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1.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 230, 2021 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34937574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI), a well-known risk factor for poor cardiovascular outcomes, is associated with differential DNA methylation (DNAm). Similarly, metabolic health has also been associated with changes in DNAm. It is unclear how overall metabolic health outside of BMI may modify the relationship between BMI and methylation profiles, and what consequences this may have on downstream cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to identify cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites at which the association between BMI and DNAm could be modified by overall metabolic health. RESULTS: The discovery study population was derived from three Women's Health Initiative (WHI) ancillary studies (n = 3977) and two Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) ancillary studies (n = 3520). Findings were validated in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort (n = 1200). Generalized linear models regressed methylation ß values on the interaction between BMI and metabolic health Z score (BMI × MHZ) adjusted for BMI, MHZ, cell composition, chip number and location, study characteristics, top three ancestry principal components, smoking, age, ethnicity (WHI), and sex (ARIC). Among the 429,566 sites examined, differential associations between BMI × MHZ and DNAm were identified at 22 CpG sites (FDR q < 0.05), with one site replicated in MESA (cg18989722, in the TRAPPC9 gene). Three of the 22 sites were associated with incident coronary heart disease (CHD) in WHI. For each 0.01 unit increase in DNAm ß value, the risk of incident CHD increased by 9% in one site and decreased by 6-10% in two sites over 25 years. CONCLUSIONS: Differential associations between DNAm and BMI by MHZ were identified at 22 sites, one of which was validated (cg18989722) and three of which were predictive of incident CHD. These sites are located in several genes related to NF-kappa-B signaling, suggesting a potential role for inflammation between DNA methylation and BMI-associated metabolic health.

2.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 790, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The complexity of physical activity (PA) and DNA methylation interaction in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is rarely simultaneously investigated in one study. We examined the role of DNA methylation on the association between PA and CVD. RESULTS: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort Exam 5 data with 1065 participants free of CVD were used for final analysis. The quartile categorical total PA variable was created by activity intensity (METs/week). During a median follow-up of 4.0 years, 69 participants developed CVD. Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip was used to provide genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in purified human monocytes (CD14+). We identified 23 candidate DNA methylation loci to be associated with both PA and CVD. We used the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach to test the complex relationships among multiple variables and the roles of mediators. Three of the 23 identified loci (corresponding to genes VPS13D, PIK3CD and VPS45) remained as significant mediators in the final SEM model along with other covariates. Bridged by the three genes, the 2nd PA quartile (ß = - 0.959; 95%CI: - 1.554 to - 0.449) and the 3rd PA quartile (ß = - 0.944; 95%CI: - 1.628 to - 0.413) showed the greatest inverse associations with CVD development, while the 4th PA quartile had a relatively weaker inverse association (ß = - 0.355; 95%CI: - 0.713 to - 0.124). CONCLUSIONS: The current study is among the first to simultaneously examine the relationships among PA, DNA methylation, and CVD in a large cohort with long-term exposure. We identified three DNA methylation loci bridged the association between PA and CVD. The function of the identified genes warrants further investigation in the pathogenesis of CVD.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Aterosclerose/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Metilação de DNA , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
4.
Ann Epidemiol ; 63: 15-21, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293421

