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1.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 3, 2019 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a partially heritable trait and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 180 common genetic variants associated with breast cancer. We have previously performed breast cancer GWAS in Latinas and identified a strongly protective single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at 6q25, with the protective minor allele originating from indigenous American ancestry. Here we report on fine mapping of the 6q25 locus in an expanded sample of Latinas. METHODS: We performed GWAS in 2385 cases and 6416 controls who were either US Latinas or Mexican women. We replicated the top SNPs in 2412 cases and 1620 controls of US Latina, Mexican, and Colombian women. In addition, we validated the top novel variants in studies of African, Asian and European ancestry. In each dataset we used logistic regression models to test the association between SNPs and breast cancer risk and corrected for genetic ancestry using either principal components or genetic ancestry inferred from ancestry informative markers using a model-based approach. RESULTS: We identified a novel set of SNPs at the 6q25 locus associated with genome-wide levels of significance (p = 3.3 × 10- 8 - 6.0 × 10- 9) not in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with variants previously reported at this locus. These SNPs were in high LD (r2 > 0.9) with each other, with the top SNP, rs3778609, associated with breast cancer with an odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 0.76 (0.70-0.84). In a replication in women of Latin American origin, we also observed a consistent effect (OR 0.88; 95% CI 0.78-0.99; p = 0.037). We also performed a meta-analysis of these SNPs in East Asians, African ancestry and European ancestry populations and also observed a consistent effect (rs3778609, OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.91-0.97; p = 0.0017). CONCLUSION: Our study adds to evidence about the importance of the 6q25 locus for breast cancer susceptibility. Our finding also highlights the utility of performing additional searches for genetic variants for breast cancer in non-European populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Mama , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
2.
Fam Cancer ; 17(2): 187-195, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28864920

RESUMO

African-American women are more likely to develop aggressive breast cancer at younger ages and experience poorer cancer prognoses than non-Hispanic Caucasians. Deficiency in repair of DNA by homologous recombination (HR) is associated with cancer development, suggesting that mutations in genes that affect this process may cause breast cancer. Inherited pathogenic mutations have been identified in genes involved in repairing DNA damage, but few studies have focused on African-Americans. We screened for germline mutations in seven HR repair pathway genes in DNA of 181 African-American women with breast cancer, evaluated the potential effects of identified missense variants using in silico prediction software, and functionally characterized a set of missense variants by yeast two-hybrid assays. We identified five likely-damaging variants, including two PALB2 truncating variants (Q151X and W1038X) and three novel missense variants (RAD51C C135R, and XRCC3 L297P and V337E) that abolish protein-protein interactions in yeast two-hybrid assays. Our results add to evidence that HR gene mutations account for a proportion of the genetic risk for developing breast cancer in African-Americans. Identifying additional mutations that diminish HR may provide a tool for better assessing breast cancer risk and improving approaches for targeted treatment.

3.
J Clin Oncol ; 35(20): 2240-2250, 2017 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28448241

RESUMO

Purpose BRCA1/2 mutations increase the risk of breast and prostate cancer in men. Common genetic variants modify cancer risks for female carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations. We investigated-for the first time to our knowledge-associations of common genetic variants with breast and prostate cancer risks for male carriers of BRCA1/ 2 mutations and implications for cancer risk prediction. Materials and Methods We genotyped 1,802 male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 by using the custom Illumina OncoArray. We investigated the combined effects of established breast and prostate cancer susceptibility variants on cancer risks for male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations by constructing weighted polygenic risk scores (PRSs) using published effect estimates as weights. Results In male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations, PRS that was based on 88 female breast cancer susceptibility variants was associated with breast cancer risk (odds ratio per standard deviation of PRS, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.56; P = 8.6 × 10-6). Similarly, PRS that was based on 103 prostate cancer susceptibility variants was associated with prostate cancer risk (odds ratio per SD of PRS, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.35 to 1.81; P = 3.2 × 10-9). Large differences in absolute cancer risks were observed at the extremes of the PRS distribution. For example, prostate cancer risk by age 80 years at the 5th and 95th percentiles of the PRS varies from 7% to 26% for carriers of BRCA1 mutations and from 19% to 61% for carriers of BRCA2 mutations, respectively. Conclusion PRSs may provide informative cancer risk stratification for male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations that might enable these men and their physicians to make informed decisions on the type and timing of breast and prostate cancer risk management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Herança Multifatorial , Mutação , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco/métodos
4.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 161(1): 117-134, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27796716

