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1.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 127, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179850

RESUMO

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a prevailing genetic disorder of intellectual disability and autism. There is no efficacious medication for FXS. Through in silico screening with a public database, computational analysis of transcriptome profile in FXS mouse neurons predicts therapeutic value of an FDA-approved drug trifluoperazine. Systemic administration of low-dose trifluoperazine at 0.05 mg/kg attenuates multiple FXS- and autism-related behavioral symptoms. Moreover, computational analysis of transcriptome alteration caused by trifluoperazine suggests a new mechanism of action against PI3K (Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase) activity. Consistently, trifluoperazine suppresses PI3K activity and its down-stream targets Akt (protein kinase B) and S6K1 (S6 kinase 1) in neurons. Further, trifluoperazine normalizes the aberrantly elevated activity of Akt and S6K1 and enhanced protein synthesis in FXS mouse. Together, our data demonstrate a promising value of transcriptome-based computation in identification of therapeutic strategy and repurposing drugs for neurological disorders, and suggest trifluoperazine as a potential treatment for FXS.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 723: 138008, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203798

RESUMO

Bioremediation is one of efficient methods to solve the issues of water or soil contaminated by metal ions. However, the harvested biowaste is often troublesome to handle owing to the second pollution. Herein, the waste eggshell membrane was used to adsorb Cu2+ in wastewater, which was then converted into biochar containing copper ions (Cu2+-Cu+/Biochar) via a rapid pyrolysis. By integrating the collective advantages of eggshell membrane and Cu2+-Cu+, such as superior electrical conductivity, enlarged electrochemically active surface area, unique three-dimensional porous network characteristics, and fast charge transport, the Cu2+-Cu+/Biochar system can be used as a self-supporting sensor for detection of nitrite (NO2-). The sensor demonstrated superior electrochemical sensing abilities accompanied by a broad linear range (1-300 µM), ultralow detection limit (0.63 µM), and high sensitivity (30.0 µA·mM-1·cm-2). In addition, the fabricated electrochemical sensor has excellent stability, good reproducibility, and strong anti-interference performance. More importantly, the sensor has a high recovery rate when it is used to detect nitrite in tap water, mineral water, and sausage, indicating the feasibility of using this sensor in practical applications. This study provides a green and sustainable approach for simultaneous treatment of biomass waste eggshell membrane, remedy of heavy metals, and electrochemical detection of nitrite.

4.
Zool Res ; 41(2): 105-122, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202089

RESUMO

The genus-level recognition of monophyletic short-legged toads ( Brachytarsophrys) has been recently implicated in the taxonomic debate of Megophrys sensu lato. In the present study, Brachytarsophrys is reasonably regarded as a distinct genus based on significant morphological differentiations and recent molecular analyses. Furthermore, a comprehensive review of this genus is performed, with two species groups proposed based on morphological differences and phylogenetic relationships. Particularly, Brachytarsophrys platyparietus is removed as a synonym of Brachytarsophrys carinense and considered a valid species due to significant genetic divergence and distinct morphological differences. In addition, a new species, Brachytarsophrys orientalis sp. nov., is described based on a series of specimens collected from southeastern China. This work takes the member species of the genus Brachytarsophrys to seven, suggesting that the diversity of Brachytarsophrys is underestimated. In addition, the genus levels of other monophyletic groups within the subfamily Megophryinae are discussed.

5.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 122020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208363

RESUMO

Mounting evidence suggests that immune cell infiltration within the tumor microenvironment (TME) is a crucial regulator of carcinogenesis and therapeutic efficacy in ovarian cancer (OC). In this study, 593 OC patients from TCGA were divided into high and low score groups based on their immune/stromal scores resulting from analysis utilizing the ESTIMATE algorithm. Differential expression analysis revealed 294 intersecting genes that influencing both the immune and stromal scores. Further Cox regression analysis identified 34 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) as prognostic-related genes. Finally, the nine-gene signature was derived from the prognostic-related genes using a Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) and Cox regression. This nine-gene signature could effectively distinguish the high-risk patients in the training (TCGA database) and validation (GSE17260) cohorts (all p < 0.01). A time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that the nine-gene signature had a reasonable predictive accuracy (AUC = 0.707, AUC =0.696) in both cohorts. In addition, this nine-gene signature is associated with immune infiltration in TME by Gene Set Variation Analysis (GSVA), and can be used to predict the survival of patients with OC.

