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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427455

RESUMO

Oxygen vacancies (OVs) play a crucial role in the catalytic activity of metal-based catalysts; however, their activation mechanism toward peroxydisulfate (PDS) still lacks reasonable explanation. In this study, by taking bismuth bromide (BiOBr) as an example, we report an OV-mediated PDS activation process for degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) employing singlet oxygen (1O2) as the main reactive species under alkaline conditions. The experimental results show that the removal efficiency of BPA is proportional to the number of OVs and is highly related to the dosage of PDS and the catalyst. The surface OVs of BiOBr provide ideal sites for the inclusion of hydroxyl ions (HO-) to form BiIII-OH species, which are regarded as the major active sites for the adsorption and activation of PDS. Unexpectedly, the activation of PDS occurs through a nonradical mechanism mediated by 1O2, which is generated via multistep reactions, involving the formation of an intermediate superoxide radical (O2•-) and the redox cycle of Bi(III)/Bi(IV). This work is dedicated to the in-depth mechanism study into PDS activation over OV-rich BiOBr samples and provides a novel perspective for the activation of peroxides by defective materials in the absence of additional energy supply or aqueous transition metal ions.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428400

RESUMO

Micro-solid oxide fuel cells based on thin films have strong potential for use in portable power devices. However, devices based on silicon substrates typically involve thin-film metallic electrodes which are unstable at high temperatures. Devices based on bulk metal substrates overcome these limitations, though performance is hindered by the challenge of growing state-of-the-art epitaxial materials on metals. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the growth of epitaxial cathode materials on metal substrates (stainless steel) commercially supplied with epitaxial electrolyte layers (1.5 µm (Y2O3)0.15(ZrO2)0.85 (YSZ) + 50 nm CeO2). We create epitaxial mesoporous cathodes of (La0.60Sr0.40)0.95Co0.20Fe0.80O3 (LSCF) on the substrate by growing LSCF/MgO vertically aligned nanocomposite films by pulsed laser deposition, followed by selectively etching out the MgO. To enable valid comparison with the literature, the cathodes are also grown on single-crystal substrates, confirming state-of-the-art performance with an area specific resistance of 100 Ω cm2 at 500 °C and activation energy down to 0.97 eV. The work marks an important step toward the commercialization of high-performance micro-solid oxide fuel cells for portable power applications.

3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111748, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396074

RESUMO

Microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR) is a kind of toxin produced by cyanobacterial, resulting in decrease of testosterone levels in serum and leading to impaired spermatogenesis. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons play crucial roles in the regulation of testosterone release. Meanwhile, it has been demonstrated that MC-LR is capable of entering the GnRH neurons and inducing apoptosis. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism of MC-LR induced apoptosis of GnRH neurons remains elusive. In present study, we found that MC-LR inhibited the cell viability of GT1-7 cells. In addition, we discovered apoptosis of GnRH neurons and GT1-7 cells treated with MC-LR. And increased intracellular ROS production and the release of intracellular Ca2+ were all observed following exposure to MC-LR. Furthermore, we also found the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERs) and autophagy were activated by MC-LR. Additionally, pretreatment of the ERs inhibitor (4-Phenyl butyric acid) reduced the apoptotic rate of GT1-7 cells comparing with MC-LR exposure alone. Comparing with MC-LR treatment alone, apoptotic cell death was increased by pretreatment of GT1-7 cells with an autophagy inhibitor (3-methyladenine). Together, our data implicated that the treatment of MC-LR induced the apoptosis of GnRH neurons by activating the ERs resulting in a decrease of serum testosterone level in mice. Autophagy is a protective cellular process which was activated by ER stress and thus protected cells from apoptosis upon MC-LR exposure.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Testosterona/sangue , Animais , Apoptose , Arginina/metabolismo , Bioensaio , Sobrevivência Celular , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Leucina/metabolismo , Masculino , Toxinas Marinhas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Microcistinas/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo
4.
Theranostics ; 11(1): 304-315, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33391476

