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1.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474433

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Succi, PJ, Dinyer, TK, Byrd, MT, Voskuil, CC, and Bergstrom, HC. Application of V[Combining Dot Above]O2 to the critical power model to derive the critical V[Combining Dot Above]O2. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2021-The purposes of this study were to (a) determine whether the critical power (CP) model could be applied to V[Combining Dot Above]O2 to estimate the critical V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (CV[Combining Dot Above]O2) and (b) to compare the CV[Combining Dot Above]O2 with the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 at CP (V[Combining Dot Above]O2CP), the ventilatory threshold (VT), respiratory compensation point (RCP), and the CV[Combining Dot Above]O2 without the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 slow component (CV[Combining Dot Above]O2slow). Nine subjects performed a graded exercise test to exhaustion to determine V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, VT, and RCP. The subjects performed 4 randomized, constant power output work bouts to exhaustion. The time to exhaustion (TLim), the total work (WLim), and the total volume of oxygen consumed with (TV[Combining Dot Above]O2) and without the slow component (TV[Combining Dot Above]O2slow) were recorded during each trial. The linear regressions of the TV[Combining Dot Above]O2 vs. TLim, TV[Combining Dot Above]O2slow vs. TLim, and WLim vs. TLim relationship were performed to derive the CV[Combining Dot Above]O2, CV[Combining Dot Above]O2slow, and CP, respectively. A 1-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (p ≤ 0.05) with follow-up Sidak-Bonferroni corrected pairwise comparisons indicated that CV[Combining Dot Above]O2 (42.49 ± 3.22 ml·kg-1·min-1) was greater than VT (30.80 ± 4.66 ml·kg-1·min-1; p < 0.001), RCP (36.74 ± 4.49 ml·kg-1·min-1; p = 0.001), V[Combining Dot Above]O2CP (36.76 ± 4.31 ml·kg-1·min-1; p < 0.001), and CV[Combining Dot Above]O2slow (38.26 ± 2.43 ml·kg-1·min-1; p < 0.001). However, CV[Combining Dot Above]O2slow was not different than V[Combining Dot Above]O2CP (p = 0.140) or RCP (p = 0.235). Thus, the CP model can be applied to V[Combining Dot Above]O2 to derive the CV[Combining Dot Above]O2 and theoretically is the highest metabolic steady state that can be maintained for an extended period without fatigue. Furthermore, the ability of the CV[Combining Dot Above]O2 to quantify the metabolic cost of exercise and the inefficiency associated with the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 slow component may provide a valuable tool for researchers and coaches to examine endurance exercise.

2.
Sports (Basel) ; 9(2)2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494200

RESUMO

The study and application of the critical power (CP) concept has spanned many decades. The CP test provides estimates of two distinct parameters, CP and W', that describe aerobic and anaerobic metabolic capacities, respectively. Various mathematical models have been used to estimate the CP and W' parameters across exercise modalities. Recently, the CP model has been applied to dynamic constant external resistance (DCER) exercises. The same hyperbolic relationship that has been established across various continuous, whole-body, dynamic movements has also been demonstrated for upper-, lower-, and whole-body DCER exercises. The asymptote of the load versus repetition relationship is defined as the critical load (CL) and the curvature constant is L'. The CL and L' can be estimated from the same linear and non-linear mathematical models used to derive the CP. The aims of this review are to (1) provide an overview of the CP concept across continuous, dynamic exercise modalities; (2) describe the recent applications of the model to DCER exercise; (3) demonstrate how the mathematical modeling of DCER exercise can be applied to further our understanding of fatigue and individual performance capabilities; and (4) make initial recommendations regarding the methodology for estimating the parameters of the CL test.

