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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17985, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093514

RESUMO

Heavy metal pollution has seriously disrupted eco-balance and transformed estuaries into sewage depots. Quanzhou bay is a typical heavy metal-contaminated estuary, in which Spartina alterniflora has widely invaded. Plant-associated microbial communities are crucial for biogeochemical cycles, studies of which would be helpful to demonstrate the invasion mechanisms of plants. Meanwhile, they are indispensable to phytoremediation by enhancing the heavy metal tolerance of plants, facilitating heavy metal absorption rate and promoting growth of plants. In the present study, S. alterniflora-associated rhizo- and endobacterial communities from 3 experimental sites were investigated by 454-pyrosequencing. Heavy metal screening generated 16 culturable isolates, further biochemical assays suggested these clones possess various abilities such as phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase production to accelerate heavy metal uptake and growth of the host. This study revealed the bacterial community structures and characterized the predominant resident bacterial strains of S. alterniflora-associated rhizo- and endobacteria under heavy metal stress, and isolated several bacterial species with potential ecological function.

2.
J Cell Physiol ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044023

RESUMO

Random-pattern skin flaps are widely applied to rebuild and restore soft-tissue damage in reconstructive surgery; however, ischemia and subsequent ischemia-reperfusion injury lead to flap necrosis and are major complications. Exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 analog, exerts therapeutic benefits for diabetic wounds, cardiac injury, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Furthermore, Exenatide is a known activator of autophagy, which is a complex process of subcellular degradation that may enhance the viability of random skin flaps. In this study, we explored whether exenatide can improve skin flap survival. Our results showed that exenatide augments autophagy, increases flap viability, enhances angiogenesis, reduces oxidative stress, and alleviates pyroptosis. Coadministration of exenatide with 3-methyladenine and chloroquine, potent inhibitors of autophagy, reversed the beneficial effects, suggesting that the therapeutic benefits of exenatide for skin flaps are due largely to autophagy activation. Mechanistically, we identified that exenatide enhanced activation and nuclear translocation of TFE3, which leads to autophagy activation. Furthermore, we found that exenatide activates the AMPK-SKP2-CARM1 and AMPK-mTOR signaling pathways, which likely lead to exenatide's effects on activating TFE3. Overall, our findings suggest that exenatide may be a potent therapy to prevent flap necrosis, and we also reveal novel mechanistic insight into exenatide's effect on flap survival.

3.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(19): 4595-4602, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe hyperlipemia (SHLE) has an impact on the results of many kinds of laboratory tests. Complete blood count (CBC) examination by automated blood cell counter (ABCC) is a quick and convenient measurement for screening abnormalities of blood cells that are triggered by various pathogenic insults in disease diagnosis and for monitoring changes in the treatment of existing hematological conditions. However, CBC results are frequently affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors from blood samples, such as in the setting of hypergammaglobulinemia and certain anticoagulants. SHLE could also affect CBC results. CASE SUMMARY: A 33-year-old Chinese male presented with painful foot numbness and abdominal pain. He was initially misdiagnosed as having a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) because of the marked abnormalities in CBC examination by the ABCC. Morphological evaluation of the bone marrow smears and biopsy showed no evidence of MPN. Gene mutations in Breakpoint cluster regions-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homologue 1 (BCR-ABL1), Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), calreticulin (CALR), myeloproliferative leukemia virus (MPL), and colony-stimulating factor 3 receptor (CSF3R) were negative. Having noticed the thick chylomicron layer on blood samples and the dramatically fluctuating CBC results, we speculated that the fat droplets formed by shaking the blood samples in the setting of SHLE were mistakenly identified as blood cells due to the limited parameters of ABCC. Therefore, we removed a large part of the chylomicron layer and then reexamined the CBC, and the CBC results, as we expected, differed significantly from that of the sample before the chylomicron layer was removed. These significant differences had been validated by the subsequently repeated laboratory tests by measuring dual blood samples that the chylomicron layer was removed in one sample and was not in another, and comparing the CBC results. Computerized tomography reexamination of the upper abdomen revealed an exudative lesion surrounding his pancreas. After intensive consultation, definitive diagnosis was made as recurrent pancreatitis, hyperlipemia and pseudoerythrocytosis. CONCLUSION: SHLE may become a potential cause of misdiagnosis of hyperlipemia-related diseases as MPNs and the resultant mistreatment. It may also lead to the misinterpretation of transfusion indications in patients with hematological disorders who critically need blood transfusion for supportive treatment.