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To estimate the effect of obesity on type 2 diabetes (T2DM) risk and evaluate to what extent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) mediates this association. METHODS: Data came from 4,522 adults ages 45-84 participating in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cohort. Baseline obesity was defined using established BMI categories. NAFLD was measured by CT scans at baseline and incident T2DM defined as fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL or use of diabetes medications. RESULTS: Over a median 9.1 years of follow-up between 2000 and 2012, 557 new cases of T2DM occurred. After adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, diet and exercise, those with obesity had 4.5 times the risk of T2DM compared to normal weight (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.0, 5.9). The mediation analysis suggested that NAFLD accounted for ~36% (95% CI: 27, 44) of the effect (direct effect HR = 3.2, 95% CI: 2.3, 4.6; indirect effect through NAFLD, HR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.3, 1.5). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the association between obesity and T2DM risk is partially explained by the presence of NAFLD. Future studies should evaluate if NAFLD could be an effective target to reduce the effect of obesity on T2DM.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vascular risk scores are associated with incident dementia. Information regarding their association with cognitive performance and decline in racially/ethnically diverse cohorts is lacking. METHODS: In 4392 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants (aged 60.1±9.4 years; 53% women; 41% white, 11% Chinese-American, 26% African-American, 21% Hispanic), we compared associations of Exam 1 (2000-02) Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging, and Incidence of Dementia (CAIDE), Framingham stroke (FSRP), and atherosclerotic disease pooled cohort equation (ASCVD-PCE) risk scores with Exam 5 (2010-12) Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI), Digit Symbol Coding (DSC), and Digit Span (DS) cognitive test performance using multivariable linear regression, and examined racial/ethnic interactions. In 1838 participants with repeat CASI data at Exam 6 (2016-18), we related risk scores to odds of a 1-standard deviation (SD) decline in CASI performance using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: SD increments in each risk score were associated with worse cognitive performance. CAIDE had stronger associations with CASI performance than the FSRP and ASCVD-PCE, but associations of ASCVD-PCE with the DSC and DS were similar to CAIDE (difference in ß [95% CI] = -0.57 [-1.48, 0.34] and -0.21 [-0.43, 0.01], respectively). Race/ethnicity modified associations. For example, associations between CAIDE and CASI were greater in African-Americans and Hispanics than whites (difference in ß = 0.69 [0.02, 1.36] and 1.67 [0.95, 2.39], respectively). Risk scores were comparably associated with decline in CASI performance. CONCLUSIONS: Antecedent vascular risk scores are associated with cognitive performance and decline in the four most common US racial/ethnic groups, but associations differ among risk scores and by race/ethnicity.

6.
Epigenetics ; : 1-23, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227900

RESUMO

Epigenetic clocks have been widely used to predict disease risk in multiple tissues or cells. Their success as a measure of biological ageing has prompted research on the connection between epigenetic pathways of ageing and the socioeconomic gradient in health and mortality. However, studies examining social correlates of epigenetic ageing have yielded inconsistent results. We conducted a comprehensive, comparative analysis of associations between various dimensions of socioeconomic status (SES) (education, income, wealth, occupation, neighbourhood environment, and childhood SES) and eight epigenetic clocks in two well-powered US ageing studies: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) (n = 1,211) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) (n = 4,018). In both studies, we found robust associations between SES measures in adulthood and the GrimAge and DunedinPoAm clocks (Bonferroni-corrected p-value < 0.01). In the HRS, significant associations with the Levine and Yang clocks were also evident. These associations were only partially mediated by smoking, alcohol consumption, and obesity, which suggests that differences in health behaviours alone cannot explain the SES gradient in epigenetic ageing in older adults. Further analyses revealed concurrent associations between polygenic risk for accelerated intrinsic epigenetic ageing, SES, and the Levine clock, indicating that genetic risk and social disadvantage may contribute additively to faster biological aging.

