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Antiviral Res ; 184: 104953, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065138


BACKGROUND & AIMS: Normal/mildly elevated ALT (<2 × ULN) CHB patients are potentially at risk of progression to cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to assess the outcomes of anti-viral therapy for normal/mild elevation of ALT CHB patients. METHODS: CHB patients (n = 432) who have had liver biopsied were determined. It was determined that the outcomes of anti-viral therapy in CHB patients with normal/mild elevation of ALT, in response to nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NAs) (n = 190) and pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) (n = 30) treatment for up to 72 weeks. Non-anti-viral treated patients were used as control (n = 40). RESULTS: There was about 50% of the CHB patients showed hepatic inflammatory necrosis ≥ G2 and/or fibrosis ≥ S2 among >30-years-old. The rate of undetectable HBV DNA in NAs and PEG-IFN groups was ~50%, ~80% or ~90% at week 24, 48 or 72, respectively. HBeAg clearance rate was lower in NAs treated than that in PEG-IFN group at week 48 (6% vs 20%, P < 0.05). ALT normalization rate was increased by 1.18-fold at week 72. HBsAg decline in HBeAg+ patients treated with NAs or PEG-IFN was 0.418 or 1.217 log IU/mL (P < 0.0001) at week 48; whereas HBsAg decline was 0.176 or 0.816 log IU/mL (P < 0.001) in HBeAg- patients. HBsAg at baseline and week 24 were strong predictors of "low HBsAg at week 48". CONCLUSION: Long term anti-viral therapy inhibits HBV replication effectively in ALT<2 × ULN CHB patients. PEG-IFN therapy is recommended for HBeAg+ patients with baseline HBsAg<4.37 log IU/ml and HBeAg- patients with baseline HBsAg<2.66 log IU/ml to achieve "low HBsAg at week 48".

Front Physiol ; 11: 526, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655398


Background and Aims: Necroptosis is a newly identified type of cell death with programmed pathways. The current study was performed to investigate necroptosis by measuring its key regulators; receptor interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) and mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) in patients with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) related acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Methods: HBV-related ACLF (HBV-ACLF) patients (n = 90), non-ACLF patients without cirrhosis (N = 70), patients with cirrhosis (N = 40), and healthy controls (HCs; n = 70) were enrolled in the study. All patients were subject to serum RIPK3 measurement. Hepatic RIPK3 and MLKL were also determined in the livers of 18 patients and five donors, using immunohistochemistry. Results: Serum RIPK3 was significantly elevated in HBV-ACLF patients compared to that of non-ACLF patients and the HCs. Serum RIPK3 in ACLF patients at recruitment was significantly higher in non-survivors than those in survivors at the 90-day follow-up. The predictive accuracy of serum RIPK3 at the 90-day outcome was relatively good with an area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) of 0.72 (p < 0.001), similar to that of the model of end-staged liver disease (MELD) score (0.76, p < 0.001). The combined use of RIPK3 and MELD score further increased the AUROC to 0.80. The hepatic RIPK3 and MLKL measured by immunohistochemistry, significantly increased in the patients with HBV-ACLF than in the patients without ACLF and the HCs. Conclusion: Circulating RIPK3 was significantly increased in patients with HBV-ACLF and was associated with a clinical outcome. The improved combined objective scores could offer additional prognostic value in ACLF patients, for physicians with more accurate expectations.

Cancer Med ; 9(9): 3057-3069, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150664


BACKGROUND: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), routinely used for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is limited with relatively low sensitivity and high false positivity in HBV-related HCC (HBV-HCC). Thus, an alternative approach was explored to improve specificity/sensitivity for diagnosis of HBV-HCC, using the combination of AFP, inflammatory score, and liver function. METHODS: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) (n = 510) and HBV-HCC (n = 473) patients were identified retrospectively for this study. The diagnostic value of single vs combined biomarkers for HBV-HCC was analyzed, using ROC curve. RESULTS: It was observed that elderliness, male sex, cirrhosis, HBeAg+ or no-antiviral therapy, and elevation of ALT, AST, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and AFP were associated with developing HBV-HCC. However, the cut-off ALT defined by Chinese standard, but not by AASLD, was a risk factor. Interestingly, AFP of HBeAg- HBV-HCC patients without cirrhosis was significantly higher than that of the HBeAg+ patients. AUC values for AFP, ALT, AST, or NLR were 0.84 (95% CI: 0.815-0.862), 0.533 (95% CI: 0.501-0.565), 0.696 (95% CI: 0.666-0.725), or 0.684 (95% CI: 0.654-0.713) with optimal cut-off at 7.21 ng/mL, 43 IU/mL, 38 IU/mL, or 2.61, respectively. Combination of AFP with ALT, AST, and NLR improved the diagnostic performance for HBV-HCC, compared to any of the single biomarkers or any other combinations among these patients (except no-cirrhosis). CONCLUSIONS: Elderliness, male sex, elevated ALT, AST, NLR, AFP, cirrhosis, HBeAg+ , and no-antiviral treatment were independent risk factors for HBV-HCC. AASLD standard of ALT cut-off value may not be suitable for the Chinese population. Regular monitoring of HCC among HBeAg- patients with abnormal AFP may improve the management of HBV-HCC. The diagnostic performance of AFP combined with ALT, AST, and NLR for HBV-HCC was superior to single biomarker or any other combinations among these patients, and its diagnostic equation can be used as useful tool for differentiation of HBV-HCC from CHB.