4.
Curr Mol Pharmacol ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030140

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore and investigate the molecular mechanism of TLR4 mediated T cell immune effect in transfusion-induced acute injury based on SLIT2/ROBO4 signaling pathway. METHODS: Sixty C57/BL6 male mice (Wild type, WT) aged 8 to 10 weeks were randomly divided into 5 groups: 1) normal type WT, 2) LPS control group of WT type lipopolysaccharide, 3) WT type TRALI group (LPS + MHC-I mAb), 4) (TLR4 antibody) lipopolysaccharide LPS control group, 5) (TLR4 antibody) TRALI group (LPS + MHC-I mAb). Mice were dosed with LPS (0.1 mg / kg), and MHC-I mAb (2 mg / kg) was injected into the tail vein 24 hours later for modeling. After 2 hours, mice were sacrificed and experimental samples were collected. HE staining was performed to detect pathological features. The myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and the level of IL-2, IL-6, TNF, IFN-γ, IL-17A as well as IL-10 were measured in the lung tissue homogenate supernatant. Blood, spleen single cell suspension and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected to detect the ratio of Treg and Th17 cells by flow cytometry, respectively. RT-PCR and WB indicated the mRNA or protein expression of CDH5 (Cadherin-5), SLIT2 and ROBO4 in mouse lung tissue and pulmonary vascular tissue respectively. RESULTS: TLR4 mAb treatment decreases the pathological features of LPS induced ALI model in vivo. And so does the MPO activity as well as the level of proinflammatory factors in the lung tissue. TLR4 exerts its function through the changes of Treg/Th17 ratio via SLIT2/ROBO4 signaling pathway and downregulating CDH5 and SETSIP in ALI model. CONCLUSION: TLR4 mediates immune response in LPS induced ALI model through SLIT2/ROBO4 signaling pathway.

5.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918045

RESUMO

The ROS1 fusion kinase is an attractive antitumor target. Though with significant clinical efficacy, the well-known first-generation ROS1 inhibitor (ROS1i) crizotinib inevitably developed acquired resistance due to secondary point mutations in the ROS1 kinase. Novel ROS1is effective against mutations conferring secondary crizotinib resistance, especially G2032R, are urgently needed. In the present study, we evaluated the antitumor efficacy of SAF-189s, the new-generation ROS1/ALK inhibitor, against ROS1 fusion wild-type and crizotinib-resistant mutants. We showed that SAF-189s potently inhibited ROS1 kinase and its known acquired clinically resistant mutants, including the highly resistant G2032R mutant. SAF-189s displayed subnanomolar to nanomolar IC50 values against ROS1 wild-type and mutant kinase activity and a selectivity vs. other 288 protein kinases tested. SAF-189s blocked cellular ROS1 signaling, and in turn potently inhibited the cell proliferation in HCC78 cells and BaF3 cells expressing ROS1 fusion wild-type and resistance mutants. In nude mice bearing BaF3/CD74-ROS1 or BaF3/CD74-ROS1G2032R xenografts, oral administration of SAF-189s dose dependently suppressed the growth of both ROS1 wild-type- and G2032R mutant-driven tumors. In a patient-derived xenograft model of SDC4-ROS1 fusion NSCLC, oral administration of SAF-189s (20 mg/kg every day) induced tumor regression and exhibited notable prolonged and durable efficacy. In addition, SAF-189s was more potent than crizotinib and comparable to lorlatinib, the most advanced ROS1i known against the ROS1G2032R. Collectively, these results suggest the promising potential of SAF-189s for the treatment of patients with the ROS1 fusion G2032R mutation who relapse on crizotinib. It is now recruiting both crizotinib-relapsed and naive ROS1-positive NSCLC patients in a multicenter phase II trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04237805).