7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(21): 2638-2652, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34045020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a well-established risk factor for heart failure (HF). However, implications of pericardial fat on incident HF is unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine the association between pericardial fat volume (PFV) and newly diagnosed HF. METHODS: This study ascertained PFV using cardiac computed tomography in 6,785 participants (3,584 women and 3,201 men) without pre-existing cardiovascular disease from the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate PFV as continuous and dichotomous variable, maximizing the J-statistic: (Sensitivity + Specificity - 1). RESULTS: In 90,686 person-years (median: 15.7 years; interquartile range: 11.7 to 16.5 years), 385 participants (5.7%; 164 women and 221 men) developed newly diagnosed HF. PFV was lower in women than in men (69 ± 33 cm3 vs. 92 ± 47 cm3; p < 0.001). In multivariable analyses, every 1-SD (42 cm3) increase in PFV was associated with a higher risk of HF in women (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21 to 1.71; p < 0.001) than in men (HR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.27; p = 0.03) (interaction p = 0.01). High PFV (≥70 cm3 in women; ≥120 cm3 in men) conferred a 2-fold greater risk of HF in women (HR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.48 to 2.87; p < 0.001) and a 53% higher risk in men (HR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.13 to 2.07; p = 0.006). In sex-stratified analyses, greater risk of HF remained robust with additional adjustment for anthropometric indicators of obesity (p ≤ 0.008), abdominal subcutaneous or visceral fat (p ≤ 0.03) or biomarkers of inflammation and hemodynamic stress (p < 0.001) and was similar among Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, and Chinese (interaction p = 0.24). Elevated PFV predominantly augmented the risk of HF with preserved ejection fraction (p < 0.001) rather than reduced ejection fraction (p = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS: In this large, community-based, ethnically diverse, prospective cohort study, pericardial fat was associated with an increased risk of HF, particularly HF with preserved ejection fraction, in women and men.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Pericárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
8.
Chest ; 160(2): 582-594, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with restrictive ventilatory defects and a faster rate of decline in FVC. This association is not exclusively mediated by mechanical factors and may reflect direct pulmonary injury by adipose-derived mediators. RESEARCH QUESTION: Is adipose tissue involved in the pathogenesis of interstitial lung disease (ILD)? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We evaluated the association of CT measures of pericardial, abdominal visceral, and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue with high-attenuation areas (HAAs) and interstitial lung abnormalities (ILAs) in a large multicenter cohort study of community-dwelling adults, using multivariable-adjusted models. We secondarily evaluated the association of adipose depot size with FVC and biomarkers of obesity and inflammation. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, every doubling in pericardial adipose tissue volume was associated with a 63.4-unit increase in HAA (95% CI, 55.5-71.3), 20% increased odds of ILA (95% CI, -2% to 50%), and a 5.5% decrease in percent predicted FVC (95% CI, -6.8% to -4.3%). IL-6 levels accounted for 8% of the association between pericardial adipose tissue and HAA. Every doubling in visceral adipose tissue area was associated with a 41.5-unit increase in HAA (95% CI, 28.3-54.7), 30% increased odds of ILA (95% CI, -10% to 80%), and a 5.4% decrease in percent predicted FVC (95% CI, -6.6% to -4.3%). IL-6 and leptin accounted for 17% and 18%, respectively, of the association between visceral adipose tissue and HAA. INTERPRETATION: Greater amounts of pericardial and abdominal visceral adipose tissue were associated with CT measures of early lung injury and lower FVC in a cohort of community-dwelling adults. Adipose tissue may represent a modifiable risk factor for ILD.

