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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(49): 24463-24469, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740599


From 2013 to 2017, with the implementation of the toughest-ever clean air policy in China, significant declines in fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations occurred nationwide. Here we estimate the drivers of the improved PM2.5 air quality and the associated health benefits in China from 2013 to 2017 based on a measure-specific integrated evaluation approach, which combines a bottom-up emission inventory, a chemical transport model, and epidemiological exposure-response functions. The estimated national population-weighted annual mean PM2.5 concentrations decreased from 61.8 (95%CI: 53.3-70.0) to 42.0 µg/m3 (95% CI: 35.7-48.6) in 5 y, with dominant contributions from anthropogenic emission abatements. Although interannual meteorological variations could significantly alter PM2.5 concentrations, the corresponding effects on the 5-y trends were relatively small. The measure-by-measure evaluation indicated that strengthening industrial emission standards (power plants and emission-intensive industrial sectors), upgrades on industrial boilers, phasing out outdated industrial capacities, and promoting clean fuels in the residential sector were major effective measures in reducing PM2.5 pollution and health burdens. These measures were estimated to contribute to 6.6- (95% CI: 5.9-7.1), 4.4- (95% CI: 3.8-4.9), 2.8- (95% CI: 2.5-3.0), and 2.2- (95% CI: 2.0-2.5) µg/m3 declines in the national PM2.5 concentration in 2017, respectively, and further reduced PM2.5-attributable excess deaths by 0.37 million (95% CI: 0.35-0.39), or 92% of the total avoided deaths. Our study confirms the effectiveness of China's recent clean air actions, and the measure-by-measure evaluation provides insights into future clean air policy making in China and in other developing and polluting countries.

Sci Adv ; 4(12): eaat5256, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30555915


The Indian government has set an ambitious target for future renewable power generation, including 60 GW of cumulative wind power capacity by 2022. However, the benefits of these substantial investments are vulnerable to the changing climate. On the basis of hourly wind data from an assimilated meteorology reanalysis dataset covering the 1980-2016 period, we show that wind power potential may have declined secularly over this interval, particularly in western India. Surface temperature data confirm that significant warming occurred in the Indian Ocean over the study period, leading to modulation of high pressure over the ocean. A multivariable linear regression model incorporating the pressure gradient between the Indian Ocean and the Indian subcontinent can account for the interannual variability of wind power. A series of numerical sensitivity experiments confirm that warming in the Indian Ocean contributes to subsidence and dampening of upward motion over the Indian continent, resulting potentially in weakening of the monsoonal circulation and wind speeds over India.

Onco Targets Ther ; 8: 809-18, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25926742


BACKGROUND: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway plays a significant role in radiation resistance. There is evidence that EGFR nuclear translocation is associated with DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) repair. Nimotuzumab has shown the effect of radiosensitization in various cancer cells, but little is known about the relationship between nimotuzumab and EGFR nuclear translocation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. In this study, we selected two NSCLC cell lines, namely, H292 (with high EGFR expression) and H1975 (with low EGFR expression) and explored the mechanisms underlying radiation sensitivity. METHODS: MTT assay, clonogenic survival assay, and flow cytometry were performed separately to test cell viability, radiation sensitivity, cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis. Protein γ-H2AX, DNA-PK/p-DNA-PK, and EGFR/p-EGFR expression were further compared both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus with the western blot. RESULTS: Nimotuzumab reduced the viability of H292 cells and sensitized H292 cells to ionizing radiation. The radiation sensitivity enhancement ratio (SER) was 1.304 and 1.092 for H292 and H1975 cells, respectively. H292 cells after nimotuzumab administration were arrested at the G0/G1 phase in response to radiation. Apoptosis was without statistical significance in both cell lines. γ-H2AX formation in the combination group (nimotuzumab and radiation) increased both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus along with the decreased expression of nuclear EGFR/p-EGFR and p-DNA-PK in H292 cells (P<0.05) that was more significant than that in H1975 cells. CONCLUSION: Our research revealed a possible mechanism to explain the radiosensitivity in H292 cells. Nimotuzumab decreased the radiation-induced activation of DNA-PK by blocking EGFR nuclear translocation and impairing DNA DSB repair, thus enhancing radiosensitivity in H292 cells. Because these results represent early research, the matters of how γ-H2AX and DNA-PK dynamically change simultaneously with nuclear EGFR and the best time to administer nimotuzumab will require further exploration.

Nature ; 467(7311): 43-51, 2010 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20811450


China is the world's most populous country and a major emitter of greenhouse gases. Consequently, much research has focused on China's influence on climate change but somewhat less has been written about the impact of climate change on China. China experienced explosive economic growth in recent decades, but with only 7% of the world's arable land available to feed 22% of the world's population, China's economy may be vulnerable to climate change itself. We find, however, that notwithstanding the clear warming that has occurred in China in recent decades, current understanding does not allow a clear assessment of the impact of anthropogenic climate change on China's water resources and agriculture and therefore China's ability to feed its people. To reach a more definitive conclusion, future work must improve regional climate simulations-especially of precipitation-and develop a better understanding of the managed and unmanaged responses of crops to changes in climate, diseases, pests and atmospheric constituents.

Mudança Climática , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Agricultura , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Dinâmica Populacional , Água