6.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936758

RESUMO

Music information retrieval is of great interest in audio signal processing. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the playing techniques of musical instruments. This work proposes an automatic system for classifying guitar playing techniques (GPTs). Automatic classification for GPTs is challenging because some playing techniques differ only slightly from others. This work presents a new framework for GPT classification: it uses a new feature extraction method based on spectral-temporal receptive fields (STRFs) to extract features from guitar sounds. This work applies a supervised deep learning approach to classify GPTs. Specifically, a new deep learning model, called the hierarchical cascade deep belief network (HCDBN), is proposed to perform automatic GPT classification. Several simulations were performed and the datasets of: 1) data on onsets of signals; 2) complete audio signals; and 3) audio signals in a real-world environment are adopted to compare the performance. The proposed system improves upon the F-score by approximately 11.47% in setup 1) and yields an F-score of 96.82% in setup 2). The results in setup 3) demonstrate that the proposed system also works well in a real-world environment. These results show that the proposed system is robust and has very high accuracy in automatic GPT classification.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14275, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868805

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an emerging disease worldwide. We investigated the relationship between blood pressure (BP) control and parafoveal retinal microvascular changes in patients with CKD. This case-control study enrolled 256 patients with CKD (stage 3-5) and 70 age-matched healthy controls. Optical coherence tomography angiography showed lower superficial vascular plexus (SVP) vessel density, lower deep vascular plexus (DVP) vessel density, and larger SVP flow void area in the CKD group. The BP parameters at enrollment and during the year before enrollment were collected in patients with CKD. Partial correlation was used to determine the relationship between BP parameters and microvascular parameters after controlling for age, sex, diabetes mellitus, axial length, and intraocular pressure. The maximum systolic blood pressure (SBP) (p = 0.003) and within-patient standard deviation (SD) of SBP (p = 0.006) in 1 year were negatively correlated with SVP vessel density. The average SBP (p = 0.040), maximum SBP (p = 0.001), within-patient SD of SBP (p < 0.001) and proportion of high BP measurement (p = 0.011) in 1 year were positively correlated with the SVP flow void area. We concluded that long-term SBP was correlated with SVP microvascular injury in patients with CKD. Superficial retinal microvascular changes may be a potential biomarker for prior long-term BP control in these patients.

8.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 12(1): 110, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium oligomannate (GV-971), a marine-derived oligosaccharide, is a novel agent that may improve cognition in AD patients. METHODS: The 24-week multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo parallel controlled clinical trial was conducted in AD in China between 24 October 2011 and 10 July 2013. The study included a 4-week screening/washout period, followed by a 24-week treatment period. Patients were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive GV-971 900 mg, 600 mg, or placebo capsule in treatment period, respectively. The primary outcome was cognitive improvement as assessed by changes in Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale 12-item (ADAS-cog12) scores from baseline to week 24. The secondary efficacy outcomes included CIBIC-Plus, ADCS-ADL, and NPI at 24 weeks after treatment compared with baseline. A subgroup study was assessment of the change in cerebral glucose metabolism by fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography measurements. RESULTS: Comparing with the placebo group (n = 83, change - 1.45), the ADAS-cog12 score change in the GV-971 600-mg group (n = 76) was - 1.39 (p = 0.89) and the GV-971 900-mg group (n = 83) was - 2.58 (p = 0.30). The treatment responders according to CIBIC-Plus assessment were significantly higher in the GV-971 900-mg group than the placebo group (92.77% vs. 79.52%, p < 0.05). The GV-971 900-mg subgroup showed a lower decline of cerebral metabolic rate for glucose than the placebo subgroup at the left precuneus, right posterior cingulate, bilateral hippocampus, and bilateral inferior orbital frontal at uncorrected p = 0.05. The respective rates of treatment-related AEs were 5.9%, 14.3%, and 3.5%. CONCLUSIONS: GV-971 was safe and well tolerated. GV-971 900 mg was chosen for phase III clinical study. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01453569 . Registered on October 18, 2011.

