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1.
J Clin Med ; 11(6)2022 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35329867

RESUMO

Evidence shows that a substantial proportion of patients with COVID-19 experiences long-term consequences of the disease, but the predisposing factors are poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify factors present during COVID-19 hospitalization associated with an increased risk of exhibiting new or persisting symptoms (Post-COVID-19 Syndrome, PCS). MedLine and WebOfScience were last searched on 30 September 2021. We included English language clinical trials and observational studies investigating prognostic factors for PCS in adults previously hospitalized for COVID-19, reporting at least one individual prospective follow-up of minimum 12 weeks. Two authors independently assessed risk of bias, which was judged generally moderate. Risk factors were included in the analysis if their association with PCS was investigated by at least two studies. To summarize the prognostic effect of each factor (or group of factors), odds ratios were estimated using raw data. Overall, 20 articles met the inclusion criteria, involving 13,340 patients. Associations were statistically significant for two factors: female sex with any symptoms (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.27-1.82), with mental health symptoms (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.21-2.29) and with fatigue (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.32-1.79); acute disease severity with respiratory symptoms (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.03-2.68). The I² statistics tests were calculated to quantify the degree of study heterogeneity. This is the first meta-analysis measuring the association between factors present during COVID-19 hospitalization and long-term sequelae. The role of female sex and acute disease severity as independent prognostic factors must be confirmed in robust longitudinal studies with longer follow-up. Identifying populations at greatest risk for PCS can enable the development of targeted prevention and management strategies. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42021253467.

2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2128667, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648011

RESUMO

Importance: Many patients with cancer who would benefit from psychosocial care do not receive it. Implementation strategies may favor the integration of psychosocial care into practice and improve patient outcomes. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Humanization in Cancer Care (HuCare) Quality Improvement Strategy vs standard care as improvement of at least 1 of 2 domains (emotional or social function) of patient health-related quality of life at baseline and 3 months. A key secondary aim included investigation of the long-term effect. Design, Setting, and Participants: HuCare2 was a multicenter, incomplete, stepped-wedge cluster randomized clinical trial, conducted from May 30, 2016, to August 28, 2019, in three 5-center clusters of cancer centers representative of hospital size and geographic location in Italy. The study was divided into 5 equally spaced epochs. Implementation sequence was defined by a blinded statistician; the nature of the intervention precluded blinding for clinical staff. Participants included consecutive adult outpatients with newly diagnosed cancer of any type and stage starting medical cancer treatment. Interventions: The HuCare Quality Improvement Strategy comprised (1) clinician communication training, (2) on-site visits for context analysis and problem-solving, and (3) implementation of 6 evidence-based recommendations. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the difference between the means of changes of individual scores in emotional or social functions of health-related quality of life detected at baseline and 3-month follow-up (within each group) and during the postintervention epoch compared with control periods (between groups). Long-term effect of the intervention (at 12 months) was assessed as a secondary outcome. Intention-to-treat analysis was used. Results: A total of 762 patients (475 [62.3%] women) were enrolled (400 HuCare Quality Improvement Strategy and 362 usual care); mean (SD) age was 61.4 (13.1) years. The HuCare Quality Improvement Strategy significantly improved emotional function during treatment (odds ratio [OR], 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04-1.22; P = .008) but not social function (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.89-1.09; P = .80). Effect on emotional function persisted at 12 months (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.00-1.10; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: In this trial, the HuCare Quality Improvement Strategy significantly improved the emotional function aspect of health-related quality of life during cancer treatment and at 12 months, indicating a change in clinician behavior and in ward organization. These findings support the need for strategies to introduce psychosocial care; however, more research is needed on factors that may maximize the effects. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03008993.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/terapia , Reabilitação Psiquiátrica/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade , Idoso , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/psicologia , Reabilitação Psiquiátrica/métodos , Reabilitação Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia
3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(19)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638360

RESUMO

Psychosocial morbidity can have negative consequences for cancer patients, including maladaptive coping, poor treatment adherence, and lower quality of life. Evidence shows that psychosocial interventions can positively impact quality of life, as well as symptoms and side effects; however, they are not always offered to patients who might benefit from them. These guidelines were produced by a multidisciplinary panel of 16 experts, including patients, following GRADE methodology. The panel framed clinical questions and voted on outcomes to investigate. Studies identified by rigorous search strategies were assessed to rate certainty of evidence, and recommendations were formulated by the panel. Although the quality of the evidence found was generally moderate, interventions could be recommended aimed at improving patient information, communication with healthcare professionals and involvement in decision-making; detecting and managing patient psychosocial needs, particularly with non-pharmacological therapy; and supporting families of patients with advanced cancer. The role of nurses as providers of information and psychosocial care is stressed. Most recommended interventions do not appear to necessitate new services or infrastructures, and therefore do not require allocation of additional resources, but predominantly involve changes in clinical staff behavior and/or ward organization. Patients should be made aware of psychosocial care standards so that they can expect to receive them.

