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1.
Chin J Integr Med ; 26(2): 114-121, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144159

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of quercetin on ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), liver X receptor (LXR), and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) expressions in apoE-knockout (ApoE-/-) mice. METHODS: The high-fat diet-induced atherosclerosis (AS) in ApoE-/- mice was established. Thirty-six mice were divided into 3 groups using random number table method: model group (n=12), quercetin group (n=12), and atorvastatin group (n=12), with C57BL/6J mice of the same strain and age as the control group (n=12). Quercetin group and atorvastatin group were administrated with quercetin and atorvastatin by oral gavage, with doses of 12.5 and 4 mg/(kg•d), respectively. Animals in the control and model groups were given an equal volume of distilled water by oral gavage once per day for a total of 12 weeks. Western blot and immunohistochemical methods were employed to determine the aortic ABCA1, LXR-α and PCSK9 protein expression. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method was used to detect the expression of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-10, combined with tissue pathological examination. RESULTS: ApoE-/- mice fed with a high-fat diet had notable atherosclerosis lesions, with reduced ABCA1, LXR-α and IL-10 levels (all P<0.01), elevated PCSK9, TNF-α and IL-6 expression, and increased TC and LDL-C contents (all P<0.01). After quercetin intervention, the areas of AS plaques and the expressions of PCSK9, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly reduced (all P<0.01), while the expressions of ABCA1 and LXR-α were increased significantly (all P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Quercetin effectively interfered with AS development by regulating the expressions of ABCA1, LXR- α and PCSK9 in ApoE-/- mice.

2.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 865: 172748, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655030

RESUMO

To test the hypothesis that the flavonoid compound, fisetin, protects macrophages from lipid accumulation and senescence through regulation of casein kinase 2-interacting protein-1 (CKIP-1)/REGγ (11S regulatory particles, 28 kDa proteasome activator, proteasome activator subunit 3) signaling. RAW264.7 macrophage cells were exposed to 100 µg/ml oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) with or without 20 µg/ml fisetin for 24 h. Cell viability was detected by CCK-8 after 1 h. Intracellular lipid accumulation was measured using Oil Red O staining. Total cholesterol (TC) and free cholesterol (FC) contents were measured using assay kits, and cell senescence was inferred by ß-gal staining. Protein expression levels of CKIP-1, REGγ, organic cation transporter 1 (Oct-1), lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), tumor suppressor protein p53 (p53), cell cycle regulatory protein p21 (p21), and multiple tumor suppressor-1 (p16) were detected by immunofluorescence and confirmed by Western blot. Stimulating RAW264.7 macrophage cells with 100 µg/ml ox-LDL for 24 h induced the formation of foam cells, increased intracellular lipid accumulation, increased TC and FC content, and promoted cell senescence. Furthermore, cells induced with 100 µg/ml ox-LDL for 24 h showed decreased CKIP-1 and REGγ protein, while the expressions of Oct-1, LOX-1, p53, p21 and p16 were increased. In contrast, treatment with 20 µg/ml fisetin reversed 100 µg/ml ox-LDL effects to increase cell viability, and decrease ß-gal staining, intracellular lipid levels and TC and FC levels. These beneficial effects were associated with increased CKIP-1 and REGγ and decreased Oct-1, LOX-1, p53, p21, and p16 protein expression. Results indicated that fisetin limited ox-LDL-mediated lipid accumulation and senescence in RAW264.7 macrophage-derived foam cells. The mechanism underlying these effects may involve regulation of CKIP-1/REGγ signaling.