J Viral Hepat ; 26(7): 835-845, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974482


Extensive hepatocyte death leads to hepatic inflammation and contributes to systemic inflammation in decompensated cirrhosis. We aimed to investigate the prognostic value of serum cell death markers in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related acute decompensation (AD) of cirrhosis with and without acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). We studied two cohorts-cohort 1: 201 outpatients with stable chronic hepatitis B (49 cirrhosis); cohort 2: 232 inpatients with HBV-related cirrhosis admitted for AD. Cell death was determined with serum keratin-18 (K18) for total death and serum caspase-cleaved-K18 (cK18) for apoptosis. Survival analyses were performed using competing risk method. We found that serum K18 and cK18 were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in patients from cohort 2 than those from cohort 1. Among cohort 2, ACLF patients had significantly (P < 0.001) increased K18 and cK18 comparing to those without ACLF. Increased K18 and cK18 were mainly attributed to HBV flare and were associated with liver and coagulation failure. HBV-AD patients without ACLF who admitted with upper tertile of K18 or cK18 were at higher risk of developing ACLF during follow-up. Baseline serum K18 or cK18 was significantly associated with transplant-free 90-day survival independent of leucocytes, HBV DNA, bacterial infection, encephalopathy and severity scores. The combination of cell death biomarkers significantly improved the prognostic value of the currently established prognostic scores. The reduction of cell death level after standard treatment was associated with increased short-term survival. In conclusion, measurements of serum K18 or cK18 in HBV decompensated cirrhosis are a promising tool for predicting ACLF and risk stratification of short-term outcome.

Biomarcadores , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Queratina-18/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Adulto , Morte Celular , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Carga Viral
Front Physiol ; 10: 1503, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31920708


Background: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently been tightly linked to plenty of human diseases. However, knowledge of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) related lncRNAs remains insufficient. In this work, we studied the role of the lncRNA nuclear enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1) in the pathogenesis of ACLF. Methods: ACLF model was established by challenging D-galactosamine (D-GalN)/ lipopolysaccharide (LPS) i.p. in rats with cirrhosis. The serum levels of IL-1, IL-6, and HMGB1 were determined using ELISA. Quantitative real time-PCR and western blot were performed to evaluate RNA and protein levels of inflammatory response. RNA immunoprecipitation assay was performed to confirm protein that interacts with NEAT1. Findings: Over-expression of NEAT1 could interact with TRAF6 and decrease its ubiquitination level, and significantly reduced the expression levels of IL-6, IL-22. Importantly, in ACLF rat model, NEAT1 over-expression reduced several cytokines expression and alleviated the pathological status in contrast to the control group. Additionally, NEAT1 was increased and positively correlated with IL-22 and IL-6 levels in PBMCs from the ACLF patients. Interpretation: NEAT1 can suppress inflammatory response through blockade of TRAF6 ubiquitination in ACLF rat model, suggesting that lncRNA NEAT1 might play protective roles in the pathogenesis of ACLF and provide promising novel target for pharmacological intervention.

Infect Drug Resist ; 11: 2001-2009, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30464542


Background and aims: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients rarely achieve hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss with nucleoside/nucleotide analog therapy. Methods: In this retrospective study, it was evaluated that the rate of HBsAg loss in the HBe antigen negative (HBeAg-) patients (n=101) treated with entecavir (ETV) for ≥24 weeks followed by switching to (n=22) or adding on (n=26) pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN), and continuing ETV (n=53). Results: HBsAg clearance rate at week 48 was 9% (2/22), 15% (4/26), and 0% (0/53) (P<0.05), in switch-to or add-on, or ETV monotherapy CHB patients, respectively. HBsAg reduction at week 48 was 1.182, 0.6614, or 0.056 log IU/mL, in switch-to, add-on, and ETV patients, respectively (P<0.001). The response rate (HBsAg reduction >1 log IU/mL at week 48) in the switch-to, add-on, and ETV monotherapy CHB patients was 60%, 40%, and 2%, respectively (P<0.001). In the switch-to and add-on patients, HBsAg reduction and clearance were associated with HBsAg titers at week 0 and HBsAg reduction at week 24. Furthermore, HBsAg reduction at week 24 was associated with the response rate at week 48 in the switch-to and add-on patients, showing that the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.904. Positive predictive value and negative predictive value for response rate was 70% and 100% with cut-off value 0.2 log IU/mL, respectively. Conclusion: In summary, we demonstrated that PEG-IFN enhanced HBsAg loss in HBeAg- CHB patients. High HBsAg clearance was achieved in the patients with HBsAg titers at baseline <1,000 IU/mL and HBsAg reduction >0.2 log IU/mL.