4.
BMJ Open ; 10(2): e034742, 2020 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32071189

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nursing home residents represent a particularly vulnerable population experiencing high risk of unplanned hospital admissions, but few interventions have proved effective in reducing this risk. The aim of this research will be to verify the effects of a hospital-based multidisciplinary mobile unit (MMU) team intervention delivering urgent care to nursing home residents directly at their bedside. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Four nursing homes based in the Parma province, in Northern Italy, will be involved in this prospective, pragmatic, multicentre, 18-month quasiexperimental study (sequential design with two cohorts). The residents of two nursing homes will receive the MMU team care intervention. In case of urgent care needs, the nursing home physician will contact the hospital physician responsible for the MMU team by phone. The case will be triaged as (a) manageable by phone advice, (b) requiring urgent assessment by the MMU team or (c) requiring immediate emergency department (ED) referral. MMU team is composed of one senior physician and one emergency-medicine resident chosen within the staff of Internal Medicine and Critical Subacute Care Unit of Parma University-Hospital, usually with different specialty background, and equipped with portable ultrasound, set of drugs and devices useful in urgency. The MMU visits patients in nursing homes, with the mission to stabilise clinical conditions and avoid hospital admission. Residents of the other two nursing homes will receive usual care, that is, ED referral in every case of urgency. Study endpoints include unplanned hospital admissions (primary), crude all-cause mortality, hospital mortality, length of stay and healthcare-related costs (secondary). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Area Vasta Emilia Nord (Emilia-Romagna region). Informed consent will be collected from patients or legal representatives. The results will be actively disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations, in compliance with the Italian law. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov Registry (NCT04085679); Pre-results.


Assuntos
Unidades Móveis de Saúde , Casas de Saúde , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Hospitalização , Humanos , Itália , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Support Care Cancer ; 24(1): 147-155, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25957011

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study examines the development and feasibility of a quality improvement strategy for the translation of evidence-based psychosocial care into clinical practice. METHODS: The project involved all staff (oncologists, psychologists, and nurses) of the participating centers. Recommendations concerned: improvement of clinician communication skills; use of a patient question prompt list; assignment of a specialist nurse to each patient; screening for psychological distress and social needs; opportunity to attend a Point of Information and Support. The implementation strategy hinged on context analysis and problem solving. Four to six visits were held in each center by the project team to assist staff in identifying obstacles, finding solutions, and strengthening motivation. The primary variable was the adherence percentage to the recommendations (proportion of subjects receiving each intervention). The number of centers that failed to reach the objective was also reported (adherence percentage <75%). RESULTS: Twenty-seven of twenty-eight centers completed the study. Lack of resources was the most commonly perceived barrier preimplementation. Five-hundred-forty-five clinicians were actively involved in the project and completed training. The adherence percentage for each recommendation was greater than 85% except for the question prompt list (78%; 95% CI, 73-83%), where seven centers did not reach the objective. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that evidence-based interventions to improve the psychosocial care of people with cancer can be implemented in a diverse range of oncology wards. This requires the involvement and motivation of the entire staff of the ward, support by an expert team, and promotion by policymakers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/psicologia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Adulto , Comunicação , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Melhoria de Qualidade
6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 13: 14, 2013 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23305251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over 20% of hospital bed use is inappropriate, implying a waste of resources and the increase of patient iatrogenic risk. METHODS: This is a cluster, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial, carried out in a large University Hospital of Northern Italy, aiming to evaluate the effect of a strategy to reduce unnecessary hospital days. The primary outcome was the percentage of patient-days compatible with discharge. Among secondary objectives, to describe the strategy's effect in the long-term, as well as on hospital readmissions, considered to be a marker of the quality of hospital care. The 12 medical wards with the longest length of stay participated. Effectiveness was measured at the individual level on 3498 eligible patients during monthly index days. Patients admitted or discharged on index days, or with stay >90 days, were excluded. All ward staff was blinded to the index days, while staff in the control arm and data analysts were blinded to the trial's objectives and interventions. The strategy comprised the distribution to physicians of the list of their patients whose hospital stay was compatible with discharge according to a validated Delay Tool, and of physician length of stay profiles, followed by audits managed autonomously by the physicians of the ward. RESULTS: During the 12 months of data collection, over 50% of patient-days were judged to be compatible with discharge. Delays were mainly due to problems with activities under medical staff control. Multivariate analysis considering clustering showed that the strategy reduced patient-days compatible with discharge by 16% in the intervention vs control group, (OR=0.841; 95% CI, 0.735 to 0.963; P=0.012). Follow-up at 1 year did not yield a statistically significant difference between the percentages of patient-days judged to be compatible with discharge between the two arms (OR=0.818; 95% CI, 0.476 to 1.405; P=0.47). There was no significant difference in 30-day readmission and mortality rates for all eligible patients (N=3498) between the two arms. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that a strategy, involving physician direct accountability, can reduce unnecessary hospital days. Relatively simple interventions, like the one assessed in this study, should be implemented in all hospitals with excessive lengths of stay, since unnecessary prolongation may be harmful to patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT01422811.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Tempo de Internação , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Responsabilidade Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise por Conglomerados , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Alta do Paciente
7.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 24(2): 114-20, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22279162

