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1.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 329, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII) or Pompe disease is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that leads to intracellular glycogen storage in many tissues, mainly in skeletal muscle, heart and liver. Facial muscle weakness and altered craniofacial growth are very common in Pompe disease children. In this paper we describe the orofacial features in two children affected by GSDII and illustrate a multidisciplinary approach that involved enzyme replace therapy, non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and pediatric dentistry with 5-year follow-up. RESULTS: Two Infantile Pompe Disease children were examined by a pediatric dentist at the age of 4 and 5 years old respectively. The orofacial examination showed typical facies with similar features: hypotonia of facial and tongue muscles, lip incompetence, narrow palate with reduction in transversal dimension of the upper dental arch, macroglossia, low position of the tip of the tongue, concave profile, Class III malocclusion with hypoplasia of maxillary-malar area and mandibular prognathism. Myofunctional therapy and orthodontic treatment consisted in oral muscle exercises associated to intraoral and extraoral orthodontic devices. NIV facial mask was substituted with a nasal pillow mask in order to avoid external pressure on the mid-face which negatively influences craniofacial growth. CONCLUSIONS: This paper evidences that the pediatric dentist plays an important role in craniofacial growth control, oral function rehabilitation and, therefore, in the improvement of the quality of life of Pompe children and their families. Therefore an early pediatric dental evalutation should be included in the multidisciplinary management of children suffering from Infantile Pompe Disease.

2.
Ital J Pediatr ; 46(1): 173, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although children with special health care needs (CSHCN) represent a minority of the population, they go through more hospitalizations, more admissions to the Emergency Department (ED), and receive a major number of medical prescriptions, in comparison to general pediatric population. Objectives of the study were to determine the reasons for admission to the ED in Italian CSHCN, and to describe the association between patient's demographic data, clinical history, and health services requirements. METHODS: Ad hoc web site was created to collect retrospective data of 3479 visits of CSHCN to the ED in 58 Italian Hospitals. RESULTS: Seventy-two percent of patients admitted to ED were affected by a previously defined medical condition. Most of the ED admissions were children with syndromic conditions (54%). 44.2% of the ED admissions were registered during the night-time and/or at the weekends. The hospitalization rate was of 45.6% among patients admitted to the ED. The most common reason for admission to the ED was the presence of respiratory symptoms (26.6%), followed by gastrointestinal problems (21.3%) and neurological disorders (18.2%). 51.4% of the access were classified as 'urgent', with a red/yellow triage code. Considering the type of ED, 61.9% of the visits were conducted at the Pediatric EDs (PedEDs), 33.5% at the Functional EDs (FunEDs) and 4.6% at the Dedicated EDs (DedEDs). Patients with more complex clinical presentation were more likely to be evaluated at the PedEDs. CSHCN underwent to a higher number of medical procedures at the PedEDs, more in comparison to other EDs. Children with medical devices were directed to a PedED quite exclusively when in need for medical attention. Subjects under multiple anti-epileptic drug therapy attended to PedEDs or FunEDs generally. Patients affected by metabolic diseases were more likely to look for medical attention at FunEDs. Syndromic patients mostly required medical attention at the DedEDs. CONCLUSIONS: Access of CSHCN to an ED is not infrequent. For this reason, it is fundamental for pediatricians working in any kind of ED to increase their general knowledge about CHSCN and to gain expertise in the management of such patients and their related medical complexity.

3.
4.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 274, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004052

RESUMO

Patients with hereditary fructose intolerance need to follow a life-long fructose dietary and drug restriction to prevent symptoms of intoxication. Concerns about vaccines administration have been manifested overtime, for the risk of a life-threatening acute intoxication. For this reason, at Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù we performed a deepen research from open sources, datasheets and Pharmaceutical Companies informations from the most common Italian and European vaccines, which are carried out in infancy and childhood. As a safe threshold of 2.4 mg/kg/dose was recently established for oral and parenteral (other than i.v.) route, the manuscript clarifies the safe administration of majority of vaccines in patients with hereditary fructose intolerance.