3.
J Integr Med ; 17(6): 404-409, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548147

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect and underlying mechanisms of Tiaoxin Recipe (a Chinese herbal formula) treatment on Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Twelve-week-old APPswe/PS1ΔE9 (APP/PS1) double transgenic mice were used as a model of AD-afflicted mice. One group of mice was treated with Tiaoxin Recipe by gastrogavage for 12 weeks, while two other groups were given intraperitoneal injections of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or FK866 for 4 weeks. Morris water maze and thioflavin S staining tests were performed to evaluate cognitive impairment and amyloid plaque deposition, respectively. Serum amyloid-ß1-42 (Aß1-42) content was detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to examine the expression levels of microRNA-34a (miR-34a) in cortex and hippocampus samples of the study mice. RESULTS: Compared with the normal control group, the memory and learning abilities of the APP/PS1 model group were found to be impaired (P < 0.01), as shown by the increased levels of senile plaque deposition in cortex and hippocampus (P < 0.01), miR-34a expression (P < 0.01) and serum Aß1-42 content (P < 0.01). Treatment with Tiaoxin Recipe significantly reduced memory impairment (P < 0.01) by reducing amyloid plaque accumulation in cortex and hippocampus (P < 0.01), miR-34a expression (P < 0.01) and serum Aß1-42 content (P < 0.01) in APP/PS1 mice. CONCLUSION: Tiaoxin Recipe is a viable complementary or alternative therapeutic treatment that is capable of delaying the development of early-stage AD by inhibiting the expression of miR-34a.

4.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(2): 178-181, 2019 Apr 22.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184052

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the malaria epidemic situation and characteristics in Jiangsu Province in 2017, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the targeted strategy of malaria elimination. METHODS: The data of malaria cases in Jiangsu Province in 2016 were collected from China's Routine Diseases Surveillance Information System (CRDSIS). RESULTS: Totally, 239 imported malaria cases were reported in Jiangsu Province in 2017, and the cases decreased by 22.40% compared to 308 cases in 2015. Except 2 malaria case caused by blood transfusion, the rest patients were all imported. Among them, there were 163 falciparum malaria cases, 21 vivax malaria cases, 11 quartan malaria cases, 43 ovale malaria cases, and 1 mixed infection case (Plasmodium falciparum and P. ovale). The numbers of imported cases of Nantong (39 cases, 16.32%), Suzhou (26 cases, 10.88%), Taizhou (25 cases, 10.46%), Huai'an (24 cases, 10.04%), and Lianyungang (22 cases, 9.21%) ranked in the top 5 cities across Jiangsu Province, the malaria cases in the five cities accounted for 56.90% (136/239). The infection source areas of the imported malaria cases included Africa (225 cases), Asia (8 cases), Oceania (2 cases), and South America (2 cases). CONCLUSIONS: Jiangsu Province has no local malaria cases for 6 consecutive years. Despite the imported cases in 2017 decreased some-what compared to that in 2016, it is still necessary to strengthen the surveillance of imported malaria cases and improve malaria diagnosis and treatment in the whole province.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas , Malária , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/parasitologia , Erradicação de Doenças , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/parasitologia , Plasmodium , Vigilância da População , Prevalência
5.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016918

RESUMO

Recently, the global malaria control has achieved remarkable results, and the epidemic map of malaria has gradually shrinked. However, in the past two years, the number of malaria deaths remained at a high level, and the incidence of malaria has even risen, leading to the stagnant of malaria elimination. The main reasons include lacking of the well monitoring and response system, sensitivity declining of antimalarial drugs, the spread of insecticide resistance, and the reduction of financial support. This paper introduces the progress and challenges of global malaria elimination, summarizes the current strategies and major interventions, and provides the corresponding response.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Malária , Antimaláricos , Saúde Global/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Resistência a Inseticidas , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle
6.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(12)2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30501070