9.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 75(8): 1237-1244, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) is a cardiometabolic risk factor influenced by race/ethnicity, inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction. Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) and saturated FAs (SFAs) are known to affect these latter phenomena and may influence PAT accumulation. We aimed to determine whether plasma levels of these FAs are related to PAT volume and its rate of change over a median 3-year follow-up. METHODS: Cardiac computed tomography assessed PAT in 6785 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants. Gas chromatography flame-ionization estimated plasma phospholipid FAs. Regression analyses estimated associations of FAs with PAT volume and its rate of change with adjustments for other risk factors. Race-interactions were tested. RESULTS: In cross-section, top tertiles of omega-3 FAs and odd-chained SFAs were associated with 2.8 and 4.93 cm3 lower PAT volumes, respectively; race/ethnicity was a significant modifying variable (p < 0.002). Even-chained SFAs were associated with 3.5 cm3 greater PAT volume. With stratification by race/ethnicity, Chinese Americans in the top tertile of omega-3 FAs showed 10.5 cm3 greater PAT volume than those in the referent tertile. Black individuals in the top tertile of odd-chained SFAs showed 5.0 cm3 lower PAT compared to referents. Black and Chinese Americans in top tertiles of even-chained SFAs showed respective 3.7 and 5.9 cm3 greater PAT volumes compared to referents. Two associations were observed in prospective analyses among Caucasians; race interactions were non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: Cross-sectional and prospective findings provide inconclusive evidence as to whether plasma FAs are related to PAT in healthy individuals. Cohort studies with longer follow-up periods are warranted.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Tecido Adiposo , Estudos Transversais , Ácidos Graxos , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(9): 2648-2655, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many adults have risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Screening all adults with risk factors for NAFLD using imaging is not feasible. OBJECTIVE: To develop a practical scoring tool for predicting NAFLD using participant demographics, medical history, anthropometrics, and lab values. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. PARTICIPANTS: Data came from 6194 white, African American, Hispanic, and Chinese American participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cohort, ages 45-85 years. MAIN MEASURES: NAFLD was identified by liver computed tomography (≤ 40 Hounsfield units indicating > 30% hepatic steatosis) and data on 14 predictors was assessed for predicting NAFLD. Random forest variable importance was used to identify the minimum subset of variables required to achieve the highest predictive power. This subset was used to derive (n = 4132) and validate (n = 2063) a logistic regression-based score (NAFLD-MESA Index). A second NAFLD-Clinical Index excluding laboratory predictors was also developed. KEY RESULTS: NAFLD prevalence was 6.2%. The model included eight predictors: age, sex, race/ethnicity, type 2 diabetes, smoking history, body mass index, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and triglycerides (TG). The NAFLD-Clinical Index model excluded GGT and TG. In the NAFLD-MESA model, the derivation set achieved an AUCNAFLD-MESA = 0.83 (95% CI, 0.81 to 0.86), and the validation set an AUCNAFLD-MESA = 0.80 (0.77 to 0.84). The NAFLD-Clinical Index model was AUCClinical = 0.78 [0.75 to 0.81] in the derivation set and AUCClinical = 0.76 [0.72 to 0.80] in the validation set (pBonferroni-adjusted < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The two models are simple but highly predictive tools that can aid clinicians to identify individuals at high NAFLD risk who could benefit from imaging.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Americanos Asiáticos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia
11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(22): e019390, 2020 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161805

RESUMO

Background Serum levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) are reflective of endothelial activation. Although VCAM-1 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), the prospective association of VCAM-1 with development of clinically overt heart failure (HF) across ejection fraction categories is unclear. Methods and Results In MESA (the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), we evaluated the association of VCAM-1 at examination 2 (2002-2004) with incident HF (HFpEF and HF with reduced ejection fraction) after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. Incident HF was independently adjudicated as first hospitalization for symptomatic HF. Among 2297 participants (mean age, 63 years; women, 53%), those with higher VCAM-1 were more likely to be White race, had higher blood pressure, and had lower kidney function. Over a median of 14.4 years, there were 102 HF events (HFpEF=65; HF with reduced ejection fraction=37). After covariate adjustment, each doubling of VCAM-1 was associated with incident HF (hazard ratio [HR], 1.94; 95% CI, 1.17-3.23; P=0.01). This association appeared stronger among current/former smokers compared with never smokers. On evaluation of HF subtypes, VCAM-1 was associated with incident HFpEF (HR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.04-3.72; P=0.04) but not with incident HF with reduced ejection fraction, although risk estimates were consistent (HR, 1.82; 95% CI, 0.79-4.21; P=0.16). Conclusions In a multiethnic cohort, VCAM-1 was significantly associated with incident HF over long-term follow-up. These findings suggest a potential role for endothelial activation in driving clinical HF, and specifically HFpEF. Therapies that decrease endothelial activation may prevent the progression from cardiovascular risk factors to clinical HF.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/sangue , /estatística & dados numéricos , Tecido Adiposo , Idoso , Aterosclerose/etnologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Volume Sistólico
12.
Cell ; 182(5): 1198-1213.e14, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888493