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cis-acting regulatory SNPs resulting in differential allelic expression (DAE) may, in part, explain the underlying phenotypic variation associated with many complex diseases. To investigate whether common variants associated with DAE were involved in breast cancer susceptibility among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, a list of 175 genes was developed based of their involvement in cancer-related pathways. METHODS: Using data from a genome-wide map of SNPs associated with allelic expression, we assessed the association of ~320 SNPs located in the vicinity of these genes with breast and ovarian cancer risks in 15,252 BRCA1 and 8211 BRCA2 mutation carriers ascertained from 54 studies participating in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2. RESULTS: We identified a region on 11q22.3 that is significantly associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (most significant SNP rs228595 p = 7 × 10-6). This association was absent in BRCA2 carriers (p = 0.57). The 11q22.3 region notably encompasses genes such as ACAT1, NPAT, and ATM. Expression quantitative trait loci associations were observed in both normal breast and tumors across this region, namely for ACAT1, ATM, and other genes. In silico analysis revealed some overlap between top risk-associated SNPs and relevant biological features in mammary cell data, which suggests potential functional significance. CONCLUSION: We identified 11q22.3 as a new modifier locus in BRCA1 carriers. Replication in larger studies using estrogen receptor (ER)-negative or triple-negative (i.e., ER-, progesterone receptor-, and HER2-negative) cases could therefore be helpful to confirm the association of this locus with breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Heterozigoto , Mutação , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11 , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Risco
5.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 160(1): 121-129, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27624329

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Breast cancer-predisposing mutations PALB2 c.1027C>T (p.Gln343*) and PALB2 c.2167_2168delAT have each been observed multiple times in breast cancer families of Italian ancestry. More recently, the c2167_2168delAT mutation was identified in unrelated breast cancer cases of various ancestries. For each mutation, we investigated whether the origin was multiple mutational events (a "hot-spot") or a single event (a founder allele). METHODS: We genotyped and reconstructed haplotypes for 36 participants of Italian, Italian-American, Hispanic, and Nigerian ancestries, using seven short tandem repeat (STR) markers that covered 3 Megabases within and flanking PALB2 on chromosome 16. RESULTS: For PALB2 c.1027C>T, a shared haplotype with a minimum size of 150 kb was shared by all 19 carriers investigated, all of Italian ancestry. This result suggests that this allele arose as a single event in a shared ancestor. For PALB2 c.2167_2168delAT, all 12 carriers from American-Italian and Italian families shared a 1-Mb haplotype, the 3 Hispanic carriers shared a different haplotype of size 2 Mb, and the Nigerian carrier had different alleles at all 7 STR markers. These results suggest that PALB2 c.2167_2168delAT arose multiple times, but that within each population, PALB2 c.2167_2168delAT likely represents a single mutational event. CONCLUSION: We identified two PALB2 mutations that are founder alleles in Italian families, one of which is, independently, also a founder mutation in American-Hispanic breast cancers.


Assuntos
Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos , Mutação , Feminino , Efeito Fundador , Estudos de Associação Genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Itália , Repetições de Microssatélites , Linhagem
6.
Breast Cancer Res ; 17: 61, 2015 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25925750