RESUMO

A novel 3D printing material based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-improved sulphoaluminate cement (SAC) for rapid 3D construction printing application is reported. The hydration heat, setting time, fluidity of paste and mortar, shape retainability, and compressive strength of extruded SAC mortar were investigated. HPMC dosage, water-to-cement (W/C) ratio, and sand-to-cement (S/C) ratio were studied as the experimental parameters. Hydration heat results reveal HPMC could delay the hydration of SAC. The initial and final setting time measured using Vicat needle would be shortened in the case of W/C ratio of 0.3 and 0.35 with HPMC dosage from 0.5% to 1.5%, W/C ratio of 0.40 with HPMC dosage of 0.5%, 0.75%, and 1.5%, and W/C ratio of 0.45 with HPMC dosage of 0.45, or be extended in the case of W/C ratio of 0.4 with HPMC dosage of 1.0% and W/C ratio of 0.45 with HPMC dosage from 0.75% to 1.5%. Fluidity measurement shows HPMC significantly improves the shape retainability. Furthermore, the addition of HPMC remarkably increased the compressive strength of extruded mortar. The results showed that HPMC could be used to prepare 3D printing SAC having satisfactory shape retainability, setting time and compressive strength.

7.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 30(4): 364-368, 2018 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350496

RESUMO

There were vivax malaria, falciparum malaria, and malariae malaria epidemic in Jiangsu Province, and vivax malaria was the dominant disease. Anopheles sinensis and An. anthropophagus were malaria-transmitted vectors. Since the founding of People's Republic of China, there have been two major malaria outbreaks in Jiangsu Province, when the highest annual malaria incidence reached up to 24.95%. According to prevention and control principles of "adjusting measures to local conditions, giving different guidance to different categories and highlighting key points", during the epidemic outbreak stage, the largescale malaria prevention and control measures were implemented for all the residents who were target population in Jiangsu malaria-endemic areas. During the basic eradication stage, the targeted prevention and control measures had been carried out according to the different epidemic features to gradually consolidate the achievement of prevention and control in Jiangsu Province. In the malaria elimination stage, Jiangsu Province focused on controlling of the source of infection and malaria surveillance. According to the "1-3-7 targeted elimination" work model, the management of infectious sources and investigation and disposal of foci were carried out for each epidemic focus to block the malaria transmission. By the end of 2017, there had been no indigenous malaria cases for the six consecutive years in Jiangsu Province. All the 13 cities have passed the assessment of malaria elimination of Jiangsu Province. Although Jiangsu Province has achieved the goal of malaria elimination, it is urgent and necessary to maintain and improve malaria surveillance capabilities to prevent malaria reintroduction.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Malária , Animais , Anopheles , China/epidemiologia , Erradicação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malária/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores
8.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 30(4): 369-373, 2018 Aug 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350497

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the quality of production of blood slides and laboratory personnel's ability to microscopically examine Plasmodium at Jiangsu Province clinic inspection stations at all levels, so as to provide the evidence for the construction of malaria diagnostic laboratories and the evaluation of malaria elimination effect. METHODS: After the reexamination of the negative blood slides of the examination stations of the malaria center in each county (district), the negative blood slides of the outpatient inspection station in the district and all the positive blood slides of the direct report of the network from 2011 to 2017, the staining and cleanliness of the blood smears, microscopic examination results and the coincidence rate of positive blood species were comprehensively analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 19 109 checked blood samples were examined. The qualified rates of blood preparation, dyeing and cleanliness were 87.5%, 89.3% and 87.6%, respectively. The quality of reexamined blood slides in different years showed statistically significant difference (all P < 0.05), by using chi-square trend test, and there was a trend of increasing year by year. There was a significant difference in the quality of the reexamined blood slides among the different cities with districts (P < 0.05). In addition, there were 1 860 blood samples from 2012 to 2017, and the total coincidence rate was 87.4% and the coincidence rate of positive blood smear examinations was 98.9%. The species coincidence rates of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale and mixed infection were 95.4%, 33.3%, 56.0%, 76.5% and 9.1%, respectively (P < 0.05). The total coincidence rates of blood smear reexaminations in different years were 85.0%, 90.1%, 86.0%, 85.3%, 90.0% and 87.6% from 2012 to 2017, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The quality of blood slides at the primary clinic inspection stations in Jiangsu Province conforms to the standard established by the provincial malaria reference laboratory; however, the ability of Plasmodium species identification is insufficient and needs to be improved.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Malária , Microscopia , China , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/parasitologia , Microscopia/normas , Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium vivax , Controle de Qualidade
9.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 30(4): 374-377, 2018 Apr 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350498

