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1.
Biomolecules ; 9(10)2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575083

RESUMO

Low-temperature storage is a common strategy for preserving and transporting vegetables and fruits. However, many fruits are hypersensitive to chilling injury, including bananas. In the present study, storage conditions of 11 °C delayed the ripening of Fenjiao (Musa ABB Pisang Awak) banana, and the pulp could be softened after ethephon treatment. Storage conditions of 7 °C prevented fruit from fully softening, and fruit contained a significantly higher starch content and lower soluble sugar content. MaEBF1, a critical gene component in the ethylene signaling pathway, was repressed during ripening after fruit had been stored for 12 days at 7 °C. The expression of a series of starch degradation-related genes and a MaNAC67-like gene were also severely repressed. Both MaEBF1 and MaNAC67-like genes were ethylene-inducible and localized in the nucleus. MaNAC67-like protein was able to physically bind to the promoter of genes associated with starch degradation, including MaBAM6, MaSEX4, and MaMEX1. Yeast two-hybrid, GST-pull down, and BiFC assays showed that MaEBF1 interacted with the MaNAC67-like protein, and their interaction further activated the promoters of MaBAM6 and MaSEX4. The current study indicates that MaNAC67-like is a direct regulator of starch degradation and potential for involvement in regulating chilling-inhibited starch degradation by interacting with the ethylene signaling components in banana fruit. The present work paves the way for further functional analysis of MaEBF1 and MaNAC67-like in banana, which will be useful for understanding the regulation of banana starch metabolism and fruit ripening.

2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 309, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethylene promotes fruit ripening whereas 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), a non-toxic antagonist of ethylene, delays fruit ripening via the inhibition of ethylene receptor. However, unsuitable 1-MCP treatment can cause fruit ripening disorders. RESULTS: In this study, we show that short-term 1-MCP treatment (400 nL•L- 1, 2 h) significantly delays papaya fruit ripening with normal ripening characteristics. However, long-term 1-MCP treatment (400 nL•L- 1, 16 h) causes a "rubbery" texture of fruit. The comparative transcriptome analysis showed that a total of 5529 genes were differently expressed during fruit ripening compared to freshly harvested fruits. Comprehensive functional enrichment analysis showed that the metabolic pathways of carbon metabolism, plant hormone signal transduction, biosynthesis of amino acids, and starch and sucrose metabolism are involved in fruit ripening. 1-MCP treatment significantly affected fruit transcript levels. A total of 3595 and 5998 differently expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between short-term 1-MCP, long-term 1-MCP treatment and the control, respectively. DEGs are mostly enriched in the similar pathway involved in fruit ripening. A large number of DEGs were also identified between long-term and short-term 1-MCP treatment, with most of the DEGs being enriched in carbon metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, plant hormone signal transduction, and biosynthesis of amino acids. The 1-MCP treatments accelerated the lignin accumulation and delayed cellulose degradation during fruit ripening. Considering the rubbery phenotype, we inferred that the cell wall metabolism and hormone signal pathways are closely related to papaya fruit ripening disorder. The RNA-Seq output was confirmed using RT-qPCR by 28 selected genes that were involved in cell wall metabolism and hormone signal pathways. CONCLUSIONS: These results showed that long-term 1-MCP treatment severely inhibited ethylene signaling and the cell wall metabolism pathways, which may result in the failure of cell wall degradation and fruit softening. Our results reveal multiple ripening-associated events during papaya fruit ripening and provide a foundation for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying 1-MCP treatment on fruit ripening and the regulatory networks.


Assuntos
Carica/genética , Ciclopropanos/farmacologia , Etilenos/antagonistas & inibidores , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Carica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
3.
Gastroenterol Res Pract ; 2016: 6134187, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27375739

RESUMO

We aim to determine risk factors and clinical outcomes for bowel perforation in premature infants with NEC. We analyzed clinical data of 57 cases of premature infants with NEC at our NICU between January 2010 and December 2012. Based on the presence of bowel perforation, we divided these infants into two groups: perforated NEC group (n = 10) and nonperforated NEC group (n = 47). We compared general information, clinical characteristics, and laboratory findings between groups. The perforated NEC group, compared to the nonperforated NEC group, had significantly lesser gestational age, lower birth weight, higher prevalence of apnea, mechanical ventilation, sepsis and shock, lower blood pH, higher levels of blood glucose, abnormal WBC count and thrombocytopenia, and elevated CRP (all P < 0.05). Moreover, the perforated NEC group had significantly longer durations of fasting and TPN usage, higher incidences of EUGR and cholestasis, longer duration of antibiotics, higher frequency of advanced antibiotics use, and poorer prognosis than the nonperforated NEC group (all P < 0.05). Bowel perforation in premature infants with NEC was associated with multiple risk factors. Early identification of some of these risk factors in premature infants with NEC may help implement early intervention to reduce the incidence of bowel perforation and thereby improve the prognosis.

6.
Bioorg Chem ; 34(6): 410-23, 2006 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17083959

RESUMO

The crystal structure of the acyl complex of porcine pancreatic elastase with its peptidyl ester substrate N-acetyl-ala-ala-ala-methyl ester (Ac(Ala)3OMe) has been determined at 2.5 A resolution. The complex was stabilized by exploiting the "glass transition" in protein dynamics that occurs at around -53 degrees C (220 K). Substrate was flowed into the crystal in a cryoprotective solvent above this temperature, and then the crystal was rapidly cooled to a temperature below the transition to trap the species that formed. The use of a flow cell makes the experiment a kinetic one and means that the species prior to the rate determining transition state has a chance to accumulate. The resulting crystal structure shows an acyl-enzyme intermediate in which the leaving group is absent and the carbonyl carbon of the C-terminal alanine residue is covalently bound to the gamma oxygen of the active site serine. The ester carbonyl shows no significant distortion from planarity, with the carbonyl oxygen forming one hydrogen bond with the oxyanion hole. The tripeptide is bound in an extended antiparallel beta-sheet with main chain residues of the enzyme. The geometry and interactions of this acyl-enzyme suggest that it represents a productive intermediate. To test this hypothesis, the same crystal was then warmed above the glass transition temperature and a second data set was collected. The resulting electron density map shows no sign of the substrate, indicating hydrolysis of the intermediate followed by product release. This experiment provides direct evidence for the importance of dynamic properties in catalysis and also provides a blueprint for the stabilization of other short-lived species for direct crystallographic observation.


Assuntos
Oligopeptídeos/química , Elastase Pancreática/química , Acilação , Animais , Catálise , Cristalização/métodos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Hidrólise , Cinética , Oligopeptídeos/metabolismo , Transição de Fase , Suínos
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