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Individuals carrying pathogenic mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have a high lifetime risk of breast cancer. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are involved in DNA double-strand break repair, DNA alterations that can be caused by exposure to reactive oxygen species, a main source of which are mitochondria. Mitochondrial genome variations affect electron transport chain efficiency and reactive oxygen species production. Individuals with different mitochondrial haplogroups differ in their metabolism and sensitivity to oxidative stress. Variability in mitochondrial genetic background can alter reactive oxygen species production, leading to cancer risk. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial haplogroups modify breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. METHODS: We genotyped 22,214 (11,421 affected, 10,793 unaffected) mutation carriers belonging to the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 for 129 mitochondrial polymorphisms using the iCOGS array. Haplogroup inference and association detection were performed using a phylogenetic approach. ALTree was applied to explore the reference mitochondrial evolutionary tree and detect subclades enriched in affected or unaffected individuals. RESULTS: We discovered that subclade T1a1 was depleted in affected BRCA2 mutation carriers compared with the rest of clade T (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34 to 0.88; P = 0.01). Compared with the most frequent haplogroup in the general population (that is, H and T clades), the T1a1 haplogroup has a HR of 0.62 (95% CI, 0.40 to 0.95; P = 0.03). We also identified three potential susceptibility loci, including G13708A/rs28359178, which has demonstrated an inverse association with familial breast cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates how original approaches such as the phylogeny-based method we used can empower classical molecular epidemiological studies aimed at identifying association or risk modification effects.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA2 , Genes Mitocondriais , Heterozigoto , Mutação , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos , Humanos , Filogenia , Risco
7.
Nat Genet ; 47(2): 164-71, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25581431

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 12 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) susceptibility alleles. The pattern of association at these loci is consistent in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers who are at high risk of EOC. After imputation to 1000 Genomes Project data, we assessed associations of 11 million genetic variants with EOC risk from 15,437 cases unselected for family history and 30,845 controls and from 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers (3,096 with ovarian cancer), and we combined the results in a meta-analysis. This new study design yielded increased statistical power, leading to the discovery of six new EOC susceptibility loci. Variants at 1p36 (nearest gene, WNT4), 4q26 (SYNPO2), 9q34.2 (ABO) and 17q11.2 (ATAD5) were associated with EOC risk, and at 1p34.3 (RSPO1) and 6p22.1 (GPX6) variants were specifically associated with the serous EOC subtype, all with P < 5 × 10(-8). Incorporating these variants into risk assessment tools will improve clinical risk predictions for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Feminino , Genes Reporter , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mutação , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 24(1): 308-16, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25336561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are at substantially increased risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. The incomplete penetrance coupled with the variable age at diagnosis in carriers of the same mutation suggests the existence of genetic and nongenetic modifying factors. In this study, we evaluated the putative role of variants in many candidate modifier genes. METHODS: Genotyping data from 15,252 BRCA1 and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers, for known variants (n = 3,248) located within or around 445 candidate genes, were available through the iCOGS custom-designed array. Breast and ovarian cancer association analysis was performed within a retrospective cohort approach. RESULTS: The observed P values of association ranged between 0.005 and 1.000. None of the variants was significantly associated with breast or ovarian cancer risk in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, after multiple testing adjustments. CONCLUSION: There is little evidence that any of the evaluated candidate variants act as modifiers of breast and/or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. IMPACT: Genome-wide association studies have been more successful at identifying genetic modifiers of BRCA1/2 penetrance than candidate gene studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1/fisiologia , Genes BRCA2/fisiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 9(7): e101428, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24999842

RESUMO

We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 1550 North American celiac disease cases and 3084 controls. Twelve SNPs, distributed across four regions (3p21.31, 4q27, 6q15, 6q25), were significantly associated with disease (p-value <1.0×10-7), and a further seven SNPs, across four additional regions (1q24.3, 10p15.1, 6q22.31, 17q21.32) had suggestive evidence (1.0×10-7 < p-value < 1.0×10-6). This study replicated a previous suggestive association within FRMD4B (3p14.1), confirming it as a celiac disease locus. All four regions with significant associations and two regions with suggestive results (1q24.3, 10p15.1) were known disease loci. The 6q22.31 and 10p11.23 regions were not replicated. A total of 410 SNPs distributed across the eight significant and suggestive regions were tested for association with dermatitis herpetiformis and microscopic colitis. Preliminary, suggestive statistical evidence for association with the two traits was found at chromosomes 3p21.31, 6q15, 6q25, 1q24.3 and 10p11.23, with future studies being required to validate the reported associations.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Américas/epidemiologia , Doença Celíaca/complicações , Doença Celíaca/epidemiologia , Colite Microscópica/complicações , Colite Microscópica/genética , Dermatite Herpetiforme/complicações , Dermatite Herpetiforme/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
10.
PLoS Genet ; 10(4): e1004256, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24698998