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To devise an adverse event (AE) detection system and assess its validity and utility. DESIGN: Observational, retrospective study. SETTING: Six public hospitals in Northern Italy including a Teaching Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Eligible cases were all patients with at least one admission to a surgical ward, over a 3-month period. INTERVENTIONS: Computerized screening of administrative data and review of flagged charts by an independent panel. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of records needed to identify an AE using this detection system. RESULTS: Out of the 3310 eligible cases, 436 (13%) were extracted by computerized screening. In addition, out of the 2874 unflagged cases, 77 randomly extracted records (3%) were added to the sample, to measure unidentified cases. Nursing staff judged 108 of 504 (21%) charts positive for one or more criteria; surgeons confirmed the occurrence of AEs in 80 of 108 (74%) of these. Compared with random chart review, the number of cases needed to detect an AE, with the computerized screening suggested by this study, was reduced by two-thirds, although sensitivity was low (41%). CONCLUSIONS: This approach has the potential to allow the timely identification of AEs, enabling to quickly devise interventions. This detection system could be of true benefit for hospitals that intend assessing their AEs.


Assuntos
Erros Médicos/tendências , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Centro Cirúrgico Hospitalar , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Auditoria Médica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Gestão da Segurança
8.
Bioethics ; 25(4): 220-7, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19860746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rapid pace of progress in medical research, the consequent need for the timely transfer of new knowledge into practice, and the increasing need for ethics support, is making the work of Ethics Committees (ECs) ever more complex and demanding. As a response, ECs in many countries exhibit large variation in number, mandate, organization and member competences. This cross-sectional study aims to give an overview of the different types of activities of Italian ECs and favour discussion at a European level. METHODS: A questionnaire was emailed to all Italian Ethics Committees contained in the national Registry of the Ministry of Health, enquiring whether the EC was conducting, or planning to conduct, 4 specific activities. A telephone interview was conducted to determine reasons for failure to respond. RESULTS: Response rate was 53% (101 respondents out of 191). 20% of ECs restrict their responsibilities to research protocol review, 25% also offer ethical consultation to institutions, support on individual health care decisions and promotes educational initiatives, while the remaining 50% conduct a few of the examined activities to varying degrees. Large variation was observed across different types of hosting institutions and geographical locations. CONCLUSIONS: A common European model should be developed, defining EC functions, member selection modalities, necessary member competences, decision-making criteria and measures for work verification. In the absence of sound empirical evidence, it would be interesting to study the effectiveness and efficiency of the different existing models.


Assuntos
Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa/organização & administração , Papel Profissional , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Estudos Transversais , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Itália , Masculino
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 10: 16, 2010 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20078873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Question Prompt Lists (QPLs) have proven very effective in encouraging cancer patients to ask questions, allowing them to take up a more active role during visits with the oncologist. As no such tool has yet been validated for Italian-speaking users, we carried out the cross-cultural adaptation and evaluation of an existing Australian Question Prompt List. METHODS: Cross-cultural adaptation was performed in accordance with the five steps described by Guillemin and Beaton. Forward and back translations of the original tool were carried out, and the products discussed by an Expert Committee who agreed on a prefinal version of the Italian QPL, which was submitted to 30 volunteer patients for evaluation. They rated each question's adequacy of content, clarity of wording, usefulness, and generated anxiety, on a 3-point Likert scale. Based on the analysis of patient ratings, the final version of the Italian QPL was produced. RESULTS: Few discrepancies between the two back translations and the original version of the instrument were noted, indicating that the Italian translation (synthesis of the 2 forward translations) was substantially accurate. Most volunteer patients felt that the questionnaire was adequate, easy to understand and useful. Only a few minor criticisms were expressed. Certain questions on diagnosis and prognosis generated the highest level of anxiety. Patient comments and ratings on clarity highlighted the need to clarify common health care terms which are not widely used by the public (i.e. guideline, multidisciplinary team and clinical trial) CONCLUSIONS: This cross-cultural adaptation has produced an Italian Question Prompt List that is now available for multi-center international studies and can be safely used with Italian-speaking cancer patients.


