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1.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 375, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary metastasectomy (PM) is an established treatment for selected patients with metastatic sarcomas. The aim of this study was to examine our institutional experience and evaluate factors predicting outcome. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients undergoing PM for bone sarcoma in our center from 2001 to 2019. Survival was calculated from the date of PM. Impact on survival of clinical parameters was assessed. RESULTS: Thirty-eight patients (27 males, 71%) were included. Histology was osteosarcoma (n = 20, 53%), Ewing sarcoma (n = 13, 34%) and chondrosarcoma (n = 5, 13%). Twelve patients (31.5%) had synchronous metastases, all received chemotherapy before PM. Median number of metastases was 3 (1 to 29). Twenty (53%) patients had mediastinal lymph node sampling. One patient had positive lymph nodes. Ninety-day mortality was 0%. Three and 5-year PFS were 24.5 and 21%, respectively. Three and 5-year OS were 64.5 and 38.5%, respectively. More than three metastases and progression under chemotherapy were significant independent predictors for OS. CONCLUSION: PM is a safe procedure and encouraging long-term outcome can be achieved. Patients with progression of pulmonary metastases under chemotherapy as well as patients with more than three metastases had significantly worse OS.

2.
Urologe A ; 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728475

RESUMO

Cystic nephroma is a rare tumor in childhood. Seventy percent of all cases are associated with DICER1-anomaly and therefore cystic nephroma represents the second most common tumor of all patients with DICER1 mutation. We present a case of a 15-month-old boy with a DICER1 mutation and cystic nephroma. Organ-sparing surgery was not possible. Due to higher prevalence of germ cell tumors, follow-up after nephrectomy is necessary until adulthood.

3.
Hum Reprod ; 36(4): 1120-1133, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582778

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Do genetic variations in the DNA damage response pathway modify the adverse effect of alkylating agents on ovarian function in female childhood cancer survivors (CCS)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Female CCS carrying a common BR serine/threonine kinase 1 (BRSK1) gene variant appear to be at 2.5-fold increased odds of reduced ovarian function after treatment with high doses of alkylating chemotherapy. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Female CCS show large inter-individual variability in the impact of DNA-damaging alkylating chemotherapy, given as treatment of childhood cancer, on adult ovarian function. Genetic variants in DNA repair genes affecting ovarian function might explain this variability. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: CCS for the discovery cohort were identified from the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG) LATER VEVO-study, a multi-centre retrospective cohort study evaluating fertility, ovarian reserve and risk of premature menopause among adult female 5-year survivors of childhood cancer. Female 5-year CCS, diagnosed with cancer and treated with chemotherapy before the age of 25 years, and aged 18 years or older at time of study were enrolled in the current study. Results from the discovery Dutch DCOG-LATER VEVO cohort (n = 285) were validated in the pan-European PanCareLIFE (n = 465) and the USA-based St. Jude Lifetime Cohort (n = 391). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: To evaluate ovarian function, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels were assessed in both the discovery cohort and the replication cohorts. Using additive genetic models in linear and logistic regression, five genetic variants involved in DNA damage response were analysed in relation to cyclophosphamide equivalent dose (CED) score and their impact on ovarian function. Results were then examined using fixed-effect meta-analysis. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Meta-analysis across the three independent cohorts showed a significant interaction effect (P = 3.0 × 10-4) between rs11668344 of BRSK1 (allele frequency = 0.34) among CCS treated with high-dose alkylating agents (CED score ≥8000 mg/m2), resulting in a 2.5-fold increased odds of a reduced ovarian function (lowest AMH tertile) for CCS carrying one G allele compared to CCS without this allele (odds ratio genotype AA: 2.01 vs AG: 5.00). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: While low AMH levels can also identify poor responders in assisted reproductive technology, it needs to be emphasized that AMH remains a surrogate marker of ovarian function. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Further research, validating our findings and identifying additional risk-contributing genetic variants, may enable individualized counselling regarding treatment-related risks and necessity of fertility preservation procedures in girls with cancer. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This work was supported by the PanCareLIFE project that has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement no 602030. In addition, the DCOG-LATER VEVO study was funded by the Dutch Cancer Society (Grant no. VU 2006-3622) and by the Children Cancer Free Foundation (Project no. 20) and the St Jude Lifetime cohort study by NCI U01 CA195547. The authors declare no competing interests. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.