RESUMO

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in the DNA Base Excision Repair (BER) pathway could be associated with cancer risk in carriers of mutations in the high-penetrance susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, given the relation of synthetic lethality that exists between one of the components of the BER pathway, PARP1 (poly ADP ribose polymerase), and both BRCA1 and BRCA2. In the present study, we have performed a comprehensive analysis of 18 genes involved in BER using a tagging SNP approach in a large series of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. 144 SNPs were analyzed in a two stage study involving 23,463 carriers from the CIMBA consortium (the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2). Eleven SNPs showed evidence of association with breast and/or ovarian cancer at p<0.05 in the combined analysis. Four of the five genes for which strongest evidence of association was observed were DNA glycosylases. The strongest evidence was for rs1466785 in the NEIL2 (endonuclease VIII-like 2) gene (HR: 1.09, 95% CI (1.03-1.16), p = 2.7 × 10(-3)) for association with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers, and rs2304277 in the OGG1 (8-guanine DNA glycosylase) gene, with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR: 1.12 95%CI: 1.03-1.21, p = 4.8 × 10(-3)). DNA glycosylases involved in the first steps of the BER pathway may be associated with cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and should be more comprehensively studied.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco
11.
Clin Chem ; 60(2): 341-52, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24212087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate evaluation of unclassified sequence variants in cancer predisposition genes is essential for clinical management and depends on a multifactorial analysis of clinical, genetic, pathologic, and bioinformatic variables and assays of transcript length and abundance. The integrity of assay data in turn relies on appropriate assay design, interpretation, and reporting. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter investigation to compare mRNA splicing assay protocols used by members of the ENIGMA (Evidence-Based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles) consortium. We compared similarities and differences in results derived from analysis of a panel of breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) and breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene variants known to alter splicing (BRCA1: c.135-1G>T, c.591C>T, c.594-2A>C, c.671-2A>G, and c.5467+5G>C and BRCA2: c.426-12_8delGTTTT, c.7988A>T, c.8632+1G>A, and c.9501+3A>T). Differences in protocols were then assessed to determine which elements were critical in reliable assay design. RESULTS: PCR primer design strategies, PCR conditions, and product detection methods, combined with a prior knowledge of expected alternative transcripts, were the key factors for accurate splicing assay results. For example, because of the position of primers and PCR extension times, several isoforms associated with BRCA1, c.594-2A>C and c.671-2A>G, were not detected by many sites. Variation was most evident for the detection of low-abundance transcripts (e.g., BRCA2 c.8632+1G>A Δ19,20 and BRCA1 c.135-1G>T Δ5q and Δ3). Detection of low-abundance transcripts was sometimes addressed by using more analytically sensitive detection methods (e.g., BRCA2 c.426-12_8delGTTTT ins18bp). CONCLUSIONS: We provide recommendations for best practice and raise key issues to consider when designing mRNA assays for evaluation of unclassified sequence variants.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Testes Genéticos/normas , Laboratórios/normas , Processamento de RNA , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sítios de Splice de RNA , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
PLoS One ; 7(5): e36926, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22615847

