It is characterised by a severe rise in pulmonary vascular resistance resulting in shunt reversal and cyanosis. Areas covered: In this paper, an overview of ES and other types of PAH related to CHD (PAH-CHD) in adults is provided. The modern management of PAH-CHD in tertiary centers is described, with an emphasis on co-morbidities and complications. Expert opinion: PAH-CHD describes a wide spectrum of conditions, of which ES is the archetype. The size and location of the shunt, the degree of adaptation of the right ventricle to the increased afterload and other compensatory mechanisms, such as secondary erythrocytosis, define the clinical presentation and natural history of these patients. PAH therapies have improved the quality of life and outcome of many patients with PAH-CHD, but expert multidisciplinary management remains essential in optimising the care of this rare and complex group of patients.


Assuntos
Complexo de Eisenmenger/fisiopatologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida
17.
Int J Cardiol ; 290: 156-161, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085083

RESUMO

Gender differences in the outcome of acquired cardiovascular disease are well known, but available literature on the influence of gender in congenital heart disease (CHD) is limited. Registries have provided valuable, albeit at times conflicting data. Higher mortality rates have been reported in older males with CHD, while sudden cardiac death is more prevalent in young males. However, mortality around surgery for CHD is higher in girls compared to boys, likely due to smaller body size. Women are at higher risk of developing pulmonary arterial hypertension, but at lower risk of adverse aortic outcomes, even though they are less likely to receive aortic surgery. Finally, women have a lower risk of presenting with infective endocarditis compared to men. The underlying reasons for gender differences in CHD can be attributed to genetic, hormonal, behavioural and other causes. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview of available evidence on gender differences in CHD and their impact on outcome.

18.
Pulm Circ ; 9(2): 2045894019845615, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945593

RESUMO

Early diagnosis of pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) is diagnostically challenging given the extent of pulmonary vascular remodeling required to bring about clinical signs and symptoms. Exercise testing can be invaluable in this setting, as stressing the cardiopulmonary system may unmask early disease. This report describes a young patient with a positive family history of PAH in whom contemporaneous invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing and surgical lung biopsy reveal the novel association between exercise pulmonary hypertension (ePH) and early histological changes of PAH. Exercise PH currently carries no pathological correlates which means the hemodynamic effects of early pulmonary vascular remodeling remain unknown. Following the recent proceedings from the World Symposium in Pulmonary Hypertension 2018, which broaden the hemodynamic definition of PAH, this report suggests an important association between ePH and early pulmonary vascular remodeling supporting a role for exercise hemodynamic evaluation in patients at increased familial risk of PAH.

19.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 26(10): 1067-1076, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971116

RESUMO

AIMS: Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a severe complication in patients with congenital heart disease and poses a significant risk to women wishing to become pregnant. This study describes the clinical presentation, maternal outcomes and risk factors for the peripartum period in women with pulmonary arterial hypertension related to congenital heart disease (PAH-CHD). METHODS: All pregnant women with PAH-CHD who were admitted for delivery in a tertiary center between February 2011-September 2016 were included. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of the combined endpoint of maternal death, severe heart failure requiring treatment, or pulmonary hypertensive crisis. RESULTS: Ninety-three women (94 pregnancies) were included. Average age was 27.5 ± 4.4 years. Thirty (31.9%) patients had Eisenmenger syndrome, 51 (54.3%) had pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with systemic-to-pulmonary shunts, and 13 (13.8%) had pulmonary arterial hypertension with corrected congenital heart disease. Twenty-three (24.5%) women required admission for delivery within two days from presentation. Elective Cesarean section was performed in 95.7% of women, with intravertebral anesthesia in 93.6%. Fifty-one (54.2%) patients received pulmonary arterial hypertension therapies during pregnancy. Six (6.4%) women died, 33 (35.1%) developed heart failure and 10 (10.6%) had a pulmonary hypertensive crisis. Patients who met the combined endpoint (n = 34, 36.2%) were more likely to have Eisenmenger syndrome or repaired defects (p < 0.001). Other risk factors in the multivariate model included lower arterial blood oxygen saturation, higher brain natriuretic peptide, and pericardial effusion on echocardiography. CONCLUSION: Maternal mortality and morbidity remain high in PAH-CHD patients, who should be counseled on the risks of pregnancy and managed in a tertiary multidisciplinary environment to improve prognosis.

20.
APMIS ; 127(5): 316-328, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859683

RESUMO

The increasing depth of knowledge about cancer biology throughout the last decades, has underlined the importance of not only genetic aberrations, but also epigenetic abnormalities in cancer cells. The extensive exploration of the cancer epigenome has provided insights into key pathways involved in tumorigenesis, as well as has allowed the development of novel epigenetic therapies. In this review, we will present the important role of epigenetic alterations in hematological diseases, with special focus on epigenetically-based targeting of hematological malignancies.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Metilação de DNA , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/uso terapêutico , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos
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