9.
Brain Behav ; : e01859, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990398

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this was to discover disease-causing gene mutations linked to genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) in a family in the Southern Chinese Han population. Of a three-generation pedigree of 18 members in this family, 4 were affected with GEFS+. METHOD: Blood samples of 7 family members-3 affected and 4 unaffected individuals-were collected. Whole-exome sequencing was performed to assess for genetic mutations in two of the affected individuals and two of the unaffected individuals. RESULTS: Fourteen potentially consequential mutations were found in the two affected individuals and were validated with the Sanger sequencing method. Blood DNA tested in polymerase chain reaction with KCNAB3 primers revealed that one novel missense mutation, c.773A>G (p.H258R) in the KCNAB3 gene, which encoded the potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A regulatory ß subunit 3 (KCNAB3), was shared by all three affected and one unaffected family member. However, this mutation did not appear in 300 unrelated control subjects. According to the bioinformatics tools SIFT and PROVEAN, p.H258R was thought to affect protein function. Functional verification showed that the KCNAB3 mutation could accelerate the inactivation of potassium channels, thus inhibiting potassium current, increasing neuronal excitability, and promoting epileptic convulsion. CONCLUSIONS: These results reveal that mutations in the KCNAB3 gene may be associated with GEFS+.

10.
J Infect Chemother ; 26(12): 1313-1315, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859496

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a worldwide pandemic diseases, nearly 400,000 people died at now. The data of status of pregnant women and neonates after infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) is limited. We report a case of pregnant woman in her third trimester with critical COVID-19, and amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood, placenta, and neonatal gastric fluid were retained during cesarean section. The SARS-COV-2 nucleic acid test results of these specimens were negative. There is no evidence of intrauterine vertical transmission during delivery in the third trimester, but the data are limited and need to be further explored.

11.
J Int Med Res ; 48(7): 300060520922449, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735501

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of combining the dopamine receptor agonist pramipexole with levodopa for Parkinson's disease (PD) treatment and to measure their effects on quality of life and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels in PD patients. BASIC PROCEDURE: In total, 160 PD patients who were admitted to our hospital were equally randomized into a control treatment group (levodopa alone) and the study group (pramipexole combined with levodopa). Both groups were treated for 12 weeks. FINDINGS: After treatment, scores from the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scales (1-3), the Hamilton Depression Scale, and the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39) were significantly decreased in both groups, whereas Mini-Mental State Examination scores were significantly increased. After treatment, the study group had significantly lower scores for all scales except the Mini-Mental State Examination, for which those who received combined treatment had significantly higher scores than the control group. The incidence of adverse reactions was significantly lower in the study group than in the control group. Furthermore, after treatment, serum TNF-α levels were significantly decreased in both groups compared with pre-treatment levels. CONCLUSION: Pramipexole combined with levodopa relieved PD symptoms and improved the quality of life of PD patients, potentially by suppressing serum TNF-α levels.

12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238047, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822405

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was (1) to implement a test for binocular imbalance in a Virtual Reality headset, (2) to assess its testability, reliability and outcomes in a population of clinical patients and (3) to evaluate the relationships of interocular acuity difference, stereoacuity and binocular imbalance to amblyogenic risk factors. 100 volunteers (6 to 70 years old, mean 21.2 ± 16.2), 21 with no amblyogenic risk factors and 79 with amblyopia or a history of amblyopia participated. Participants were classified by amblyogenic risk factor (24 anisometropic, 25 strabismic and 30 mixed) and, for those with strabismus, also by refractive response (16 accommodative and 39 non-accommodative). We characterized our sample using three variables, called the 'triplet' henceforth: interocular acuity difference, stereoacuity and imbalance factor. Binocular imbalance showed high test-retest reliability (no significant difference between test and retest in a subgroup, n = 20, p = 0.831); was correlated with Worth 4 dots test (r = 0.538, p<0.0001); and correlated with both interocular acuity difference (r = 0.575, p<0.0001) and stereoacuity (r = 0.675, p<0.0001). The mean values of each variable of the triplet differed depending on group classification. Mixed and non-accommodative groups showed the worst mean values compared with the other groups. Among participants with strabismus, strabismic vs mixed subgroups did not show significant differences in any variable of the triplet, whereas the accommodative vs non-accommodative subgroups showed significant differences in all of them. According to a univariate logistic model, any variable of the triplet provides a good metric for differentiating patients from controls, except for binocular imbalance for anisometropic subgroup. The proposed binocular imbalance test is feasible and reliable. We recommend monitoring amblyopia clinically not only considering visual acuity, but also stereoacuity and interocular imbalance. Stereoacuity on its own fails because of the high percentage of patients with no measurable stereoacuity. Binocular imbalance may help to fill that gap.