RESUMO

Celiac disease is a common autoimmune disease caused by sensitivity to the dietary protein gluten. Forty loci have been implicated in the disease. All disease loci have been characterized as low-penetrance, with the exception of the high-risk genotypes in the HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 genes, which are necessary but not sufficient to cause the disease. The very strong effects from the known HLA loci and the genetically complex nature of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have precluded a thorough investigation of the region. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that additional celiac disease loci exist within the extended MHC (xMHC). A set of 1898 SNPs was analyzed for association across the 7.6 Mb xMHC region in 1668 confirmed celiac disease cases and 517 unaffected controls. Conditional recursive partitioning was used to create an informative indicator of the known HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 high-risk genotypes that was included in the association analysis to account for their effects. A linkage disequilibrium-based grouping procedure was utilized to estimate the number of independent celiac disease loci present in the xMHC after accounting for the known effects. There was significant statistical evidence for four new independent celiac disease loci within the classic MHC region. This study is the first comprehensive association analysis of the xMHC in celiac disease that specifically accounts for the known HLA disease genotypes and the genetic complexity of the region.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/genética , Cadeias alfa de HLA-DQ/genética , Cadeias beta de HLA-DQ/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 20(8): 1690-702, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21708937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers have a lifetime breast cancer risk of 40% to 80%, suggesting the presence of risk modifiers. We previously identified significant associations in genetic variants in the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway. Here, we investigate additional IGF signaling genes as risk modifiers for breast cancer development in BRCA carriers. METHODS: A cohort of 1,019 BRCA1 and 500 BRCA2 mutation carriers were genotyped for 99 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 13 genes. Proportional hazards regression was used to model time from birth to diagnosis of breast cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers separately. For linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks with multiple SNPs, an additive genetic model was used. For an SNP analysis, no additivity assumptions were made. RESULTS: Significant associations were found between risk of breast cancer and LD blocks in IGF2 for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers (global P values of 0.009 for BRCA1 and 0.007 for BRCA2), HTRA1 for BRCA1 carriers (global P value of 0.005), and MMP3 for BRCA2 carriers (global P = 0.0000007 for BRCA2). CONCLUSIONS: We identified significant associations of genetic variants involved in IGF signaling. With the known interaction of BRCA1 and IGF signaling and the loss of PTEN in a majority of BRCA1 tumors, this suggests that signaling through AKT may modify breast cancer risk in BRCA1 carriers. IMPACT: These results suggest potential avenues for future research targeting the IGF signaling pathway in modifying risk in BRCA1and BRCA2 mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Serina Peptidase 1 de Requerimento de Alta Temperatura A , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
14.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 6(1): 82-9, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20203140

RESUMO

The present study investigated gender differences in the associations between the DRD4 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism and adolescent delinquency, short temper and thrill seeking. We also explored whether the gender-specific expression of the DRD4 can be explained by gender differences in the exposure to psychosocial risks, such as poor parent-child relationship. Participants were 263 14- to 17-year olds (50% males) living in Russia. DNA was extracted from saliva samples and the VNTR DRD4 polymorphisms were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction. Participants reported on the extent of their delinquent behaviour, short temper, thrill seeking and exposure to psychosocial risk (i.e. poor parental monitoring of adolescent behaviour, exposure to violence and peer delinquency). Compared to individuals with the 4/4 genotype, males, but not females, with the 7-repeat allele (7R) had significantly higher delinquency, short temper and thrill seeking. This interaction effect, however, was completely explained by males' higher exposure to psychosocial risk factors. When parental monitoring of youths' activities and youth exposure to violence were included in the model, the 7R × gender interaction was no longer significant. Thus, social context plays an important role in explaining gender-specific phenotypic expression of the DRD4 gene.


Assuntos
Ira/fisiologia , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Repetições Minissatélites/genética , Receptores de Dopamina D4/genética , Assunção de Riscos , Caracteres Sexuais , Adolescente , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
15.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 126(3): 771-8, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20927582