RESUMO

Most loci identified by GWASs have been found in populations of European ancestry (EUR). In trans-ethnic meta-analyses for 15 hematological traits in 746,667 participants, including 184,535 non-EUR individuals, we identified 5,552 trait-variant associations at p < 5 × 10-9, including 71 novel associations not found in EUR populations. We also identified 28 additional novel variants in ancestry-specific, non-EUR meta-analyses, including an IL7 missense variant in South Asians associated with lymphocyte count in vivo and IL-7 secretion levels in vitro. Fine-mapping prioritized variants annotated as functional and generated 95% credible sets that were 30% smaller when using the trans-ethnic as opposed to the EUR-only results. We explored the clinical significance and predictive value of trans-ethnic variants in multiple populations and compared genetic architecture and the effect of natural selection on these blood phenotypes between populations. Altogether, our results for hematological traits highlight the value of a more global representation of populations in genetic studies.


Assuntos
/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , /genética , Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Interleucina-7/genética , Fenótipo
13.
Cell ; 182(5): 1214-1231.e11, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888494

RESUMO

Blood cells play essential roles in human health, underpinning physiological processes such as immunity, oxygen transport, and clotting, which when perturbed cause a significant global health burden. Here we integrate data from UK Biobank and a large-scale international collaborative effort, including data for 563,085 European ancestry participants, and discover 5,106 new genetic variants independently associated with 29 blood cell phenotypes covering a range of variation impacting hematopoiesis. We holistically characterize the genetic architecture of hematopoiesis, assess the relevance of the omnigenic model to blood cell phenotypes, delineate relevant hematopoietic cell states influenced by regulatory genetic variants and gene networks, identify novel splice-altering variants mediating the associations, and assess the polygenic prediction potential for blood traits and clinical disorders at the interface of complex and Mendelian genetics. These results show the power of large-scale blood cell trait GWAS to interrogate clinically meaningful variants across a wide allelic spectrum of human variation.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Hematopoese/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
14.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 75(7): e9-e21, 2020 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129462

RESUMO

Aging-related illnesses are increasing and effective strategies to prevent and/or treat them are lacking. This is because of a poor understanding of therapeutic targets. Low-grade inflammation is often higher in older adults and remains a key risk factor of aging-related morbidities and mortalities. Emerging evidence indicates that abnormal (dysbiotic) gut microbiome and dysfunctional gut permeability (leaky gut) are linked with increased inflammation in older adults. However, currently available drugs do not treat aging-related microbiome dysbiosis and leaky gut, and little is known about the cellular and molecular processes that can be targeted to reduce leaky gut in older adults. Here, we demonstrated that metformin, a safe Food and Drug Administration-approved antidiabetic drug, decreased leaky gut and inflammation in high-fat diet-fed older obese mice, by beneficially modulating the gut microbiota. In addition, metformin increased goblet cell mass and mucin production in the obese older gut, thereby decreasing leaky gut and inflammation. Mechanistically, metformin increased the goblet cell differentiation markers by suppressing Wnt signaling. Our results suggest that metformin can be used as a regimen to prevent and treat aging-related leaky gut and inflammation, especially in obese individuals and people with western-style high-fat dietary lifestyle, by beneficially modulating gut microbiome/goblet cell/mucin biology.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Disbiose/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Metformina/farmacologia , Obesidade/complicações , Envelhecimento/patologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Caliciformes/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação , Camundongos , Mucinas/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Via de Sinalização Wnt
15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16423, 2019 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712677