RESUMO

Rationale: The low response rate of immunotherapy, such as anti-PD-L1/PD-1 and anti-CTLA4, has limited its application to a wider population of cancer patients. One widely accepted view is that inflammation within the tumor microenvironment is low or ineffective for inducing the sufficient infiltration and/or activation of lymphocytes. Here, a highly tumor-selective anti-PD-L1 (αPD-L1) antibody was developed through PET imaging screening, and it was radiolabeled with Lu-177 for PD-L1-targeted radioimmunotherapy (RIT) and radiation-synergized immunotherapy. Methods: A series of αPD-L1 antibodies were radiolabeled with zirconium-89 for PET imaging to screen the most suitable antibodies for RIT. Mice were divided into an immunotherapy group, a RIT group and a radiation-synergized immunotherapy group to evaluate the therapeutic effect. Alterations in the tumor microenvironment after treatment were assessed using flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. Results: Radiation-synergistic RIT can achieve a significantly better therapeutic effect than immunotherapy or RIT alone. The dosages of the radiopharmaceuticals and αPD-L1 antibodies were reduced, the infiltration of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the tumor microenvironment was increased, and no side effects were observed. This radiation-synergistic RIT strategy successfully showed a strong synergistic effect with αPD-L1 checkpoint blockade therapy, at least in the mouse model. Conclusions: PET imaging of 89Zr-labeled antibodies is an effective method for antibody screening. RIT with a 177Lu-labeled αPD-L1 antibody could successfully upregulate antitumor immunity in the tumor microenvironment and turn "cold" tumors "hot" for immunotherapy.

5.
Water Res ; 189: 116576, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161328

RESUMO

In this study, a combined alkaline (ALK) and ultrasonication (ULS) sludge lysis-cryptic pretreatment and anoxic/oxic (AO) system (AO + ALK/ULS) was developed to enhance biological nitrogen removal (BNR) in domestic wastewater with a low carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio. A real-time control strategy for the AO + ALK/ULS system was designed to optimize the sludge lysate return ratio (RSLR) under variable sludge concentrations and variations in the influent C/N (⩽ 5). A multi-layered backpropagation artificial neural network (BPANN) model with network topology of 1 input layer, 3 hidden layers, and 1 output layer, using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, was developed and validated. Experimental and predicted data showed significant concurrence, verified with a high regression coefficient (R2 = 0.9513) and accuracy of the BPANN. The BPANN model effectively captured the complex nonlinear relationships between the related input variables and effluent output in the combined lysis-cryptic + BNR system. The model could be used to support the real-time dynamic response and process optimization control to treat low C/N domestic wastewater.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Águas Residuárias , Reatores Biológicos , Carbono , Desnitrificação , Redes Neurais de Computação , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
6.
J Cell Physiol ; 236(2): 1345-1361, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657446

RESUMO

Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) as a metabolic stress hormone, is mainly secreted by the liver. In addition to its well-defined roles in energy homeostasis, FGF21 has been shown to promote remyelination after injury in the central nervous system. In the current study, we sought to examine the potential roles of FGF21 in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) myelination. In the PNS myelin development, Fgf21 expression was reversely correlated with myelin gene expression. In cultured primary Schwann cells (SCs), the application of recombinant FGF21 greatly attenuates myelination-associated gene expression, including Oct6, Krox20, Mbp, Mpz, and Pmp22. Accordingly, the injection of FGF21 into neonatal rats markedly mitigates the myelination in sciatic nerves. On the contrary, the infusion of the anti-FGF21 antibody accelerates the myelination. Mechanistically, both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were stimulated by FGF21 in SCs and sciatic nerves. Following experiments including pharmaceutical intervention and gene manipulation revealed that the p38 MAPK/c-Jun axis, rather than ERK, is targeted by FGF21 for mediating its repression on myelination in SCs. Taken together, our data provide a new aspect of FGF21 by acting as a negative regulator for the myelin development process in the PNS via activation of p38 MAPK/c-Jun.

7.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 582(Pt B): 647-657, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911412

RESUMO

Constructing an efficient photocatalyst is critical for photocatalytic carbon dioxide (CO2) into valuable fuel. Herein, a high-efficiency catalyst was synthesized by a simple one-step electrostatic self-assembly method, in which Ti3C2 (TC) was anchored on porous g-C3N4 (PCN) with rich -NHx via NHx-Ti bond. Such a chemical interaction made the optimized TC/PCN-2 with 2 wt% loading of Ti3C2 possess highest CH4 production (0.99 µmol·h-1·g-1catalyst) under visible light (>420 nm), which was 14 times higher than that of pure PCN (0.07 µmol·h-1·gcatalyst-1) at the same condition. More importantly, the TC/PCN-2 photocatalyst still maintained satisfied activity after four cycles. Besides the formation of NHx-Ti chemical bonding and superior conductivity of Ti3C2 as a co-catalyst, which facilitated interfacial charges separation and migration, the exceptional performance could also attribute to the enhanced CO2 adsorption/activation and improved light-harvesting capability. This work provided a potential application in energy conversion with MXene as an efficient co-catalyst.