5.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study provides a general overview on liver and/or kidney transplantation in patients with an amino and organic acid-related disorder (AOA) with the aim to investigate patient characteristics and global outcome in Europe. This study was an initiative of the E-IMD and the AOA subnetwork of MetabERN. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to all clinically active European Society for the Study of Inborn Errors of Metabolism (SSIEM) members. The questionnaire focused on transplanted individuals with methylmalonic acidemia (MMA), propionic acidemia (PA), maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), and urea-cycle disorders (UCDs). RESULTS: We identified 280 transplanted AOA patients (liver transplantation in 20 MMA, 37 PA, 47 MSUD, and 111 UCD patients, kidney or combined liver and kidney transplantation in 57 MMA patients and undefined transplantation type in 8 MMA patients), followed by 51 metabolic centers. At a median follow-up of 3.5 years, posttransplant survival ranged between 78% and 100%, being the lowest in PA patients. Overall, the risk of mortality was highest within 14 days posttransplantation. Neurological complications were mainly reported in Mut0 type MMA (n = 8). Nonneurological complications occurred in MMA (n = 28), PA (n = 7), and UCD (n = 14) patients, while it was virtually absent in MSUD patients. Only 116/280 patients were psychologically tested. In all, except MSUD patients, the intelligence quotient (IQ) remained unchanged in the majority (76/94, 81%). Forty-one percentage (9/22) of MSUD patient showed improved IQ. CONCLUSION: The survival in AOA individuals receiving liver and/or kidney transplantation seems satisfactory. Evidence-based guidelines, systematic data collection, and improved cooperation between transplantation centers and European Reference Networks are indispensable to improve patient care and outcomes.

6.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776892

RESUMO

Objectives Congenital disorders of N-glycosylation (CDG) are a large group of rare metabolic disorders caused by defects in the most common post-translational modification of proteins. CDGs are often difficult to diagnose as they are manifested with non-specific symptoms and signs. Analysis of serum transferrin (TRF) isoforms, as the classical procedure used to identify a CDG patient, enables to predict pathological steps in the N-linked glycosylation process. Methods We devised a new strategy based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for the analysis of TRF isoforms by combining a simple and fast sample preparation with a specific chromatographic cleanup/separation step followed by mass-spectrometric measurement. Single TRF isoform masses were obtained through reconstruction of multiply charged electrospray data collected by quadrupole-MS technology. Hereby, we report the first analyzed serum samples obtained from 20 CDG patients and 100 controls. Results The ratio of desialylated isoforms to total TRF was calculated for patients and controls. CDG-Type I patients showed higher amounts of bi-sialo isoform (range: 6.7-29.6%) compared to controls (<5.5%, mean percentage 3.9%). CDG-Type II pattern showed an increased peak of tri-sialo isoforms. The mean percentage of tri-sialo-TRF was 9.3% (range: 2.9-12.9%) in controls, which was lower than that obtained from two patients with COG5-CDG and MAN1B1-CDG (18.5 and 24.5%). Intraday and between-day imprecisions were less than 9 and 16%, respectively, for bi-sialo- and less than 3 and 6% for tri-sialo-TRF. Conclusions This LC-MS-based approach provides a simple, sensitive and fast analytical tool for characterizing CDG disorders in a routine clinical biochemistry while improving diagnostic accuracy and speeding clinical decision-making.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(16)2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824472

RESUMO

Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) should be adopted in all neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), where the most preterm and fragile babies are hospitalized and treated with many drugs, considering that organs and metabolic pathways undergo deep and progressive maturation processes after birth. Different developmental changes are involved in interindividual variability in response to drugs. A crucial point of TDM is the choice of the bioanalytical method and of the sample to use. TDM in neonates is primarily used for antibiotics, antifungals, and antiepileptic drugs in clinical practice. TDM appears to be particularly promising in specific populations: neonates who undergo therapeutic hypothermia or extracorporeal life support, preterm infants, infants who need a tailored dose of anticancer drugs. This review provides an overview of the latest advances in this field, showing options for a personalized therapy in newborns and infants.