Assuntos
Realidade Virtual , Visão Binocular/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ambliopia/patologia , Área Sob a Curva , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Testes Visuais , Adulto Jovem
13.
Appl Opt ; 59(23): 6868-6872, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788777

RESUMO

A stretchable chiral metamaterial with L-shaped and T-shaped Au patterns (SCMM-LT) is proposed to generate asymmetric transmission (AT) for circularly polarized waves on the polydimethylsiloxane substrate in the mid-infrared region. The peak value of AT can reach 50.02% at the resonance wavelength of 19.1 µm, owing to the enantiomerically sensitive plasmons. With stretching along the x axis and the y axis. respectively, the band of AT shifts to a longer wavelength, which proves the SCMM-LT can be a candidate as the tunable chiral metamaterial. In the future, the proposed stretchable chiral metamaterial could potentially possess high applicability for wearable electronic devices in a variety of sensor fields.

14.
Exp Cell Res ; 396(1): 112237, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841643

RESUMO

The proliferation and differentiation of myoblast cells are regulated by the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling pathway. Although the regulation of FGFR signaling cascades has been widely investigated, the inhibitory mechanism that particularly function in skeletal muscle myogenesis remains obscure. In this study, we determined that LRTM1, an inhibitory regulator of the FGFR signaling pathway, negatively modulates the activation of ERK and promotes the differentiation of myoblast cells. LRTM1 is dynamically expressed during myoblast differentiation and skeletal muscle regeneration after injury. In mouse myoblast C2C12 cells, knockout (KO) of Lrtm1 significantly prevents the differentiation of myoblast cells; this effect is associated with the reduction of MyoD transcriptional activity and the overactivation of ERK kinase. Notably, further studies demonstrated that LRTM1 associates with p52Shc and inhibits the recruitment of p52Shc to FGFR1. Taken together, our findings identify a novel negative regulator of FGFR1, which plays an important role in regulating the differentiation of myoblast cells.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(13)2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629944

RESUMO

Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (G. pyloalis) causes significant damage to mulberry every year, and we currently lack effective and environmentally friendly ways to control the pest. Chitin synthase (CHS) is a critical regulatory enzyme related to chitin biosynthesis, which plays a vital role in the growth and development of insects. The function of CHS in G. pyloalis, however, has not been studied. In this study, two chitin synthase genes (GpCHSA and GpCHSB) were screened from our previously created transcriptome database. The complete coding sequences of the two genes are 5,955 bp and 5,896 bp, respectively. Expression of GpCHSA and GpCHSB could be detected throughout all developmental stages. Relatively high expression levels of GpCHSA occurred in the head and integument and GpCHSB was most highly expressed in the midgut. Moreover, silencing of GpCHSA and GpCHSB using dsRNA reduced expression of downstream chitin metabolism pathway genes and resulted in abnormal development and wings stretching, but did not affect normal pupating of larvae. Furthermore, the inhibitor of chitin synthesis diflubenzuron (DFB) was used to further validate the RNAi result. DFB treatment significantly improved expression of GpCHSA, except GpCHSB, and their downstream genes, and also effected G. Pyloali molting at 48 h (62% mortality rate) and 72 h (90% mortality rate), respectively. These results show that GpCHSA and GpCHSB play critical roles in the development and wing stretching in G. pyloalis adults, indicating that the genes are attractive potential pest control targets.