8.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 86(2): 213-218, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To describe the virologic and immunologic outcomes among people living with HIV (PLHIV) coinfected with SARS-CoV-2. SETTING: Wuhan, China. METHODS: Thirty-five coinfected patients were identified by matching the reported cases in National Notifiable Infectious Disease Report system for COVID-19 and HIV in Wuhan by time of April 19, 2020. Questionnaire-based survey and follow-up with blood sample collection were used to obtain characteristics before COVID-19 and after recovery. Nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test, χ2, or Fisher exact test, Mcnemar test, and Wilcoxon test were conducted. RESULTS: Twenty of the 35 coinfected patients were identified as asymptomatic/mild/moderate COVID-19 (nonsevere group) and 15 were identified as severe/critical (severe group). The severe and nonsevere group had no differences in demographics, HIV baseline status, the intervals between last tests and follow-up tests for CD4+ cell count and HIV-1 viral load (all P > 0.05). Overall, there was a significantly increased number of coinfected patients with HIV-1 viral load ≥20 copies/mL after recovery (P = 0.008). The median viral load increased significantly after recovery in severe group (P = 0.034), whereas no significant change of HIV-1 viral load was observed in the nonsevere group. Limited change of CD4+ cell count was found (all P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The coinfection of SARS-CoV-2 may put PLHIV at greater risk for HIV-1 viral rebound especially for severe/critical COVID-19, whereas it had limited impacts on CD4+ cell count. Whether continuous antiretroviral therapy against HIV infection would have significant impacts on CD4+ cell count among PLHIV coinfected with SARS-CoV-2 needs further research.

9.
Curr Eye Res ; 46(1): 115-121, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478624

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our previous study discoveredreactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) increased after retinal detachment. Parthanatos is a cell death form involving ROS and AIF, which is induced by poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). Therefore, we investigated whether PJ34 (a PARP-1 inhibitor) could inhibit parthanatos and protect the photoreceptors from cell death after retinal detachment (RD). METHODS: Experimental retinal detachment modelswere created in Sprague-Dawley rats by subretinal injection of sodium hyaluronate.PJ34 orDMSO were introduced into subretinal space at RD induction, respectively. The structure of retinas and the morphology of photoreceptors were observed by hematoxylin eosin (H&E) staining and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Parthanatos related proteins (PARP-1, PAR,AIF) were detected by Western blot. The vision-dependent behavior of rat was tested by Morris water maze. RESULTS: H&E staining and TEM results indicated that the structure and outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness of retinas were preserved, and the photoreceptors death decreasedwith PJ34 treatment. Western blot showed that the expression of PARP-1, PAR and AIF were decreased withPJ34 treatment. In addition, administration of PJ34 also improved the vision-dependent behavior of rat. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggested that PJ34 is a potential therapeutic agent that attenuated photoreceptor parthanatos death in retinal detachment through inhibition of PARP-1/AIF pathway.

10.
J Hazard Mater ; 401: 123430, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659591

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) have become hazardous materials, which have aroused widespread concern about their potential toxicity. However, the effects of MPs on reproductive systems in mammals are still ambiguous. In this study, the toxic effects of polystyrene MPs (PS-MPs) in male reproduction of mice were investigated. The results indicated that after exposure for 24 h, 4 µm and 10 µm PS-MPs accumulated in the testis of mice. Meanwhile, 0.5 µm, 4 µm, and 10 µm PS-MPs could enter into three kinds of testicular cells in vitro. In addition, sperm quality and testosterone level of mice were declined after exposure to 0.5 µm, 4 µm, and 10 µm PS-MPs for 28 days. H&E staining showed that spermatogenic cells abscissed and arranged disorderly, and multinucleated gonocytes occurred in the seminiferous tubule. Moreover, PS-MPs induced testicular inflammation and the disruption of blood-testis barrier. In summary, this study demonstrated that PS-MPs induced male reproductive dysfunctions in mice, which provided new insights into the toxicity of MPs in mammals.