8.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677093

RESUMO

The neurological phenotype of 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase (HIBCH) and short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase (SCEH) defects is expanding and natural history studies are necessary to improve clinical management. From 42 patients with Leigh syndrome studied by massive parallel sequencing, we identified five patients with SCEH and HIBCH deficiency. Fourteen additional patients were recruited through collaborations with other centres. In total, we analysed the neurological features and mutation spectrum in 19 new SCEH/HIBCH patients. For natural history studies and phenotype to genotype associations we also included 70 previously reported patients. The 19 newly identified cases presented with Leigh syndrome (SCEH, n = 11; HIBCH, n = 6) and paroxysmal dystonia (SCEH, n = 2). Basal ganglia lesions (18 patients) were associated with small cysts in the putamen/pallidum in half of the cases, a characteristic hallmark for diagnosis. Eighteen pathogenic variants were identified, 11 were novel. Among all 89 cases, we observed a longer survival in HIBCH compared to SCEH patients, and in HIBCH patients carrying homozygous mutations on the protein surface compared to those with variants inside/near the catalytic region. The SCEH p.(Ala173Val) change was associated with a milder form of paroxysmal dystonia triggered by increased energy demands. In a child harbouring SCEH p.(Ala173Val) and the novel p.(Leu123Phe) change, an 83.6% reduction of the protein was observed in fibroblasts. The SCEH and HIBCH defects in the catabolic valine pathway were a frequent cause of Leigh syndrome in our cohort. We identified phenotype and genotype associations that may help predict outcome and improve clinical management.

9.
Mol Genet Metab ; 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (ASMD) also known as Niemann-Pick disease, is a rare lysosomal storage disorder with a diverse disease spectrum that includes slowly progressive, chronic visceral (type B) and neurovisceral forms (intermediate type A/B), in addition to infantile, rapidly progressive fatal neurovisceral disease (type A). PURPOSE AND METHODS: We review the published evidence on the relevance of splenomegaly and reduced lung diffusion capacity to the clinical burden of chronic forms of ASMD. Targeted literature searches were conducted to identify relevant ASMD and non-ASMD studies for associations between diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and splenomegaly, with clinical parameters and outcome measures. RESULTS: Respiratory disease and organomegaly are primary and independent contributors to mortality, disease burden, and morbidity for patients with chronic ASMD. The degree of splenomegaly correlates with short stature, atherogenic lipid profile, and degree of abnormality of hematologic parameters, and thus may be considered a surrogate marker for bleeding risk, abnormal lipid profiles and possibly, liver fibrosis. Progressive lung disease is a prevalent clinical feature of chronic ASMD, contributing to a decreased quality of life (QoL) and an increased disease burden. In addition, respiratory-related complications are a major cause of mortality in ASMD. CONCLUSIONS: The reviewed evidence from ASMD natural history and observational studies supports the use of lung function and spleen volume as clinically meaningful endpoints in ASMD trials that translate into important measures of disease burden for patients.

10.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2020 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681732

RESUMO

Methylcitric acid (MCA) analysis has been mainly utilized for the diagnosis of propionate disorders or as a second-tier test in newborn screening, but its utility for patients monitoring still needs to be established. We explored the potential contribution of MCA in the long-term management of organic acidurias. We prospectively evaluated plasma MCA and its relationship with disease biomarkers, clinical status, and disease burden in 22 patients, 13 with propionic acidemia (PA) and nine with methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) on standard treatment and/or after transplantation. Samples were collected at scheduled routine controls or during episodes of metabolic decompensation (MD), 10 patients were evaluated after transplantation (six liver, two combined liver and kidney, 2 kidney). MCA levels were higher in PA compared to MMA and its levels were not influenced by the clinical status (MD vs well state). In MMA, MCA was higher in elder patients and, along with fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and plasma methylmalonic acid, negatively correlated with GFR. In both diseases, MCA correlated with ammonia, glycine, lysine, C3, and the C3/C2, C3/C16 ratios. The disease burden showed a direct correlation with MCA and FGF21, for both diseases. All transplanted patients showed a significant reduction of MCA in comparison to baseline values, with some differences dependent on the type of transplantation. Our study provided new insights in understanding the disease pathophysiology, showing similarities between MCA and FGF21 in predicting disease burden, long-term complications and in evaluating the impact of organ transplantation.