17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3789, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709895

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

18.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(16): 16270-16293, 2020 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688344

RESUMO

CTCF is overexpressed in several cancers and plays crucial roles in regulating aggressiveness, but little is known about whether CTCF drives colorectal cancer progression. Here, we identified a tumor-promoting role for CTCF in colorectal cancer. Our study demonstrated that CTCF was upregulated in colorectal cancer specimens compared with adjacent noncancerous colorectal tissues. The overexpression of CTCF promoted colorectal cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth, while the opposite effects were observed in CTCF knockdown cells. Increased GLI1, Shh, PTCH1, and PTCH2 levels were observed in CTCF-overexpressing cells using western blot analyses. CCK-8 and apoptosis assays revealed that 5-fluorouracil chemosensitivity was negatively associated with CTCF expression. Furthermore, we identified that P53 is a direct transcriptional target gene of CTCF in colorectal cancer. Western blot and nuclear extract assays showed that inhibition of P53 can counteract Hedgehog signaling pathway repression induced by CTCF knockdown. In conclusion, we uncovered a crucial role for CTCF regulation that possibly involves the P53-Hedgehog axis and highlighted the clinical utility of colorectal cancer-specific potential therapeutic target as disease progression or clinical response biomarkers.

19.
Chin J Dent Res ; 23(2): 99-104, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-603048

RESUMO

A severe public health crisis has been declared worldwide since coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was classified as a pandemic of acute respiratory infectious disease by the World Health Organisation (WHO). China has taken strict measures to curb the spread of the disease to save lives, and has managed to control the outbreak. COVID-19 is mainly transmitted through respiratory droplets and close physical contact, so it is challenging to prevent nosocomial infection and possible spread during dental treatment. Since the initial phase of the COVID-19 outbreak, a disease prevention and control strategy based on the new concept of population risk classification and rational use of personal protective equipment has been implemented by the Peking University Hospital of Stomatology. Nosocomial infection prevention and control concepts and measures relating to dental diagnosis and treatment are critically checked in the hospital. Our experiences in handling this situation are shared here and may have wide-ranging implications for infection prevention and control (IPC) for COVID-19 in dental practices worldwide.


Assuntos
Coronavirus , Odontologia , Betacoronavirus , China , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral
20.
J Physiol ; 598(17): 3727-3745, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506434

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: The present study showed that anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can respectively increase and decrease the amplitude of visually evoked field potentials in the stimulated visual cortex of cats, with the effect lasting for ∼60-70 min. We directly measured tDCS-induced changes in the concentration of inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters in the visual cortex using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and showed that anodal and cathodal tDCS can selectively decrease the concentration of GABA and glutamate in the stimulated cortical area. Anodal and cathodal tDCS can selectively inhibit the synthesis of GABA and glutamate by suppressing the expression of GABA- and glutamate-synthesizing enzymes, respectively. ABSTRACT: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) evokes long-lasting neuronal excitability in the target brain region. The underlying neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. The present study examined tDCS-induced alterations in neuronal activities, as well as the concentration and synthesis of GABA and glutamate (GLU), in area 21a (A21a) of cat visual cortex. Our analysis showed that anodal and cathodal tDCS respectively enhanced and suppressed neuronal activities in A21a, as indicated by a significantly increased and decreased amplitude of visually evoked field potentials (VEPs). The tDCS-induced effect lasted for ∼60-70 min. By contrast, sham tDCS had no significant impact on the VEPs in A21a. On the other hand, the concentration of GABA, but not that of GLU, in A21a significantly decreased after anodal tDCS relative to sham tDCS, whereas the concentration of GLU, but not that of GABA, in A21a significantly decreased after cathodal tDCS relative to sham tDCS. Furthermore, the expression of GABA-synthesizing enzymes GAD65 and GAD67 in A21a significantly decreased in terms of both mRNA and protein concentrations after anodal tDCS relative to sham tDCS, whereas that of GLU-synthesizing enzyme glutaminase (GLS) did not change significantly after anodal tDCS. By contrast, both mRNA and protein concentrations of GLS in A21a significantly decreased after cathodal tDCS relative to sham tDCS, whereas those of GAD65/GAD67 showed no significant change after cathodal tDCS. Taken together, these results indicate that anodal and cathodal tDCS may selectively reduce GABA and GLU syntheses and thus respectively enhance and suppress neuronal excitability in the stimulated brain area.

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