3.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(Suppl 1): S31-S37, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796415

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Moss, AC, Dinyer, TK, Abel, MG, and Bergstrom, HC. Methodological considerations for the determination of the critical load for the deadlift. J Strength Cond Res 35(2S): S31-S37, 2021-This study determined whether performance method during conventional deadlifting affects critical load (CL) estimates derived from the linear work limit (Wlim) vs. repetitions relationship. Eleven subjects completed 1-repetition maximum (1RM) deadlift testing followed by separate visits, to determine the number of repetitions to failure at 50, 60, 70, and 80% 1RM for both reset (RS) and touch-and-go (TG) methods. The CL was the slope of the line of total work completed (load [kg] × repetitions) vs. total repetitions for 4 intensities (50-80% 1RM). The number of repetitions to failure were determined at CLRS and CLTG. The kg values and repetitions to failure at CLRS and CLTG, and total repetitions at each intensity (50-80%) for each method (RS and TG) were compared. There were no significant mean differences (±SD) in kg values (-0.4 ± 7.9 kg, range = -8.8 to 17 kg, p = 0.856), %1RM (-1.2 ± 5.6%, p = 0.510), or total repetitions completed (2.8 ± 15.7 reps, range = -15 to 37 reps, p = 0.565) for CLRS and CLTG. These findings indicated that performance method did not affect mean estimation of CL or number of repetitions completed at submaximal loads. Thus, the estimates of CL from the modeling of total work vs. repetitions were relatively robust to variations in deadlifting methodologies. However, individual variability (range of scores) in kg values and repetition to failure at CLRS and CLTG indicated that deadlifting methods may differ in anatomical region of fatigue. The CL is an individually derived threshold that may be used to examine and describe performance capabilities.


Assuntos
Treinamento de Força , Humanos , Força Muscular
4.
Motor Control ; 25(1): 59-74, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059330

RESUMO

This study determined the load- and limb-dependent neuromuscular responses to fatiguing, bilateral, leg extension exercise performed at a moderate (50% one-repetition maximum [1RM]) and high load (80% 1RM). Twelve subjects completed 1RM testing for the bilateral leg extension, followed by repetitions to failure at 50% and 80% 1RM, on separate days. During all visits, the electromyographic (EMG) and mechanomyographic (MMG), amplitude (AMP) and mean power frequency (MPF) signals were recorded from the vastus lateralis of both limbs. There were no limb-dependent responses for any of the neuromuscular signals and no load-dependent responses for EMG AMP, MMG AMP, or MMG MPF (p = .301-.757), but there were main effects for time that indicated increases in EMG and MMG AMP and decreases in MMG MPF. There was a load-dependent decrease in EMG MPF over time (p = .032) that suggested variability in the mechanism responsible for metabolite accumulation at moderate versus high loads. These findings suggested that common drive from the central nervous system was used to modulate force during bilateral leg extension performed at moderate and high loads.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
5.
Int J Exerc Sci ; 13(2): 455-469, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32509109

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study compared the V̇O 2 corresponding to the critical heart rate (CHRV̇O 2 ) and the physical working capacity at the heart rate fatigue threshold (PWChrt V̇O 2 ) to the gas exchange threshold (GET), ventilatory threshold (VT), and respiratory compensation point (RCP). METHODS: Nine runners (mean ± SD, age 23 ± 3 years) completed an incremental test on a treadmill to determine V̇O 2 peak, GET, VT, and RCP. The CHRV̇O 2 and PWChrt V̇O 2 were determined from 4 separate constant velocity treadmill runs to exhaustion and HR and time to exhaustion were recorded. Differences among the thresholds were examined with a one-way repeated measures ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05). RESULTS: The GET (38.44 mL×kg-1×min-1, 78% V̇O 2 peak), VT (37.36 mL×kg-1×min-1, 76% V̇O 2 peak), and PWChrt V̇O 2 (38.26 mL×kg-1×min-1, 77% V̇O 2 peak) were not different, but were lower than the RCP (44.70 mL×kg-1×min-1, 90% V̇O 2 peak; p = 0.010, p < 0.001, p = 0.001, respectively). The CHRV̇O 2 (40.09 mL×kg-1×min-1, 81% V̇O 2 peak) was not different from the GET (p = 1.000), VT (p = 0.647), PWChrt V̇O 2 (p = 1.000), or RCP (p = 0.116). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that the initial metabolic intensities at CHR and PWChrt lie within the heavy and moderate intensity domains, respectively. Therefore, the PWChrt may provide a relative intensity more appropriate for untrained populations, while the CHR may be more appropriate for more trained populations.