RESUMO

Male breast cancer (MBC) is an uncommon disease with a frequency of approximately one in 1000. Due to the rarity of MBC, it is understudied and its etiology is poorly understood. Our objectives are to determine the frequency of pathogenic mutations in BRCA2 and PALB2 in MBC cases and to investigate the correlations between mutation status and cancer phenotypes. Single strand conformation polymorphism analysis, direct sequencing, and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification were employed to screen for mutations in the BRCA2 gene, followed by direct sequencing of the PALB2 gene in BRCA2-negative MBC cases. Pathogenic BRCA2 mutations were identified in 18 of the 115 MBC cases, including four of the ten cases (40%) from breast cancer families and 14 of the 105 cases (13%) unselected for family history of breast cancer. The difference in BRCA2-mutation frequencies between cases with and without family history of breast cancer was not statistically significant (P = 0.145), suggesting that family history is not a strong predictor of carrying a mutation in males. We observed a highly significant association of carrying a pathogenic BRCA2 mutation with high tumor grade (P < 0.001) and a weak association with positive lymph nodes (P < 0.02). Of the 97 BRCA2-negative MBC cases, we identified one PALB2 mutation with confirmed pathogenicity and one mutation predicted to be pathogenic, a prevalence of pathogenic PALB2-mutation of 1-2%. Based on our results and previous studies, genetic testing for BRCA2 should be recommended for any diagnosed MBC case, regardless of family history of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Genéticos , Estados Unidos
16.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 103(2): 105-16, 2011 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21169536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancers. Although several common variants have been associated with breast cancer susceptibility in mutation carriers, none have been associated with ovarian cancer susceptibility. A genome-wide association study recently identified an association between the rare allele of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3814113 (ie, the C allele) at 9p22.2 and decreased risk of ovarian cancer for women in the general population. We evaluated the association of this SNP with ovarian cancer risk among BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers by use of data from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2. METHODS: We genotyped rs3814113 in 10,029 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 5837 BRCA2 mutation carriers. Associations with ovarian and breast cancer were assessed with a retrospective likelihood approach. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: The minor allele of rs3814113 was associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer among BRCA1 mutation carriers (per-allele hazard ratio of ovarian cancer = 0.78, 95% confidence interval = 0.72 to 0.85; P = 4.8 × 10(-9)) and BRCA2 mutation carriers (hazard ratio of ovarian cancer = 0.78, 95% confidence interval = 0.67 to 0.90; P = 5.5 × 10(-4)). This SNP was not associated with breast cancer risk among either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. BRCA1 mutation carriers with the TT genotype at SNP rs3814113 were predicted to have an ovarian cancer risk to age 80 years of 48%, and those with the CC genotype were predicted to have a risk of 33%. CONCLUSION: Common genetic variation at the 9p22.2 locus was associated with decreased risk of ovarian cancer for carriers of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Heterozigoto , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 126(1): 227-30, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21113654

RESUMO

Breast cancer incidence is lower in African Americans than in Caucasian Americans. However, African-American women have higher breast cancer mortality rates and tend to be diagnosed with earlier-onset disease. Identifying factors correlated to the racial/ethnic variation in the epidemiology of breast cancer may provide better understanding of the more aggressive disease at diagnosis. Truncating germline mutations in PALB2 have been identified in approximately 1% of early-onset and/or familial breast cancer cases. To date, PALB2 mutation testing has not been performed in African-American breast cancer cases. We screened for germline mutations in PALB2 in 139 African-American breast cases by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and direct sequencing. Twelve variants were identified in these cases and none caused truncation of the protein. Three missense variants, including two rare variants (P8L and T300I) and one common variant (P210L), were predicted to be pathogenic, and were located in a coiled-coil domain of PALB2 required for RAD51- and BRCA1-binding. We investigated and found no significant association between the P210L variant and breast cancer risk in a small case-control study of African-American women. This study adds to the literature that PALB2 mutations, although rare, appear to play a role in breast cancer in all populations investigated to date.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cancer Res ; 70(23): 9742-54, 2010 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21118973

RESUMO

The known breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms in FGFR2, TNRC9/TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, and 2q35 confer increased risks of breast cancer for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. We evaluated the associations of 3 additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs4973768 in SLC4A7/NEK10, rs6504950 in STXBP4/COX11, and rs10941679 at 5p12, and reanalyzed the previous associations using additional carriers in a sample of 12,525 BRCA1 and 7,409 BRCA2 carriers. Additionally, we investigated potential interactions between SNPs and assessed the implications for risk prediction. The minor alleles of rs4973768 and rs10941679 were associated with increased breast cancer risk for BRCA2 carriers (per-allele HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03-1.18, P = 0.006 and HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.19, P = 0.03, respectively). Neither SNP was associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 carriers, and rs6504950 was not associated with breast cancer for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers. Of the 9 polymorphisms investigated, 7 were associated with breast cancer for BRCA2 carriers (FGFR2, TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, 2q35, SLC4A7, 5p12, P = 7 × 10(-11) - 0.03), but only TOX3 and 2q35 were associated with the risk for BRCA1 carriers (P = 0.0049, 0.03, respectively). All risk-associated polymorphisms appear to interact multiplicatively on breast cancer risk for mutation carriers. Based on the joint genotype distribution of the 7 risk-associated SNPs in BRCA2 mutation carriers, the 5% of BRCA2 carriers at highest risk (i.e., between 95th and 100th percentiles) were predicted to have a probability between 80% and 96% of developing breast cancer by age 80, compared with 42% to 50% for the 5% of carriers at lowest risk. Our findings indicated that these risk differences might be sufficient to influence the clinical management of mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Progesterona/genética , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Simportadores de Sódio-Bicarbonato/genética , Análise de Sobrevida , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética
19.
Breast Cancer Res ; 11(5): R76, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19843326