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the working conditions and evaluate the effectiveness of blood smear examinations in fever patients after the start of national malaria elimination program (NMEP), and explore the suitable strategy for malaria diagnosis and surveillance in NMEP, so as to provide the evidence for the development and adaptation of malaria elimination strategies and measures in Jiangsu Province. METHODS: The data of malaria epidemic situation reported by network, fever patients' blood test tables, and epidemiological surveys of malaria cases were collected and statistically analyzed by SPSS 16.0 in Jiangsu Province from 2010 to 2016. RESULTS: A total of 2 367 cases of malaria cases were reported from 2010 to 2016. Among the 3 691 188 person-times of fever patients tested, there were 2 252 positives (0.06%). The number of blood tests of fever patients decreased from 742 900 in 2010 to 277 000 in 2016. At the same time, the positive rate increased from 0.04% in 2010 to 0.16% in 2016. The positive rate of blood tests of fever patients in 2016 was significantly higher than that in 2010 (χ2 = 161.61, P < 0.01). From 2010 to 2016 in Jiangsu province, the centers for disease control and prevention of cities and counties, that completed the blood review within 3 days, deleted 273 negative cases. In 2010, the centers for disease control and prevention of cities and counties deleted 61 negative cases, but in 2016, the centers deleted only 14 negative cases, and the negative rate of blood review in 2010 was significantly higher than that in 2016 (χ2 = 22.99, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: A large number of blood smear examinations have been tested in fever patients in Jiangsu Province. It not only conforms to the strong monitoring system requirements issued by World Health Organization (WHO) in malaria elimination, but also provides the evidence for no local malaria case in Jiangsu since 2012.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Febre , Malária , China , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Erradicação de Doenças , Febre/sangue , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Malária/complicações , Malária/diagnóstico
10.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 30(4): 378-382, 2018 Sep 26.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350499

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the malaria rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) - related knowledge, attitude, practice (KAP) of primary healthcare professionals in Jiangsu Province and analyze the corresponding influencing factors. METHODS: Four cities in Jiangsu Province were selected as the study sites by the typical sampling method to conduct a survey for the RDT related KAP and work satisfaction of primary healthcare professionals, and the multiple logistic regression model was used to explore the relevant influencing factors. RESULTS: Totally 1 150 questionnaires were issued and 949 valid questionnaires were collected with the recovery rate of 82.52%. The valid questionnaires included 453 questionnaires from laboratory technicians, 466 from clinicians, and 30 from malaria prevention and control workers. Totally 83.98% of the surveyed professionals had a low mastering level of essential RDT-related knowledge. A total of 52.17% of the surveyed laboratory technicians recognized that the application of RDT technology could effectively improve the current primary-level microscopy work, and the degree of recognition of RDT technological advantage in the laboratory technicians was higher than that in the clinicians. Totally 79.25% of the surveyed laboratory technicians regarded themselves to be capable of conducting the standardized RDT operation, and 84.55% of the surveyed clinicians regarded themselves to be capable of conducting the qualified malaria clinical diagnostic practice. The key influencing factors of RDT-related KAP of primary healthcare professionals included the laboratory technicians' gender, educational level, employer's institutional level, professional title, and working years, and the employer's institutional level of clinicians. CONCLUSIONS: The primary healthcare professionals in Jiangsu Province exhibita good acceptability towards RDT technology. However, their essential knowledge on RDT remains to be improved. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a specific training and educational system for primary healthcare professionals to better guarantee the advantageous impact of RDT technology on the consolidation of the malaria elimination work achievements.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Pessoal de Saúde , Malária , China , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/normas , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Malária/diagnóstico , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 30(4): 383-389, 2018 Sep 19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350500