RESUMO

Previous small studies have reported an association between circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) levels and pericardial fat volume in post-menopausal women and high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk patients. In this study, we investigated the relationship of FGF21 levels with pericardial fat volume in participants free of clinical CVD at baseline. We analysed data from 5765 men and women from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) with both pericardial fat volume and plasma FGF21 levels measured at baseline. 4746 participants had pericardial fat volume measured in at least one follow-up exam. After adjusting for confounding factors, ln-transformed FGF21 levels were positively associated with pericardial fat volume at baseline (ß = 0.055, p < 0.001). When assessing change in pericardial fat volume over a mean duration of 3.0 years using a linear mixed-effects model, higher baseline FGF21 levels were associated with higher pericardial fat volume at baseline (2.381 cm3 larger in pericardial fat volume per one SD increase in ln-transformed FGF21 levels), but less pericardial fat accumulation over time (0.191 cm3/year lower per one SD increase in ln-transformed FGF21 levels). Cross-sectionally, higher plasma FGF21 levels were significantly associated with higher pericardial fat volume, independent of traditional CVD risk factors and inflammatory markers. However, higher FGF21 levels tended to be associated with less pericardial fat accumulation over time. Nevertheless, such change in pericardial fat volume is very modest and could be due to measurement error. Further studies are needed to elucidate the longitudinal relationship of baseline FGF21 levels with pericardial fat accumulation.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/anatomia & histologia , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/sangue , Pericárdio/anatomia & histologia , Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Pericárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
16.
Diabetes ; 68(5): 1073-1083, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936141

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D). We aimed to identify the peripheral blood DNA methylation signature of hepatic fat. We conducted epigenome-wide association studies of hepatic fat in 3,400 European ancestry (EA) participants and in 401 Hispanic ancestry and 724 African ancestry participants from four population-based cohort studies. Hepatic fat was measured using computed tomography or ultrasound imaging and DNA methylation was assessed at >400,000 cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (CpGs) in whole blood or CD14+ monocytes using a commercial array. We identified 22 CpGs associated with hepatic fat in EA participants at a false discovery rate <0.05 (corresponding P = 6.9 × 10-6) with replication at Bonferroni-corrected P < 8.6 × 10-4 Mendelian randomization analyses supported the association of hypomethylation of cg08309687 (LINC00649) with NAFLD (P = 2.5 × 10-4). Hypomethylation of the same CpG was also associated with risk for new-onset T2D (P = 0.005). Our study demonstrates that a peripheral blood-derived DNA methylation signature is robustly associated with hepatic fat accumulation. The hepatic fat-associated CpGs may represent attractive biomarkers for T2D. Future studies are warranted to explore mechanisms and to examine DNA methylation signatures of NAFLD across racial/ethnic groups.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Gorduras/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
17.
Nat Genet ; 51(4): 636-648, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926973

RESUMO

The concentrations of high- and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides are influenced by smoking, but it is unknown whether genetic associations with lipids may be modified by smoking. We conducted a multi-ancestry genome-wide gene-smoking interaction study in 133,805 individuals with follow-up in an additional 253,467 individuals. Combined meta-analyses identified 13 new loci associated with lipids, some of which were detected only because association differed by smoking status. Additionally, we demonstrate the importance of including diverse populations, particularly in studies of interactions with lifestyle factors, where genomic and lifestyle differences by ancestry may contribute to novel findings.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/genética , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Diabetes Care ; 42(5): 946-953, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796111

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: South Asians have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes compared with other race/ethnic groups. Body composition is associated with the risk for type 2 diabetes. Differences in body composition between South Asians and other race/ethnic groups are one hypothesized mechanism to explain the disproportionate prevalence of type 2 diabetes in this population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study used data from the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohorts to determine whether body composition mediated the elevated prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes in South Asians. Participants (n = 2,615) with complete body composition data were included. Ordinal logistic regression models were calculated to determine the odds for glycemic impairment in South Asians compared with the MESA cohort. RESULTS: In multivariate models, South Asians had a significantly higher prevalence of glycemic impairment and type 2 diabetes compared with all four race/ethnic groups included in the MESA (P < 0.001 for all). In unadjusted and multivariate adjusted models, South Asians had higher odds for impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes compared with all other race/ethnic groups (P < 0.001 for all). The addition of body composition measures did not significantly mitigate this relationship. CONCLUSIONS: We did not identify strong evidence that accounting for body composition explains differences in the risk for type 2 diabetes. Future prospective studies of the MESA and MASALA cohorts are needed to understand how adipose tissue impacts the risk for type 2 diabetes and how to best assess this risk.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Idoso , Ásia/etnologia , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/etnologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/etnologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/metabolismo , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Psychosom Med ; 80(3): 242-251, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29280852