Assuntos
Idioma , Oncologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Austrália , Cultura , Itália , Anamnese/métodos , Traduções
10.
J Clin Oncol ; 27(11): 1794-9, 2009 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19273715

RESUMO

PURPOSE: No structured modality for providing information and support to patients in oncology wards has been validated in clinical trials. METHODS: This is a pragmatic, two-arm, cluster randomized trial, with the oncology ward as random assignment unit. Centers were allocated to implement a Point of Information and Support (PIS) or to a control group. The PIS included a library for cancer patients and a specifically trained oncology nurse. End points, measured at patient level, were psychological distress and satisfaction with received information. Both intent-to-treat and per-protocol analyses considering clustering were performed. RESULTS: Thirty-eight Italian cancer centers were randomly assigned, and 6 months after PIS creation, 3,286 unselected, consecutive cancer patients were surveyed (1,654 in the experimental group and 1,632 in the control group). Three thousand one hundred ninety-seven (97%) questionnaires were collected and deemed valid. Fifty-two percent of centers (11 of 21 centers) in the experimental arm did not implement the PIS in accordance with the protocol. Overall, 34% of patients showed moderate to severe psychological distress, and only 9% declared dissatisfaction. Intent-to-treat analysis did not yield significant differences. Although the per-protocol analysis did show a reduction in psychological distress (28.9% for functioning PIS v 33.3% for no PIS) and dissatisfaction (6.4% for functioning PIS v 9.3% for no PIS), differences did not reach significance. CONCLUSION: This is the first cluster randomized trial aiming to demonstrate that a structured modality of providing information reduces psychological distress. We did not find this, but we believe results should be interpreted cautiously, particularly because of the low compliance with PIS implementation. Context analysis preceding such interventions is essential.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/psicologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente , Relações Médico-Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 5: 62, 2005 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16171523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Negative variation in the management of patients with the same clinical condition is frequent, and affects quality of care. Recent studies indicate that single interventions are not an effective solution. We aim to demonstrate that a multifaceted strategy can favor the introduction of research into practice, and to assess its long-term effects on a set of common medical conditions exhibiting significant negative variation at our institution. METHODS: The strategy, devised and agreed upon by a multidisciplinary group, was first applied to one relevant medical condition--cerebral ischemic stroke. To test its effectiveness a quasi-experimental study was conducted, comparing an intervention group with historical controls. After validation the strategy was extended to other pathologies, and its long-term effect measured using evidence-based quality indicators. Adherence to each indicator was determined prospectively on a six-month basis for a period of at least two consecutive years. Measures are expressed as proportions with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Validation findings demonstrated that the strategy improved compliance with scientific evidence: the percentage of patients who received a CT scan within 24 hours of hospital presentation rose from 56% to 75%, (chi2 = 7.43 p < 0.01); admissions to selected wards increased from 45% to 64%, (chi2 = 7.81 p < 0.01); the number of physical medicine visits within 24 hours of the request grew from 59% to 91% (chi2 = 14,40 p < 0.001). Over a four-year period the program was gradually applied to 14 medical conditions. Except for 3 cases, compliance with the pathway, i.e. number of eligible patients for whom data on the care process is collected, was above the minimum requirement of 75%. Indicator adherence generally exhibited a positive trend, though variability was observed both among different conditions and between different semesters for the same pathology. CONCLUSION: According to our experience, incorporation of research into practice can be favored by systematically applying a shared, multifaceted strategy, involving multidisciplinary teams supported by central coordination. Institutions should device a tailor-made approach, should train personnel on implementation strategies, and create cultural acceptance of change. Just like for experimental trials, human and economic resources should be allocated within health care services to allow the achievement of this objective.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Clínicos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Unidades Hospitalares/normas , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Benchmarking , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Competência Clínica , Unidades Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/estatística & dados numéricos
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