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the implementation effect of the optimization strategy for the use and management of malaria rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) technology in Jiangsu Province, so as to provide the empirical evidence and suggestions for promoting the standardized use of RDT technology. METHODS: Questionnaire surveys of primary-level health professionals' RDT-related knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) and work satisfaction were conducted in 4 pilot cities in Jiangsu Province before and after the intervention. RESULTS: After the implementation of the intervention, 13.9% of surveyed laboratory technicians, 21.9% of surveyed clinicians and 4.1% of surveyed staff of the centers for disease control and prevention (CDCs) had significant improvements in RDT-related knowledge. About 10.9% of the surveyed laboratory technicians and 25.6% of the surveyed CDC staff improved their attitudes toward RDT technology. About 38.4% of the surveyed laboratory technicians and 10.0% of the surveyed clinicians improved the standardized use of RDT technology. All types of primary-level health professionals had high evaluation in the satisfaction and effectiveness of the optimization strategy. However, the evaluation of the surveyed clinicians was slightly lower than that of the laboratory technicians and CDC staff. CONCLUSIONS: The optimization strategy in this project can effectively improve the knowledge, attitude and behavior of all types of primary-level health professionals and help to promote the standardized use of RDT technology.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Malária , China , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/normas , Humanos , Malária/diagnóstico
12.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 30(4): 390-395, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350501

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the vector surveillance results during the stage of malaria elimination, so as to provide the evidence for assessing the local transmission risk of imported malaria and carrying out the surveillance work after malaria elimination in Jiangsu Province. METHODS: From 2011 to 2017, the mosquito population was monitored and human biting rates were calculated by the half overnight human baiting trapping method and overnight lamp trapping method in 7 surveillance sites from June to October. The insecticide resistance level was tested by the force contact method recommended by WHO. RESULTS: A total of 5 106 Anopheles mosquitoes were captured by the half over-night human baiting trapping method in the 7 sites from 2011 to 2017, and all the mosquitoes were identified as Anopheles sinensis. The annual human biting rates were 1.075, 0.786, 1.057, 0.787, 0.790, 1.797 and 1.185 mosquitoes/ (human·hour), respectively. Totally 28 186 Anopheles mosquitoes were caught by the overnight lamp trapping method, and all the mosquitoes were An. sinensis. The densities of Anopheles mosquitoes were 57.950, 50.932, 14.800, 4.405, 58.070, 72.406, and 17.145 mosquitoes/ (night·lamp), respectively. In 2012, the resistance indexes of An. sinensis to deltamethrin, DDT and malathion were at R level in Jiangsu Province. CONCLUSIONS: The major vector is An. sinensis and no An. anthropophagus is found in Jiangsu Province. An. sinensis has a high level of resistance to deltamethrin, DDT and malathion.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Inseticidas , Malária , Mosquitos Vetores , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/epidemiologia , Resistência a Inseticidas , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malária/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Vigilância da População , Medição de Risco
13.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 30(4): 455-459, 2018 Aug 07.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350516

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish a systemized malaria biobank with well-rounded epidemiologic data and a computer-aid management system, thus to provide qualified sources for malaria elimination and human malaria research. METHODS: The malaria biobank was based on the platform of Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases. The blood smear samples, dried blood samples, whole blood samples and parasite strains isolated from patients (from both local and imported cases) were collected since 2011 according to a standardized operational procedure. The biobank management software was applied to input of the epidemiological data and samples, and the quality of samples was monitored regularly. RESULTS: A standard malaria biobank was established. The Information Management System was applied to input, storage and output of samples. Totally 99.42% (2 223/2 236) of the blood smear samples, 92.58% (2 070/2 236) of the dried blood samples, 94.50% (2 113/2 236) of whole blood, and 2.06% (46/2 236) of the isolated stains in 2 236 reported cases were included in the malaria biobank in Jiangsu Province from 2011 to 2017. Based on the malaria biobank, 99.42% (2 223/2 236) of the blood smears and 82.74% (1 850/2 236) of DNA (from dried blood and whole blood samples) from malaria patients in Jiangsu Province were re-checked. Moreover, the samples in the malaria biobank were used in the studies of the mechanism of parasite drug resistance, malaria molecular epidemiology, and diagnosis technology development and evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: The establishment of malaria biobank provides a guarantee for malaria elimination in Jiangsu Province and also provides a qualified resource for malaria research.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Malária , Sangue , China , DNA , Erradicação de Doenças , Humanos , Malária/prevenção & controle
14.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 30(4): 460-464, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350517