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Shared genetic background may explain phenotypic associations between depression and Type 2 diabetes (T2D). We aimed to study, on a genome-wide level, if genetic correlation and pleiotropic loci exist between depressive symptoms and T2D or glycemic traits. METHODS: We estimated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability and analyzed genetic correlation between depressive symptoms and T2D and glycemic traits with the linkage disequilibrium score regression by combining summary statistics of previously conducted meta-analyses for depressive symptoms by CHARGE consortium (N = 51,258), T2D by DIAGRAM consortium (N = 34,840 patients and 114,981 controls), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and homeostatic model assessment of ß-cell function and insulin resistance by MAGIC consortium (N = 58,074). Finally, we investigated pleiotropic loci using a bivariate genome-wide association study approach with summary statistics from genome-wide association study meta-analyses and reported loci with genome-wide significant bivariate association p value (p < 5 × 10). Biological annotation and function of significant pleiotropic SNPs were assessed in several databases. RESULTS: The SNP-based heritability ranged from 0.04 to 0.10 in each individual trait. In the linkage disequilibrium score regression analyses, depressive symptoms showed no significant genetic correlation with T2D or glycemic traits (p > 0.37). However, we identified pleiotropic genetic variations for depressive symptoms and T2D (in the IGF2BP2, CDKAL1, CDKN2B-AS, and PLEKHA1 genes), and fasting glucose (in the MADD, CDKN2B-AS, PEX16, and MTNR1B genes). CONCLUSIONS: We found no significant overall genetic correlations between depressive symptoms, T2D, or glycemic traits suggesting major differences in underlying biology of these traits. However, several potential pleiotropic loci were identified between depressive symptoms, T2D, and fasting glucose, suggesting that previously established phenotypic associations may be partly explained by genetic variation in these specific loci.


Assuntos
Depressão/genética , Depressão/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Loci Gênicos , Pleiotropia Genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
20.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 393, 2017 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28855511

RESUMO

Little is known regarding the epigenetic basis of atherosclerosis. Here we present the CD14+ blood monocyte transcriptome and epigenome signatures associated with human atherosclerosis. The transcriptome signature includes transcription coactivator, ARID5B, which is known to form a chromatin derepressor complex with a histone H3K9Me2-specific demethylase and promote adipogenesis and smooth muscle development. ARID5B CpG (cg25953130) methylation is inversely associated with both ARID5B expression and atherosclerosis, consistent with this CpG residing in an ARID5B enhancer region, based on chromatin capture and histone marks data. Mediation analysis supports assumptions that ARID5B expression mediates effects of cg25953130 methylation and several cardiovascular disease risk factors on atherosclerotic burden. In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human THP1 monocytes, ARID5B knockdown reduced expression of genes involved in atherosclerosis-related inflammatory and lipid metabolism pathways, and inhibited cell migration and phagocytosis. These data suggest that ARID5B expression, possibly regulated by an epigenetically controlled enhancer, promotes atherosclerosis by dysregulating immunometabolism towards a chronic inflammatory phenotype.The molecular mechanisms mediating the impact of environmental factors in atherosclerosis are unclear. Here, the authors examine CD14+ blood monocyte's transcriptome and epigenome signatures to find differential methylation and expression of ARID5B to be associated with human atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Monócitos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma , Idoso , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
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