6.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e23258, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidences reveal that circular RNAs (circRNAs) play crucial functions in cancer development. However, the expression pattern and roles of circRNAs in infantile hemangiomas (IH) remain unclear. METHODS: In this study, qRT-PCR was performed to determine the expression of circAP2A2, miR-382-5p, and VEGFA in IH tissues and cell lines. Moreover, MTT assay, colony formation, transwell assay, and Western blot analysis were conducted to assess the function of circAP2A2 or miR-382-5p on cell proliferation, and migration in vitro, respectively. Also, dual luciferase assay was used to confirm the interactions among circAP2A2, miR-382-5p, and VEGFA. RESULTS: CircAP2A2 was confirmed to be highly expressed in IH. CircAP2A2 knockdown or miR-382-5p overexpression decreased the proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion of HemECs and HUVEC cells. CONCLUSION: CircAP2A2 could promote proliferation and invasion of IH by regulating miR-382-5p/VEGFA axis.

7.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083584

RESUMO

Neurotoxicity is one of the major pathological changes in multiple neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), the second popular neurodegenerative disease in aged people. It is known that the AD and PD share the similar neuropathological hallmarks, such as the oxidative stress, loss of specific neurons, and aggregation of specific proteins. However, there are no effective therapeutic drugs for both AD and PD yet. Oxytocin (OXT) is a small peptide with 9 amino acids that is neuroprotective to many neurological disorders. Whether OXT administration confers neuroprotection to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6- tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neurotoxicity in mice are still not known. In this study, we first found that the OXT levels are decreased in MPTP mice. Supplementation with OXT effectively rescues the locomotor disabilities and anxiety-like behaviors in MPTP mice. OXT also alleviates the hyperphosphorylation of α-synuclein at S129 site and the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, as well as the oxidative stress in the MPTP mice, and alleviates both oxidative stress and cell cytotoxicity in vitro. Furthermore, we found that OXT could inhibit the miR-26a/DAPK1 signal pathway in MPTP mice. In summary, our study demonstrates protective effects of OXT in MPTP mice and that miR-26a/DAPK1 signaling pathway may play an important role in mediating the protection of OXT.

8.
J Neurochem ; 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951013

RESUMO

MicroRNAs have been implicated in diverse physiological and pathological processes. We previously reported that aberrant microRNA-124 (miR-124)/non-receptor-type protein phosphatase 1 (PTPN1) signaling plays an important role in the synaptic disorders associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we further investigated the potential role of miR-124/PTPN1 in the tau pathology of AD. We first treated the mice with intra-hippocampal stereotactic injections. Then, we used quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) to detect the expression of microRNAs. Western blotting was used to measure the level of PTPN1, the level of tau protein, the phosphorylation of tau at AD-related sites, and alterations in the activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK-3ß) and protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A). Immunohistochemistry was also used to detect changes in tau phosphorylation levels at AD-related sites and somadendritic aggregation. Soluble and insoluble tau protein was separated by 70% formic acid (FA) extraction to examine tau solubility. Finally, behavioral experiments (including the Morris water maze, fear conditioning, and elevated plus maze) were performed to examine learning and memory ability and emotion-related behavior. We found that artificially replicating the abnormalities in miR-124/PTPN1 signaling induced AD-like tau pathology in the hippocampus of wild-type mice, including hyperphosphorylation at multiple sites, insolubility and somadendritic aggregation, as well as learning/memory deficits. We also found that disruption of miR-124/PTPN1 signaling was caused by the loss of RE1-silencing transcription factor protein, which can be initiated by Aß insults or oxidative stress, as observed in the brains of P301S mice. Correcting the deregulation of miR-124/PTPN1 signaling rescued the tau pathology and learning/memory impairments in the P301S mice. We also found that miR-124/PTPN1 abnormalities induced activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and inactivation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) by promoting tyrosine phosphorylation, implicating an imbalance in tau kinase/phosphatase. Thus, targeting the miR-124/PTPN1 signaling pathway is a promising therapeutic strategy for AD.