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the situation of malaria elimination, identify the current main challenges and difficulties of maintaining the achievements of malaria elimination, and find out feasible solutions in Jiangsu Province. METHODS: Through randomized grouping, the subject discussion and questionnaires were conducted by malaria control staffs from centers for diseases control and prevention of 13 cities of Jiangsu Province and Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases. The basic characteristics of participants and the effect of the discussion were analyzed through questionnaires. RESULTS: Twenty-seven professional participants were randomly divided into 3 groups. Totally 27 questionnaires were released and 24 valid questionnaires were retrieved. Among the 24 participants, 79.1% (19/24) of them were with mid-level and senior professional titles, and 66.7% (16/24) of them had worked for more than 10 years. Before the group discussion, only 16.7% (4/24) of the participants were aware of the current main challenges and difficulties in Jiangsu Province. After the discussion, 87.5% (21/24) of them thought the discussion increased their understanding of the challenges and difficulties. Through the subject discussion, the expert group summarized the current challenges and difficulties as well as the solutions in malaria prevention in Jiangsu Province in 4 aspects, namely the management guarantee of prevention work, diagnosis and treatment of the cases, field epidemiological investigation and others. Finally, a framework about these discussion results was established. CONCLUSIONS: During the post-stage of malaria elimination, Jiangsu Province still faced many challenges and difficulties, such as management guarantee, case diagnosis and treatment, epidemiology survey and focus disposals, and malaria surveillance sustainability. The feasible solutions of these challenges may provide examples for other provinces and regions which are undergoing malaria elimination or in post-stage of malaria elimination.


Assuntos
Malária , Médicos , China , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Erradicação de Doenças/normas , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(5)2018 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29883415

RESUMO

In this study, chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) fiber reinforced composites were made at indoor temperatures. The mechanical properties and microstructure of the CBPC composites were studied. The CBPC matrix of aluminum phosphate binder, metakaolin, and magnesia with different Si/P ratios was prepared. The results show that when the Si/P ratio was 1.2, and magnesia content in the CBPC was 15%, CBPC reached its maximum flexural strength. The fiber reinforced CBPC composites were prepared by mixing short polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers or unidirectional continuous carbon fiber sheets. Flexural strength and dynamic mechanical properties of the composites were determined, and the microstructures of specimens were analyzed by scanning electron micrography, X-ray diffraction, and micro X-ray computed tomography. The flexural performance of continuous carbon fiber reinforced CBPC composites was better than that of PVA fiber composites. The elastic modulus, loss modulus, and loss factor of the fiber composites were measured through dynamic mechanical analysis. The results showed that fiber reinforced CBPC composites are an inorganic polymer viscoelastic material with excellent damping properties. The reaction of magnesia and phosphate in the matrix of CBPC formed a different mineral, newberyite, which was beneficial to the development of the CBPC.

16.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 30(2): 149-154, 2018 Apr 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29770656