12.
Biomed Chromatogr ; : e4880, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396238

RESUMO

The common practice of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) involves the quantification of drug plasma concentrations at a specific time in a dosing window. Although TDM for antibiotics is not considered mandatory, it may represent a valid tool for clinicians in order to limit antibiotic resistance and avoid therapeutic failures. The aim of our study was to develop and validate a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection method for simultaneous quantification of 10 antibiotics in plasma. This method has a fast analytical procedure that uses the same chromatographic conditions to quantify ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, meropenem, ertapenem, ciprofloxacin, tigecycline, ampicillin, levofloxacin and piperacillin, plus the ß-lactamase inhibitor tazobactam. Method validation was ensured by testing selectivity, accuracy, precision, limits of detection and quantification, recovery and stability. The calibration ranges, established accordingly to the expected plasma concentration in patients, showed a coefficient of determination >0.996 for all compounds. Within- and between-days precisions reported a coefficient of variation >15%. Similarly, the accuracy evaluation reported a relative standard deviation of <10% for each antibiotic. The recovery ranged between 97 and 103% for all compounds. This method could represent a useful tool for TDM of antibiotics.

13.
Clin Chim Acta ; 507: 181-186, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infantile cholestasis (IC) is defined as an impairment of bile production or flow occurring in the first months of life. The diagnostic approach in IC is challenging since the differential diagnosis is broad. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 91 cholestatic infants referred to our department from 2014 to 2019. Patients with cholestasis underwent a complete IC diagnostic work-up including quantification of plasma oxysterols 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC) and cholestan-3ß,5α,6ß-triol (C-Triol). RESULTS: Oxysterols concentrations were mildly elevated in IC compared to control population. 7-KC and C-Triol plasma levels presented a linear relationship between them and with Spleen-Z score. Patients with NP-C showed the highest concentrations of both oxysterols compared with other etiologies of IC. Excluding NP-C patients, oxysterols concentrations were similar among all other etiological groups with no correlations found between them and the levels of cholesterol and bilirubin. ROC analysis identified AUCs of 1.0 for both oxysterols in predicting NP-C. CONCLUSION: Infants with IC should undergo a stepwise evaluation in which detailed clinical and deep analytical assessments are the main crossroads. Plasma oxysterols, a simple, reliable, and convenient diagnostic test should be included in the first steps of the diagnostic process in IC.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443888

RESUMO

Methylmalonic Acidurias (MMAs) are a group of inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs), specifically of propionate catabolism characterized by gastrointestinal and neurometabolic manifestations resulting from a deficiency in the function of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase, and cobalamin metabolism. In Expanded Newborn Screening (NBS), increased levels of propionylcarnitine (C3) and/or of its ratios by MS/MS analysis of dried blood spots (DBS) samples are suggestive for either Propionic Acidemia or MMAs. C3 elevation is not considered a specific marker for these disorders, resulting in high false-positive rates. The use of analyte ratios improves specificity, but it still cannot resolve the diagnostic issue. Second-tier testing are strongly recommended as confirmation of primary NBS results and for a differential diagnosis. LC-MS/MS analysis allows the quantification of more specific markers of the disorder. Here, we report the case of a newborn with a suspected MMA at Expanded NBS and at second-tier test. Given the urgent situation, in-depth diagnostic investigations were performed. Further investigations surprisingly revealed a Vitamin B12 deficiency due to a maternal malnutrition during pregnancy. This case emphasized that metabolic alterations at NBS may not only be influenced by genome and related to IEMs, but also to external factors and to maternal conditions.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos , Desnutrição , Exposição Materna , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12 , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/diagnóstico , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ácido Metilmalônico , Triagem Neonatal , Gravidez
17.
Dig Liver Dis ; 52(4): 359-367, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902560

RESUMO

Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders caused by loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding for lysosomal enzymes/proteins. The consequence is a progressive accumulation of substrates in these intracellular organelles, resulting in cellular and tissue damage. The overall incidence is about 1/8000 live births, but is likely underestimated. LSDs are chronic progressive multi-systemic disorders, generally presenting with visceromegaly, and involvement of the central nervous system, eyes, the skeleton, and the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The age at onset and phenotypic expression are highly variable, according to the specific enzymatic defect and tissues involved, the residual activity, and the disease-causing genotype. Enzyme-replacement therapies and substrate-reduction therapies have recently become available, leading to the improvement in symptoms, disease progression and quality of life of affected individuals. Liver involvement and hepatosplenomegaly are frequent features of LSDs and a hallmark of adult-onset forms, frequently leading to medical attention. LSDs should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of liver disease with organomegaly. The present document will provide a short overview of adult-onset LSDs with hepatic involvement, highlighting the specificities and systemic manifestations of the ones most frequently encountered in clinical practice, which may hint at the correct diagnosis and the appropriate treatment.