6.
J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact ; 20(1): 77-87, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131371

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the time course of changes and patterns of responses in electromyographic amplitude (EMG AMP) and EMG mean power frequency (MPF) for the superficial quadriceps muscles during exhaustive treadmill runs within the severe exercise intensity zones (SIZ1 and SIZ2). METHODS: The EMG signals for the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), and vastus medialis (VM) as well as times to exhaustion (Tlim) were recorded in ten runners during two exhaustive treadmill runs (SIZ1 and SIZ2). The composite and individual responses were compared among muscles and between intensities. RESULTS: The composite patterns of responses in EMG AMP (linear, quadratic, and cubic increases; r2/R2=0.684-0.848) and EMG MPF (linear, quadratic, and cubic decreases; r2/R2=0.648 - 0.852) for the VL and RF were consistent with neuromuscular fatigue in both zones, but those for the VM were not (quadratic, cubic, and non-significant relationships with responses near baseline). The RF tended to demonstrate greater fatigue (EMG MPF decreased from 80-100% Tlim). There was large inter-individual variability (only 10-60% of responses consistent with composite) in response to fatiguing treadmill running. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings support the examination and characterization of neuromuscular fatigue on an intensity, muscle, and subject-by-subject basis.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço/métodos , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Junção Neuromuscular/fisiologia , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletromiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084106

RESUMO

Dinyer, TK, Byrd, MT, Succi, PJ, and Bergstrom, HC. The time course of changes in neuromuscular responses during the performance of leg extension repetitions to failure below and above critical resistance in women. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-Critical resistance (CR) is the highest sustainable resistance that can be completed for an extended number of repetitions. Exercise performed below (CR-15%) and above (CR+15%) CR may represent 2 distinct intensities that demonstrate separate mechanisms of fatigue. Electromyography (EMG) and mechanomyography (MMG) have been used to examine the mechanism of fatigue during resistance exercise. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to (a) compare the patterns of responses and time course of changes in neuromuscular parameters (EMG and MMG amplitude [AMP] and mean power frequency [MPF]) during the performance of repetitions to failure at CR-15% and CR+15% and (b) identify the motor unit activation strategy that best describes the fatigue-induced changes in the EMG and MMG signals at CR-15% and CR+15%. Ten women completed one repetition maximum (1RM) testing and repetitions to failure at 50, 60, 70, and 80% 1RM (to determine CR), and at CR-15% and CR+15% on the leg extension. During all visits, EMG and MMG signals were measured from the vastus lateralis. There were similar patterns of responses in the neuromuscular parameters, and time-dependent changes in EMG AMP and EMG MPF, but not MMG AMP or MMG MPF, during resistance exercise performed at CR-15% and CR+15% (p < 0.05). The onset of fatigue occurred earlier for EMG AMP, but later for EMG MPF, during repetitions performed at CR+15% compared with those performed at CR-15%. Thus, resistance exercise performed below and above CR represented 2 distinct intensities that were defined by different neuromuscular fatigue mechanisms but followed similar motor unit activation strategies.