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the expression characteristics of cytochrome P450 (CYP) candidate genes (CYP6M3, CYP6Y1, CYP6P5, CYP4H14, CYP4G17, CYP12F16) in Anopheles sinensis. METHODS: The samples were collected from different developmental stages (eggs, larvae, pupae and adult mosquitoes (females and males) ), and different tissues (salivary glands, malpighian tubes, midguts, ovaries, and fat bodies) of An. sinensis and the female adult mosquitoes exposed by different insecticide doses (0, 1.25, 3.75, 6.25, 12.5 µg/bottle) and time points (0, 5, 15, 30, 60 minutes), then the total RNA was extracted. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qPCR) assay was used to analyze the relative expressions of six CYP genes in An. sinensis at different developmental stages, tissues and different insecticide exposure doses and time. RESULTS: The expressions of CYP6M3 and CYP6Y1 in the male adult mosquitoes were the highest, the expression of CYP6M3 gene in the males was 35.1 times higher than that in the females, the expression of CYP6Y1 in the males was 61.4 times higher than that in the females; the expression level of CYP4H14 in the larvae was the lowest, the expression of CYP4H14 in the females was 22.5 times higher than that in the fourth instar larvae. The expressions of candidate CYP genes in different tissues of An. sinensis were significantly different, the expression of CYP6M3 in the malpighian tubule was 38.9 times higher than that in the ovary, the expression of CYP6Y1 in the fatbody was 9.1 times higher than that in the ovary, the expression of CYP4G17 was 4.6 times higher than that in the ovary, and the expression of CYP12F16 was 4.4 times higher thanthat in the ovary. The exposure to different insecticide doses and time showed some induction effects in the expressions of candidate CYP genes, which affected the expressions of candidate CYP genes in An. sinensis. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of candidate CYP genes varies significantly in different developmental stages and various tissues of An. sinensis, and exposure to deltamethrin at various doses and time points affects CYP genes expression in An. sinensis.


Assuntos
Anopheles/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Animais , Anopheles/enzimologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Corpo Adiposo/metabolismo , Feminino , Genes de Insetos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas , Larva , Masculino , Túbulos de Malpighi/metabolismo , Nitrilos , Ovário/metabolismo , Piretrinas
17.
Waste Manag ; 77: 356-363, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29685600

RESUMO

Using sludge incineration residue (SIR) to prepare SIR-based geopolymer can realize the minimization and reclamation of urban sludge as well as the stabilization of potential toxic elements. This work has researched the critical factors that influence the formulation of SIR-based geopolymer and the stabilization performance on potential toxic elements. Results showed that the addition amount of SIR had significant influence on the compressive strength of geopolymer, while the modules of sodium silicate and the sodium silicate/metakaolin ratio had little influence thereon. When the addition amount of SIR was 10%, the modules of sodium silicate was 1.3 and the sodium silicate/metakaolin ratio was 0.86, the compressive strength of geopolymer reached the maximum of 95.6 MPa. When the temperature increased from 25 °C to 800 °C, the compressive strength showed a tendency of increasing first and then decreasing. SIR-based geopolymer could significantly reduce the leaching of Zn and Cu from 1264.8 mg/kg and 856.3 mg/kg to 50.8 mg/kg and 30.7 mg/kg respectively, leading to a stabilizing efficiency more than 96%. pH influenced the stabilization of geopolymer on the potential toxic elements, the effective diffusion coefficients De of Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cr at pH = 4 were higher than those at the pH of 7, which were probably due to the physic-chemical characteristics and the corresponding changes in the leaching and species distribution of the potential toxic elements.


Assuntos
Incineração , Esgotos , Cinza de Carvão , Força Compressiva , Metais Pesados
18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29536704

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the malaria epidemic situation and characteristics in Jiangsu Province in 2016, so as to provide the evidence for formulating and adjusting the strategy and measures for malaria elimination. METHODS: The data of malaria cases in Jiangsu Province in 2016 were collected from China's Routine Diseases Surveillance Information System (CRD-SIS) and analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Totally, 308 malaria cases were reported in Jiangsu Province in 2016, and the cases decreased by 23.95% compared to 405 malaria cases in 2015. Except for 1 malaria case that was caused by blood transfusion, the rest patients were all imported. Among the 308 cases, 237 were infected with Plasmodium falciparum, 11 were infected with P. vivax, 8 were infected with P. malariae, 51 were infected with P. ovale, and 1 was mixed infection. Among all the cities in Jiangsu Province, the numbers of imported cases of Nantong (53 cases), Huai'an (41 cases), Taizhou (40 cases), Lianyungang (36 cases) and Yangzhou (29 cases) ranked in the top 5, and the total malaria cases in the five cities accounted for 64.61%. CONCLUSIONS: There were no local malaria cases in Jiangsu Province for 5 consecutive years up to 2016. Although the imported cases decreased slightly compared to those in 2015, we still should strengthen the surveillance of imported malaria cases as well as improve malaria diagnosis and treatment abilities for related personnel at all levels of medical institutions. Also we should focus on the Plasmodium check, focus survey and disposal to realize the aim of malaria elimination in Jiangsu Province in time.