18.
Genet Med ; 22(3): 610-621, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761904

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants in neuroblastoma-amplified sequence (NBAS) cause an autosomal recessive disorder with a wide range of symptoms affecting liver, skeletal system, and brain, among others. There is a continuously growing number of patients but a lack of systematic and quantitative analysis. METHODS: Individuals with biallelic variants in NBAS were recruited within an international, multicenter study, including novel and previously published patients. Clinical variables were analyzed with log-linear models and visualized by mosaic plots; facial profiles were investigated via DeepGestalt. The structure of the NBAS protein was predicted using computational methods. RESULTS: One hundred ten individuals from 97 families with biallelic pathogenic NBAS variants were identified, including 26 novel patients with 19 previously unreported variants, giving a total number of 86 variants. Protein modeling redefined the ß-propeller domain of NBAS. Based on the localization of missense variants and in-frame deletions, three clinical subgroups arise that differ significantly regarding main clinical features and are directly related to the affected region of the NBAS protein: ß-propeller (combined phenotype), Sec39 (infantile liver failure syndrome type 2/ILFS2), and C-terminal (short stature, optic atrophy, and Pelger-Huët anomaly/SOPH). CONCLUSION: We define clinical subgroups of NBAS-associated disease that can guide patient management and point to domain-specific functions of NBAS.

19.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 43(3): 540-548, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816104

RESUMO

Fanconi-Bickel syndrome (FBS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterised by impaired glucose liver homeostasis and proximal renal tubular dysfunction. It is caused by pathogenic variants in SLC2A2 coding for the glucose transporter GLUT2. Main clinical features include hepatomegaly, fasting hypoglycaemia, postprandial hyperglycaemia, Fanconi-type tubulopathy occasionally with rickets, and a severe growth disorder. While treatment for renal tubular dysfunction is well established, data regarding optimal nutritional therapy are scarce. Similarly, detailed clinical evaluation of treated FBS patients is lacking. These unmet needs were an incentive to conduct the present pilot study. We present clinical findings, laboratory parameters and molecular genetic data on 11 FBS patients with emphasis on clinical outcome under various nutritional interventions. At diagnosis, the patients' phenotypic severity could be classified into two categories: a first group with severe growth failure and rickets, and a second group with milder signs and symptoms. Three patients were diagnosed early and treated because of family history. All patients exhibited massive glucosuria at diagnosis and some in both groups had fasting hypoglycaemic episodes. Growth retardation improved drastically in all five patients treated by intensive nutritional intervention (nocturnal enteral nutrition) and uncooked cornstarch with final growth parameters in the normal range. The four severely affected patients who were treated with uncooked cornstarch alone did not catch up growth. All patients received electrolytes and l-carnitine supplementation to compensate for the tubulopathy. This is one of the largest series of FBS on therapeutic management with evidence that nocturnal enteral nutrition rescues growth failure.

20.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 43(2): 367-374, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503356

RESUMO

Cobalamin C (cblC) defect is the most common inherited disorder of cobalamin metabolism. Developmental delay, behavioral problems, and maculopathy are common, but they have not been systematically investigated. The aim of this study was to define early neurodevelopment in cblC patients and the possible contribution of different factors, such as mode of diagnosis, age at diagnosis, presence of brain lesions and epilepsy. Children up to the age of 4 years with a visual acuity ≥1/10 were evaluated using the Griffiths' Mental Development Scales. Eighteen children were enrolled (age range 12-48 months). Four were diagnosed by newborn screening (NBS); in the others mean age at diagnosis was 3.5 months (range 0.3-18 months). Eight had seizures: three in the first year, and five after the second year of life. Fourteen had brain lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Neurovisual assessment evidenced low visual acuity (<3/10) in 4/18. NBS diagnosed patients had higher general and subquotients neurodevelopmental scores, normal brain MRI, and no epilepsy. The others showed a progressive reduction of the developmental quotient with age and language impairment, which was evident after 24 months of age. Our findings showed a progressive neurodevelopmental deterioration and a specific fall in language development after 24 months in cblC defect. The presence of brain lesions and epilepsy was associated with a worst neurodevelopmental outcome. NBS, avoiding major disease-related events and allowing an earlier treatment initiation, appeared to have a protective effect on the development of brain lesions and to promote a more favorable neurodevelopment.

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