11.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 581(Pt A): 148-158, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771726

RESUMO

Heterojunction formation and morphology control have always been regarded as effective ways to improve the performance of visible-light-driven photocatalysts. In this study, a new facile strategy was applied to synthesize the Z-scheme GO/AgI/Bi2O3 heterojunction, where polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane (KH-570) were used to modulate the morphologies. Methyl orange and tetracycline hydrochloride were chosen as target contaminants to evaluate the photocatalytic properties of samples and the results revealed that 2% GO/AgI/Bi2O3 exhibited the best photocatalytic performance under visible-light irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic activity can mainly attribute to Z-scheme heterojunction formed by the deposing of AgI and GO as well as the sufficient heterogeneous interfaces resulted from the improved morphology, which have effectively promoted the separation and transfer of electron-hole pairs. To deeply realize the enhanced performance of GO/AgI/Bi2O3 photocatalysts, the reaction kinetics, trapping experiments and photocatalytic mechanism were deduced.

12.
Biotechnol Adv ; 46: 107679, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316366

RESUMO

Ethanol-type fermentation (ETF) is one of three fermentation types during the acidogenesis of the anaerobic biological treatment. Ethanoligenens, a representative genus of ETF, displays acidophilic, autoaggregative, and ethanol-H2 co-producing characteristics and facilitates subsequent methanogenesis. Here, the latest advances in the molecular mechanisms of the metabolic regulation of ethanol-H2 co-producing bacteria based on multi-omics studies were comprehensively reviewed. Comparative genomics demonstrated a low genetic similarity between Ethanoligenens and other hydrogen-producing genera. FeFe­hydrogenases (FeFe-H2ases) and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) played critical roles in the ethanol-H2 co-metabolic pathway of Ethanoligenens. Global transcriptome analysis revealed that highly expressed [FeFe]-H2ases and ferredoxins drove hydrogen production by Ethanoligenens at low pH conditions (4.0-4.5). Quantitative proteomic analysis also proved that this genus resists acetic acid-induced intracellular acidification through the up-regulated expression of pyrimidine metabolism related proteins. The autoaggregation of Ethanoligenen facilitated its granulation with acetate-oxidizing bacteria in co-culture systems and mitigated a fast pH drop, providing a new approach for solving a pH imbalance and improving hydrogen production. In-depth studies of the regulatory mechanism underlying ethanol-H2 co-production metabolism and the syntrophic interactions of ethanol-H2 co-producing Ethanoligenens with other microorganisms will provide insights into the improvement of bioenergy recovery in anaerobic biotechnology. The coupling of ETF with other biotechnologies, which based on the regulation of electron flow direction, syntrophic interaction, and metabolic flux, can be potential strategies to enhance the cascade recovery of energy and resources.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 756: 144087, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280873

RESUMO

Polypropylene (PP), a fossil-based polyolefin plastics widely used worldwide, is non-hydrolyzable and resistant to biodegradation as a major source of plastic pollutants in environment. This study focused on feasibility of PP biodegradation in the larvae of two species of darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) i.e., yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) and superworms (Zophobas atratus) using PP foam with number-, weight-, and size-average molecular weights (Mn, Mw, and Mz) of 109.8, 356.2, and 765.0 kDa, respectively. The tests were conducted in duplicates with respective larvae (300 T. molitor and 200 Z. atratus each incubator) at 25 °C and 65% humidity for over a 35-day period. The larvae of T. molitor and Z. atratus fed with PP foam as sole diet consumed PP at 1.0 ± 0.4 and 3.1 ± 0.4 mg 100 larvae-1 days-1, respectively; when fed the PP foam plus wheat bran, the consumption rates were enhanced by 68.11% and 39.70%, respectively. Gel permeation chromatography analyses of the frass of T. molitor and Z. atratus larvae fed PP only indicated that Mw was decreased by 20.4 ± 0.8% and 9.0 ± 0.4%; Mn was increased by 12.1 ± 0.4% and 61.5 ± 2.5%; Mz was decreased by 33.8 ± 1.5% and 32.0 ± 1.1%, indicating limited extent depolymerization. Oxidation and biodegradation of PP was confirmed through analysis of the residual PP in frass. Depression of gut microbes with the antibiotic gentamicin inhibited PP depolymerization in both T. molitor and Z. atratus larvae. High throughput 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that Citrobacter sp. and Enterobacter sp. were associated with PP diets in the gut microbiome of Z. atratus larvae while Kluyvera was predominant in the T. molitor larvae. The results indicated that PP can be biodegraded in both T. molitor and Z. atratus larvae via gut microbe-dependent depolymerization with diversified microbiomes.