Assuntos
Malária/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Humanos , Plasmodium/classificação , Prevalência
19.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 30(6): 630-634, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the results of samples testing of Jiangsu Provincial Malaria Diagnostic Reference Laboratory in 2017, so as to provide the evidence for improving the malaria diagnostic performance in this province. METHODS: The samples of reported malaria cases in Jiangsu were collected by the provincial reference laboratory (PRL) in 2017. The microscopy and nucleic acid test were performed to confirm the infection of Plasmodium species of each case, while Plasmodium antigen tests (rapid diagnostic test, RDT) were performed as well. The detection results were analyzed among different areas and different species. RESULTS: Totally 242 malaria cases were reported and the samples were collected by PRL in 2017. A total of 239 cases were confirmed Plasmodium infections, including 163 cases of Plasmodium falciparum infection, 21 cases of P. vivax infection, 11 cases of P. malariae infection, 43 cases of P. ovale infection, and 1 case of P. falciparum and P. ovale mixed-infection. The diagnostic coincidence rates of reported malaria case in 13 prefectures with districts were all > 80%, and the total coincidence rate was 88.8%. The species diagnostic coincidence rates of P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale were 98.8%, 57.1%, 63.6%, and 81.4% respectively, and the detection rates by RDT to those four species infections were 95.7%, 85.0%, 63.6% and 79.1% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In 2017, the malaria diagnostic quality of medical technicians is generally high in Jiangsu Province. However, the diagnostic capacity is slightly different among different regions, and the ability to identify non- P. falciparum parasites remains to be improved. RDT is not ideal for the detection of non-P. falciparum infection. In the current stage of malaria elimination, the malaria diagnostic capacity of technicians in all the sectors should be strengthened and maintained.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Laboratórios , Malária , Plasmodium , China , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/normas , Humanos , Laboratórios/normas , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/parasitologia , Plasmodium/genética
20.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 12: 1877-1890, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28331312

RESUMO

Attempts to reflect the physiology of organs is quite an intricacy during the tissue engineering process. An ideal scaffold and its surface topography can address and manipulate the cell behavior during the regeneration of targeted tissue, affecting the cell growth and differentiation significantly. Herein, silk fibroin (SF) nanoparticles were incorporated into poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) to prepare composite scaffolds via phase-inversion technique using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). The SF nanoparticle core increased the surface roughness and hydrophilicity of the PLLA scaffolds, leading to a high affinity for albumin attachment. The in vitro cytotoxicity test of SF/PLLA scaffolds in L929 mouse fibroblast cells indicated good biocompatibility. Then, the in vitro interplay between mouse preosteoblast cell (MC3T3-E1) and various topological structures and biochemical cues were evaluated. The cell adhesion, proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and their relationship with the structures as well as SF content were explored. The SF/PLLA weight ratio (2:8) significantly affected the MC3T3-E1 cells by improving the expression of key players in the regulation of bone formation, ie, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC) and collagen 1 (COL-1). These results suggest not only the importance of surface topography and biochemical cues but also the potential of applying SF/PLLA composite scaffolds as biomaterials in bone tissue engineering.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroínas/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Osteoblastos/citologia , Poliésteres/química , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Tecidos Suporte/química , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Camundongos , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteocalcina/metabolismo , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos
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