8.
J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact ; 19(3): 266-275, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475933

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the time course of changes in electromyographic (EMG) and mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude (AMP) and mean power frequency (MPF) responses during cycle ergometry to exhaustion performed above (CP+10%) and below (CP-10%) critical power (CP) to infer motor unit activation strategies used to maintain power output. METHODS: Participants performed a 3-min all out test to determine CP, and 2 randomly ordered, continuous rides to exhaustion at CP+10% and CP-10%·V̇O2, EMG AMP, EMG MPF, MMG AMP, MMG MPF, and time to exhaustion (Tlim) were recorded. Responses at CP-10% and CP+10% were analyzed separately. RESULTS: At CP-10%, EMG and MMG AMP were significantly greater than the initial 5% timepoint at 100% Tlim. EMG MPF and MMG MPF reflected a downward trend that resulted in no significant difference between timepoints. At CP+10%, EMG AMP was significantly greater than the initial 5% timepoint from 60% to 100% Tlim. MMG AMP was less than the initial 5% timepoint at only 50% Tlim. EMG and MMG MPF were significantly less than the initial 5% timepoint at 20% Tlim and 100% Tlim, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The timecourse of changes in EMG and MMG signals were different at CP-10% and CP+10%, but responses observed indicated cycle ergometry to exhaustion relies on similar motor unit activation strategies.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Eletrofisiologia/métodos , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(7): 1737-1744, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136545

RESUMO

Dinyer, TK, Byrd, MT, Garver, MJ, Rickard, AJ, Miller, WM, Burns, S, Clasey, JL, and Bergstrom, HC. Low-load vs. high-load resistance training to failure on one repetition maximum strength and body composition in untrained women. J Strength Cond Res 33(7): 1737-1744, 2019-This study examined the effects of resistance training (RT) to failure at low and high loads on one repetition maximum (1RM) strength and body composition (bone- and fat-free mass [BFFM] and percent body fat [%BF]) in untrained women. Twenty-three untrained women (age: 21.2 ± 2.2 years; height: 167.1 ± 5.7 cm; body mass: 62.3 ± 16.2 kg) completed a 12-week RT to failure intervention at a low (30% 1RM) (n = 11) or high (80% 1RM) (n = 12) load. On weeks 1, 5, and 12, subjects completed 1RM testing for 4 different exercises (leg extension [LE], seated military press [SMP], leg curl [LC], and lat pull down [LPD]) and a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan to assess body composition. During weeks 2-4 and 6-7, the subjects completed 2 sets to failure for each exercise. During weeks 8-11, the subjects completed 3 sets to failure for each exercise. The 1RM strength increased from week 1 to week 5 (LE: 18 ± 16%; SMP: 9 ± 11%; LC: 12 ± 22%; LPD: 13 ± 9%), week 1 to week 12 (LE: 32 ± 24%; SMP: 17 ± 14%; LC: 23 ± 26%; LPD: 25 ± 13%), and week 5 to week 12 (LE: 11 ± 9%; SMP: 7 ± 9%; LC: 10 ± 7%; LPD: 11 ± 11%) in each exercise, with no significant differences between groups. There were no significant changes in BFFM (p = 0.241) or %BF (p = 0.740) for either group. Resistance training to failure at 30% 1RM and 80% 1RM resulted in similar increases in 1RM strength, but no change in BFFM or %BF. Untrained women can increase 1RM strength during RT at low and high loads, if repetitions are taken to failure.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Absorciometria de Fóton , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; : 1-7, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958050

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine if the mathematical model used to derive critical power could be used to identify the critical resistance (CR) for the deadlift; compare predicted and actual repetitions to failure at 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80% 1-repetition maximum (1RM); and compare the CR with the estimated sustainable resistance for 30 repetitions (ESR30). METHODS: Twelve subjects completed 1RM testing for the deadlift followed by 4 visits to determine the number of repetitions to failure at 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80% 1RM. The CR was calculated as the slope of the line of the total work completed (repetitions × weight [in kilograms] × distance [in meters]) vs the total distance (in meters) the barbell traveled. The actual and predicted repetitions to failure were determined from the CR model and compared using paired-samples t tests and simple linear regression. The ESR30 was determined from the power-curve analysis and compared with the CR using paired-samples t tests and simple linear regression. RESULTS: The weight and repetitions completed at CR were 56 (11) kg and 49 (14) repetitions. The actual repetitions to failure were less than predicted at 50% 1RM (P < .001) and 80% 1RM (P < .001) and greater at 60% 1RM (P = .004), but there was no difference at 70% 1RM (P = .084). The ESR30 (75 [14] kg) was greater (P < .001) than the CR. CONCLUSIONS: The total work-vs-distance relationship can be used to identify the CR for the deadlift, which reflected a sustainable resistance that may be useful in the design of resistance-based exercise programs.