Assuntos
Besouros , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Tenebrio , Animais , Larva , Polipropilenos , Poliestirenos , RNA Ribossômico 16S
14.
Clin Nucl Med ; 46(1): 71-73, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956111

RESUMO

Adrenal Castleman disease is very rare. We reported image findings of a right adrenal mass in a 75-year-old man on Tc-HYNIC-TOC scan and FDG PET/CT. There was obviously elevated Tc-HYNIC-TOC activity, but the intensity of FDG activity was remarkable. Pheochromocytoma was initially suspected. However, pathology from resected specimen showed adrenal Castleman disease.


Assuntos
Doenças das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico por imagem , Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/diagnóstico por imagem , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Octreotida/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Organotecnécio , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Chemosphere ; 264(Pt 1): 128440, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002802

RESUMO

Microcystin-leucine-arginine (MC-LR) has been identified to be a hazardous material to cause hepatotoxicity. In this study, mice were exposed to MC-LR dissolved in drinking water at doses of 1, 10, 20 and 30 µg/L for 90 and 180 days, respectively. We validated MC-LR accelerated spermatid exfoliation and caused large vacuoles in testes, reducing sperm count and increasing percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm. Furthermore, we found MC-LR induced the apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES) disassembly by disrupting F-actin organization. Further studies identified that downregulation of Palladin, the actin crosslinking protein, might be associated with disassembly of the apical ES in mice testis following MC-LR exposure. We also confirmed that MC-LR disrupted the interaction between Palladin and other actin-related proteins and thus impeded the F-actin organization. Additionally, we found that autophagy initiated by AMPK/ULK1 signaling pathway mediated the degradation of Palladin in Sertoli cells challenged with MC-LR. Following exposure to MC-LR, reduced PP2A activity and upregulated expression of LKB1 and CAMKK2 could activate AMPK. In conclusion, these results revealed MC-LR induced the degradation of Palladin via AMPK/ULK1-mediated autophagy, which might result in the apical ES disorder and spermatid exfoliation from spermatogenic epithelium. Our work may provide a new perspective to understand MC-LR-induced male infertility.


Assuntos
Arginina , Microcistinas , Animais , Leucina , Masculino , Camundongos , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Células de Sertoli , Testículo
16.
Environ Res ; 192: 110282, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038361

RESUMO

Sulfate dependent ammonium oxidation (Sulfammox) is a potential microbial process coupling ammonium oxidation with sulfate reduction under anaerobic conditions, which provides a novel link between nitrogen and sulfur cycle. Recently, Sulfammox was detected in wastewater treatments and was confirmed to occur in natural environments, especially in marine sediments. However, knowledge gaps in the mechanism of Sulfammox, functional bacteria, and their metabolic pathway, make it challenging to estimate its environmental significance and potential applications. This review provides an overview of recent advances in Sulfammox, including possible mechanisms, functional bacteria, and main influential factors, and discusses future challenges and opportunities. Future perspectives are outlined and discussed, such as exploration of microbial community structure and metabolic pathways, possible interactions with other microbes, environmental significance, and potential applications for nitrogen and sulfate removal, to inspire more researches on the Sulfammox process.

17.
Environ Res ; 193: 110533, 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33285154

RESUMO

Combining nitrate/nitrite dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-DAMO) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) is a promising sustainable wastewater treatment technology, which simultaneously achieve nitrogen removal and methane emission mitigation. However, the practical application of n-DAMO has been greatly limited by its extremely slow growth-rate and low reaction rate. This work proposes an innovative Membrane BioTrickling Filter (MBTF), which consist of hollow fiber membrane for effective methane supplementation and polyurethane sponge as support media for the attachment and growth of biofilm coupling n-DAMO with Anammox. When steady state with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6.00 h was reached, above 99.9% of nitrogen was removed from synthetic sidestream wastewater at a rate of 3.99 g N L-1 d-1. This system presented robust capacity to withstand unstable partial nitritation effluent, achieving complete nitrogen removal at a varied nitrite to ammonium ratio in the range of 1.10-1.40. It is confirmed that n-DAMO and Anammox microorganisms jointly dominated the microbial community by pyrosequencing technology. The complete nitrogen removal potential at high-rate and efficient biomass retention (12.4 g VSS L-1) of MBTF offers promising alternative for sustainable wastewater treatment by the combination of n-DAMO and Anammox.