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Women who carry mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 have a substantially increased risk of developing breast cancer as compared with the general population. However, risk estimates range from 20 to 80%, suggesting the presence of genetic and/or environmental risk modifiers. Based on extensive in vivo and in vitro studies, one important pathway for breast cancer pathogenesis may be the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway, which regulates both cellular proliferation and apoptosis. BRCA1 has been shown to directly interact with IGF signaling such that variants in this pathway may modify risk of cancer in women carrying BRCA mutations. In this study, we investigate the association of variants in genes involved in IGF signaling and risk of breast cancer in women who carry deleterious BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. METHODS: A cohort of 1,665 adult, female mutation carriers, including 1,122 BRCA1 carriers (433 cases) and 543 BRCA2 carriers (238 cases) were genotyped for SNPs in IGF1, IGF1 receptor (IGF1R), IGF1 binding protein (IGFBP1, IGFBP2, IGFBP5), and IGF receptor substrate 1 (IRS1). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model time from birth to diagnosis of breast cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers separately. For linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks with multiple SNPs, an additive genetic model was assumed; and for single SNP analyses, no additivity assumptions were made. RESULTS: Among BRCA1 carriers, significant associations were found between risk of breast cancer and LD blocks in IGF1R (global P = 0.011 for LD block 2 and global P = 0.012 for LD block 11). Among BRCA2 carriers, an LD block in IGFBP2 (global P = 0.0145) was found to be associated with the time to breast cancer diagnosis. No significant LD block associations were found for the other investigated genes among BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to investigate the role of genetic variation in IGF signaling and breast cancer risk in women carrying deleterious mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. We identified significant associations in variants in IGF1R and IRS1 in BRCA1 carriers and in IGFBP2 in BRCA2 carriers. Although there is known to be interaction of BRCA1 and IGF signaling, further replication and identification of causal mechanisms are needed to better understand these associations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Proteínas de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante a Insulina/genética , Somatomedinas/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Variação Genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
20.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet ; 181(1): 16-9, 2008 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18262047

RESUMO

Mitochondria play important roles in cellular energy production, free radical generation, and apoptosis. In a previous report, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) G10398A (Thr-->Ala) polymorphism was associated with breast cancer risk in African-American women [Cancer Res 2005;65:8028-33]. We sought to replicate the association by genotyping the G10398A polymorphism in multiple established population-based case-control studies of breast cancer in African-American women. The 10398A allele was not significantly associated with risk in any of the studies: San Francisco (542 cases, 282 controls, odds ratio OR = 1.73, 95% confidence interval CI = 0.87-3.47, P = 0.12); Multiethnic Cohort (391 cases, 460 controls, OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.62-1.86, P = 0.79); and CARE and LIFE (524 cases, 236 controls, OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.43-1.52, P = 0.50). With data pooled across the studies (1,456 cases and 978 controls), no significant association was observed with the 10398A allele (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.80-1.62, P = 0.47, test for heterogeneity = 0.30). In analysis of advanced breast cancer cases (n = 674), there was also no significant association (OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 0.76-1.82, P = 0.46). Our results do not support the hypothesis that the mtDNA G10398A polymorphism is, as has previously been reported, a marker of breast cancer risk in African Americans.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Humanos , Los Angeles , Valores de Referência , Tamanho da Amostra , São Francisco
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