9.
Food Chem ; 312: 126016, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896459

RESUMO

There have been increasing concerns among consumers about pesticide residues in Oolong tea. This study aimed to establish surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) method for rapid measurement of chemical contaminants in Oolong tea. Synthesis of SERS substrate was achieved by synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) via a reduction method. AgNPs were spherical and highly monodispersed, which created remarkable electromagnetic fields during SERS activities to measure phosmet in the methanol-water solution and Oolong tea. Partial least squares regression models were established to predict the concentrations of phosmet in the methanol-water solution (r = 0.934; slope = 0.880; RMSEP = 1.001 mg/L) and Oolong tea samples (r = 0.927; slope = 0.938; RMSEP = 1.157 mg/kg) with the detection limit of 0.1 mg/kg. The results indicate that SERS coupled with silver nanoparticles is a fast, sensitive, and reliable method for detection and characterization of pesticide contaminants in Oolong tea products.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Fosmet/análise , Chá/química , Cor , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Limite de Detecção , Prata/química , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos
10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(2): 2525-2530, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816225

RESUMO

The propane (C3H8)-selective adsorption technology is recognized as a promising energy-efficient way to directly afford high-purity propylene (C3H6). Here, a novel strategy via cage construction, combining with multiple interaction and shape selectivity, was raised to achieve preferential C3H8 adsorption. We revealed that the polycatenated molecular cage within a microporous framework of [Ni(bpe)2(WO4)] (bpe = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene) showed preferential C3H8 adsorption behavior with recorded C3H8/C3H6 selectivity (1.62-2.75), as well as the high adsorption enthalpy around 42 kJ mol-1. The cage afforded dense electronegative binding sites, enabling the multiple Cδ--Hδ+. . .Cδ- interaction with C3H8 molecule and thus the higher affinity for C3H8 than C3H6. Additionally, the cage exhibited shape selectivity to oblate C3H8, and was unfavorable to C3H6 with relatively planar configuration as indicated by modeling studies. The high purity propylene (99.6%) was directly obtained without the extra adsorption-desorption cycles through the column breakthrough experiment.

11.
Anal Chem ; 92(1): 1245-1251, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820623

RESUMO

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) can cause liver failure and even death in severe cases, gravely threatening human health. The treatment of DILI remains a clinical challenge, mainly due to the lack of efficient and accurate diagnosis. Therefore, developing an accurate diagnosis approach is imperative to boost the timely treatment for DILI. As the primary organ of iron storage, liver's functions are tightly linked to iron homeostasis. Thus, monitoring iron homeostasis is promising for the diagnosis and treatment of DILI. Hence, we reported a new near-infrared fluorescent probe (LCy7) that enables real-time and in vivo visualizing of Fe2+ in drug-induced liver injury. In this design, Fe2+ would bind to the N4O ligand in LCy7 and conduce to the C-O bond broken in the presence of O2, which restore the masked QCy7 emitting luminous near-infrared fluorescence. Utilizing LCy7, the increase in Fe2+ was distinctly witnessed in hepatocytes under endoplasmic reticulum stress by acetaminophen (APAP) stimulation. In vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging revealed the conspicuous rise in Fe2+ in the liver of mice during APAP-induced liver injury. We further unprecedentedly disclosed that endoplasmic reticulum stress was accompanied by the overload of Fe2+ in injured liver of these mice. Collectively, this work will facilitate a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of DILI, and also provide a powerful new tool for DILI diagnosis and treatment.

12.
BMC Microbiol ; 19(1): 273, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gut microbes can contribute to their hosts in food digestion, nutrient absorption, and inhibiting the growth of pathogens. However, only limited studies have focused on the gut microbiota of freshwater snails. Pomacea canaliculata is considered one of the worst invasive alien species in the world. Elucidating the diversity and composition of the microbiota in the gut of P. canaliculata snails may be helpful for better understanding the widespread invasion of this snail species. In this study, the buccal masses, stomachs, and intestines were isolated from seven P. canaliculata snails. The diversity and composition of the microbiota in the three gut sections were then investigated based on high-throughput Illumina sequencing targeting the V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene. RESULTS: The diversity of the microbiota was highest in the intestine but lowest in the buccal mass. A total of 29 phyla and 111 genera of bacteria were identified in all of the samples. In general, Ochrobactrum, a genus of putative cellulose-degrading bacteria, was the most abundant (overall relative abundance: 13.6%), followed by Sediminibacterium (9.7%), Desulfovibrio (7.8%), an unclassified genus in the family Aeromonadaceae (5.4%), and Cloacibacterium (5.4%). The composition of the microbiota was diverse among the different gut sections. Ochrobactrum (relative abundance: 23.15% ± 7.92%) and Sediminibacterium (16.95 ± 5.70%) were most abundant in the stomach, an unclassified genus in the family Porphyromonadaceae (14.28 ± 7.29%) and Leptotrichia (8.70 ± 4.46%) were highest in the buccal mass, and two genera in the families Aeromonadaceae (7.55 ± 4.53%) and Mollicutes (13.47 ± 13.03%) were highest in the intestine. CONCLUSIONS: The diversity and composition of the microbiome vary among different gut sections of P. canaliculata snails. Putative cellulose-degrading bacteria are enriched in the gut of P. canaliculata.