18.
Chemosphere ; 268: 129375, 2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360147

RESUMO

Prenatal exposure to organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes including low birth weight and preterm birth. However, no study has addressed the impacts of OPFRs exposure on spontaneous abortion (SAB) and fetal chromosome abnormalities. We examined whether prenatal exposure to OPFRs was associated with increased risk of SAB and fetal chromosome abnormalities. A total of 272 pregnant women, including 136 SAB cases and 136 healthy controls, were enrolled in this case-control study. Urinary concentrations of 3 OPFRs metabolites (diphenyl phosphate (DPHP), bis (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP) and bis (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BCIPP)) were measured using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). More than 70% of the urine samples detected quantifiable levels of 3 OPFRs metabolites. Concentrations of BCIPP were significantly higher in SAB cases than in healthy controls. Higher urinary BCIPP levels were associated with increased risk of SAB. Per unit increase in ln-transformed BCIPP concentrations was associated with 103% (OR = 2.03, 95% CI, 1.57, 2.63) increase in the odds of SAB. While higher BDCIPP levels were associated with increased risk of fetal chromosome abnormalities and the corresponding OR associated with a unit increase in ln-transformed BDCIPP concentrations were 2.34 (95% CI, 1.14, 4.81). Our results suggested the potential developmental toxicity and teratogenicity of some OPFRs.

19.
J Hazard Mater ; : 124076, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268204

RESUMO

Methane emission has contributed greatly to the global warming and climate change, and the pollution of heavy metals is an important concern due to their toxicity and environmental persistence. Recently, multiple heavy metals have been demonstrated to be electron acceptors for methane oxidation, which offers a potential for simultaneous methane emission mitigation and heavy metal detoxification. This review provides a comprehensive discussion of heavy metals reduction coupled to methane oxidation, and identifies knowledge gaps and opportunities for future research. The functional microorganisms and possible mechanisms are detailed in groups under aerobic, hypoxic and anaerobic conditions. The potential application and major environmental significances for global methane mitigation, the elements cycle and heavy metals detoxification are also discussed. The future research opportunities are also discussed to provide insights for further research and efficient practical application.

20.
Ital J Pediatr ; 46(1): 182, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thromboembolism is a life-threatening, limb-threatening or organ-threatening complication that occurs in patients with primary nephrotic syndrome (NS). There are few studies on the spectrum, complications and outcomes of thrombosis in children with NS. This study aimed to determine the spectrum of thrombosis and its relationship with the nephrotic state, treatment and outcomes in children and adolescents with primary NS. METHODS: The medical records of subjects aged 1-18 years with NS complicated with thromboembolism treated at our centre within the last 26 years were retrieved. Data on the status of NS, site, symptoms and signs, laboratory investigations, diagnosis, treatment, complications and outcomes of thrombosis were collected and reviewed retrospectively. A severe complication was defined as a condition associated with thrombosis requiring a special diagnostic modality to confirm or a specific treatment such as surgical intervention. The outcome of thrombosis was defined as the status of thrombosis, as determined by imaging methods and the functional status with respect to the anatomic sites of thrombosis at the last follow-up. The permanent dysfunction of an organ or limb related to thrombosis was defined as a sequela. RESULTS: We observed thrombosis in 1.4% (27/1995) of subjects with NS during the study period. There were 27 subjects with thrombosis, including 21 males and 6 females. Thrombosis was observed in 51.9% (14/27) of the study participants with steroid resistant NS. Most episodes of thrombosis occurred during the active stage of NS; however, 7.4% of thrombosis cases occurred during the remission of proteinuria. Renal vein thrombosis (33.3%) and pulmonary embolism (25.9%) were the most common types of thrombosis. Among the 17 subjects biopsied, minimal change disease and membranous nephropathy were the two most common findings. Six (22.2%) subjects experienced severe complications or sequelae; 1 had persistent intracranial hypertension, 1 had intestinal perforation, 1 had hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension, 1 had lameness, 1 had epilepsy, and 1 had an askew mouth due to facial paralysis. In 19 (70.4%) subjects, the symptoms resolved completely or improved without severe complications or sequelae. CONCLUSIONS: Thrombosis mostly occurred in males of school age during the active stage of NS. Renal vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism were the most common types of thrombosis. In most patients with thrombosis, the symptoms improved completely without complications with standard anticoagulation therapy. However, 22.2% had severe complications or sequelae requiring an advanced diagnostic modality and aggressive treatment.

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