11.
J Funct Morphol Kinesiol ; 3(4)2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466979

RESUMO

This study compared sex responses for strength and barbell velocity from very short-term resistance training (VST, consisting of 2-3 training sessions) for an upper body dynamic constant external resistance (DCER) exercise (bench press [BP]). Ten females (mean ± standard deviation (SD) age: 21.3 ± 3 years, height: 166.2 ± 6 cm, body mass: 71.4 ± 10.7 kg) and 10 males (mean ± SD age: 24.6 ± 4 years, height: 179.5 ± 8 cm, body mass: 88.6 ± 11 kg) completed a pre-test visit to determine the BP 1 repetition maximum (1RM) as well as the mean (BPMV) and peak (BPPV) barbell velocities from the BP 1RM. The VST involved three training visits where the participants performed 5 sets of 6 repetitions, at 65% of the 1RM. The post-test followed the same procedures as the pre-test visit. There were significant increases in 1RM strength for both the males (5.1%) and females (5.4%) between pre-test and post-test. There were no significance differences between sex for mean (BPMV) and peak (BPPV); however, overall there was a 32.7% increase in BPMV and a 29.8% increase in BPPV. These findings indicated an increase in strength and barbell velocity for both males and females as a result of VST upper body DCER exercise in untrained subjects.

12.
J Strength Cond Res ; 31(8): 2313-2318, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28118310

RESUMO

Cotter, JA, Garver, MJ, Dinyer, TK, Fairman, CM, and Focht, BC. Ratings of perceived exertion during acute resistance exercise performed at imposed and self-selected loads in recreationally trained women. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2313-2318, 2017-Resistance exercise (RE) is commonly used to elicit skeletal muscle adaptation. Relative intensity of a training load links closely with the outcomes of regular RE. This study examined the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) responses to acute bouts of RE using imposed (40% and 70% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and self-selected (SS) loads in recreationally trained women. Twenty physically active women (23.15 ± 2.92 years), who reported regular RE training of at least 3 weekly sessions for the past year, volunteered to participate. During the initial visit, participants completed 1RM testing on 4 exercises in the following order: leg extension, chest press, leg curl, and lat pull-down. On subsequent visits, the same exercises were completed at the SS or imposed loads. The RPE was assessed after the completion of each set of exercises during the 3 RE conditions using the Borg-15 category scale. Self-selected loads corresponded to an average of approximately 57%1RM (±7.62). Overall, RPE increased with load (40%1RM = 11.26 [±1.95]; SS 57%1RM = 13.94 [±1.58]; and, 70%1RM = 15.52 [±2.05]). Reflecting the linear pattern found between load and perceived effort, the present data provide evidence that RPE levels less than 15 likely equate to loads which are not consistent with contemporary American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines for enhancing musculoskeletal health which includes strength and hypertrophy. Women desiring increases in strength and lean mass likely need to train at an exertion level at or surpassing a rating of 15 on the Borg-15 category. This article examined the modification of training load on perceived exertion, but other variables, such as the number of repetitions completed, may also be targeted to achieve a desired RPE. The primary understanding is that women who engage in RE may not self-select loads that are consistent with the ACSM recommendations for musculoskeletal health.


Assuntos
Percepção , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Levantamento de Peso , Adulto Jovem
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