13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(23)2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795136

RESUMO

An easily prepared benzothiazole-based probe (BHM) was prepared and characterized by general spectra, including 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HRMS, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Based on the synergistic mechanism of the inhabitation of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), the BHM displayed high selectivity and sensitivity for Al3+ in DMF/H2O (v/v, 1/1) through an obvious blue-shift in the fluorescent spectrum and significant color change detected by the naked eye, respectively. The binding ratio of BHM with Al3+ was 1:1, as determined by the Job plot, and the binding details were investigated using FT-IR, 1H NMR titration, and ESI-MS analysis. Furthermore, the BHM was successfully applied in the detection of Al3+ in the Songhua River and on a test stripe. Fluorescence imaging experiments confirmed that the BHM could be used to monitor Al3+ in human stromal cells (HSC).

14.
J Chromatogr Sci ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711217

RESUMO

A multiresidue method for determining 12 carbamate pesticides in purple cabbage, orange, watermelon, cucumber, cowpea and Lactuca sativa L. employing multi-plug filtration cleanup (m-PFC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed. M-PFC was carried out by cleanup at dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE), one m-PFC tip-filtration, two m-PFC tip-filtration and other methods (1-3 m-PFC cleanups). Results demonstrated that filtration simplified the cleanup method compared with d-SPE and other m-PFC methods (1-3 m-PFC cleanups). The method validation results showed that the method was linear, selective and accurate. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.05-5.0 µg/kg, and the recoveries were in the range of 70.1-119.9% in different matrices. Although matrix effects were observed, they were successfully compensated using matrix-matched calibration. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied to detect pesticides in real samples.

15.
Opt Lett ; 44(21): 5194-5197, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674966

RESUMO

A scheme of angular velocity measurement with an improved scale factor is proposed and experimentally demonstrated based on the joint operation of a Sagnac loop and an optoelectronic oscillator (OEO). In this scheme, the Sagnac-induced phase difference is mapped into the oscillating frequency shift of the OEO with a large scale factor by making one of the two counter-propagating signals in the Sagnac loop carrier-suppressed modulated and the other just travel through the modulator. The cascaded Sagnac loop and OEO structure can further improve the scale factor by setting a long Sagnac loop and a short OEO loop independently. A sensitivity scale factor as high as 742 kHz/(rad/s) is obtained in our experiment.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662783

RESUMO

Background: Chronic simple pharyngitis (CSP) is a common clinical chronic respiratory inflammation with persistent and intransigent symptoms. We analyzed the clinical data to find the evidence that herbal tea, a traditional Chinese medicine treatment in China, could improve the symptoms of CSP patients in a simple way. Methods: We systematically reviewed the clinical data of randomized controlled treatments from April 2019 and evaluated the results using the improved Jadad scale and the Cochrane bias risk assessment tool. RevMan 5.3 software was used for chart analysis. In addition, we used Excel to conduct frequency statistics on Chinese herbs from included articles and analyze its medication rules. Results: Among the collection of 161 articles, 6 RCTs published in Chinese journals were included in this review. The methodological quality of the treatments was low, and most of them only provide diagnostic criteria. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were not specified, and none of the 6 RCTs used the blind method on the result evaluator. Furthermore, only one RCT evaluated the baseline level variance. For these reasons, we did not make a network meta-analysis. Conclusions: The traditional Chinese herbs involved in herbal tea did have ingredients to alleviate CSP symptoms. However, our research showed that the current research could not draw any credible conclusions on the curative effect of herbal tea, which indicated that the overall level of TCM clinical research needs to be improved to evaluate the efficacy of herbal tea.

17.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 17(12): 1146-1157, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362659

RESUMO

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are common events that were recognized as one of the most toxic lesions in eukaryotic cells. DSBs are widely involved in many physiological processes such as V(D)J recombination, meiotic recombination, DNA replication and transcription. Deregulation of DSBs has been reported in multiple diseases in human beings, such as the neurodegenerative diseases, with which the underlying mechanisms are needed to be illustrated. Here, we reviewed the recent insights into the dysfunction of DSB formation and repair, contributing to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's disease (HD) and ataxia telangiectasia (A-T).

18.
Chemosphere ; 237: 124435, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352102

RESUMO

Glyphosate is a high-efficiency, low-toxicity, broad-spectrum herbicide. The residues of glyphosate-based herbicides are frequent pollutants in the environment. However, the effects of glyphosate on oocyte maturation, as well as its possible mechanisms, remain unclear. The present study revealed that mouse oocytes had reduced rates of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and first polar body extrusion (PBE) after treatment with 500 µM glyphosate. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were found in mouse oocytes exposed to glyphosate, as shown by changes in the mRNA expression of related antioxidant enzyme genes (cat, sod2, gpx). After 14 h of exposure to glyphosate, metaphase II (MII) mouse oocytes displayed an abnormal spindle morphology and DNA double-strand breaks (DNA-DSBs). Simultaneously, mitochondria showed an aggregated distribution and decreased membrane potential in mouse oocytes exposed to glyphosate. The protein expression levels of apoptosis factors (Bax, Bcl-2) and the mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (bax, bcl-2, caspase3) were measured by Western blot and qRT-PCR, respectively. Meanwhile, the expression levels of autophagy-related genes (lc3, atg14, mtor) and proteins (LC3, Atg12) were significantly decreased in the glyphosate treatment group compared with the control group. Collectively, our results indicated that glyphosate exposure could interfere with mouse oocyte maturation by generating oxidative stress and early apoptosis.


Assuntos
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Glicina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Oogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
19.
Nanoscale ; 11(26): 12553-12562, 2019 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179465

RESUMO

Herein, to endow h-BN nanosheets with gelling ability, a diurea compound was decorated on the h-BN nanosheets via designed adsorption and in situ reaction processes. The prepared h-BN-based gelator, BTO, exhibited excellent dispersibility in non-polar liquid media, and the gelation of BTO dispersions could be readily triggered by ultrasonic treatments. The sol-gel transformation of the system was found to be highly reversible by stirring and sonication. Based on the investigation on the self-assembly behavior of BTO nanosheets in the liquid phase, it was proposed that a continuous and layered structure formed by BTO during sonication was the key factor for the gelling properties of these nanosheets. The viscoelasticity of the sonication-induced gel was studied using a rheometer. Tribological evaluations show that the prepared h-BN nanogel exhibits outstanding lubricating performances, and more importantly, it has been proved that the gel state of the h-BN nanosheets provides superior and more reliable lubricating performances than the corresponding dispersion state under certain conditions; this can be ascribed to the formation of a continuous and uniform structure of modified h-BN nanosheets during gelation. Thus, this study not only clarifies the key role of the assembly structure in the tribological performances of 2D nanomaterials, but also demonstrates the potential of gelation in improving the macroscopic friction reduction and wear resistance of 2D nanomaterials.

20.
Mikrochim Acta ; 186(7): 453, 2019 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201539

RESUMO

The authors describe a three-dimensional (3D) flexible interconnected porous nanocomposite membrane for use in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). It was obtained via in -situ deposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, ca. 10 nm) on eggshell membranes (ESM). The AuNP/ESM nanocomposites were used as a SERS substrate for detection of the pesticide thiabendazole (TBZ) with prominent Raman bands at 1180, 1280, and 1580 cm-1. The abundant "hot spots" are generated by the closely arranged AuNPs in the 3D geometry of the ESM networks. This makes the SERS substrate highly sensitive because of remarkable signal amplification. The substrates were applied to the rapid detection of TBZ in Oolong tea. The limit of detection for TBZ is 0.1 ppm. Graphical abstract Schematic presentation of a three-dimensional flexible interconnected porous nanocomposite membrane as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate for detection of thiabendazole (TBZ) in tea.

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