4.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(2): e57-e67, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539754

RESUMO

Male patients with childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer are at an increased risk for infertility if their treatment adversely affects reproductive organ function. Future fertility is a primary concern of patients and their families. Variations in clinical practice are barriers to the timely implementation of interventions that preserve fertility. As part of the PanCareLIFE Consortium, in collaboration with the International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Guideline Harmonization Group, we reviewed the current literature and developed a clinical practice guideline for fertility preservation in male patients who are diagnosed with childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer at age 25 years or younger, including guidance on risk assessment and available methods for fertility preservation. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology was used to grade the available evidence and to form the recommendations. Recognising the need for global consensus, this clinical practice guideline used existing evidence and international expertise to rigorously develop transparent recommendations that are easy to use to facilitate the care of male patients with childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer who are at high risk of fertility impairment and to enhance their quality of life.


Assuntos
Preservação da Fertilidade/tendências , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Criança , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/patologia , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
5.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(2): e68-e80, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539755

RESUMO

Patients with childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer who will be treated with gonadotoxic therapies are at increased risk for infertility. Many patients and their families desire biological children but effective communication about treatment-related infertility risk and procedures for fertility preservation does not always happen. The PanCareLIFE Consortium and the International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Guideline Harmonization Group reviewed the literature and developed a clinical practice guideline that provides recommendations for ongoing communication methods for fertility preservation for patients who were diagnosed with childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer at age 25 years or younger and their families. Moreover, the guideline panel formulated considerations of the ethical implications that are associated with these procedures. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology was used to grade the evidence and recommendations. In this clinical practice guideline, existing evidence and international expertise are combined to develop transparent recommendations that are easy to use to facilitate ongoing communication between health-care providers and patients with childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer who might be at high risk for fertility impairment and their families.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Preservação da Fertilidade/ética , Guias como Assunto , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Preservação da Fertilidade/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Surg Res ; 260: 149-154, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary sarcomas of the chest wall are rare aggressive tumors. Surgery is part of the multimodal treatment. We describe our institutional patient cohort and evaluate prognostic factors. METHODS: All patients who had curative intent surgery for primary chest wall sarcoma from 2004 to 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. Impact on survival-calculated from the date of surgery until last follow-up- was assessed for the following variables: age, gender, type of resection, size, grading, stage, completeness of resection, and neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients (15 males, 65%) with a median age of 54 y (4 to 82) were included. Most common histology was chondrosarcoma (n = 5, 22%). Seven patients (30%) received neoadjuvant and 13 patients (57%) received adjuvant treatment. R0 resection was achieved in 83%. Extended chest wall resection was performed in 14 patients (61%), including lung (n = 13, 57%), diaphragm (n = 2, 9%) and pericardium (n = 1, 4%). Morbidity and 90-day mortality were 23% and 0%, respectively. Three- and 5-year overall survival was 53% and 35%, respectively. R0 resection was predictor of overall survival (P = 0.029). Tumor grade and extended resections were predictors for recurrence (P = 0.034 and P = 0.018, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Surgical resection of primary chest wall sarcoma is a safe procedure even when extended resection is required.

7.
Clin Sarcoma Res ; 10(1): 21, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The local treatment of Ewing sarcoma of bone involves surgery, radiotherapy or both. The selection of treatment depends on the anatomical extent of the tumour, the effectiveness of the proposed treatment, its morbidity, and the expectation of cure. However, not only are there variations in the approach to local treatment between individual patients, but also between treatment centres and countries. Our aim was to explore variation in practice and develop consensus statements about local treatment. METHODS: A three stage modified Delphi technique was used with international collaborators. This involved an expert panel to identify areas of controversy, an online survey of international collaborators and a consensus meeting in London, UK in June 2017. In the consensus meeting, teams of clinicians discussed the local management of selected cases and their responses were collected with electronic voting. RESULTS: Areas of greater or less consensus were identified. The lack of evidence underpinning different approaches was noted and areas for collaborative research became apparent. CONCLUSION: This has demonstrated that there is an international consensus around many aspects of the local treatment of Ewing sarcoma of bone, including the use of specialist MultiDisciplinary Team (MDT) meetings with access to all appropriate treatments. However, considerable variation remains including the use of different staging investigations, decision making, definitions of response, and radiotherapy doses and timing. Further collaborative work should be undertaken to determine the impact of these variations in order to define best practice.

8.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 15(1): 534, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Local treatment in pelvic Ewing sarcoma (ES) consists of operation, radiation therapy, or a combination of both. Reported outcomes vary depending on the treatment modality performed. It is the objective of this study to analyze surgical outcome and complications as well as oncological outcome and complications of chemo- and radiation therapy in this patient cohort and evaluate prognostic factors. METHODS: Retrospective review of 104 patients who underwent tumor resection for pelvic ES from 1988 to 2014. RESULTS: All patients underwent pelvic resection and radiation therapy was administered in 77.9%. Margins were clear in 94.2%. The response to chemotherapy was good in 78.8%. Local recurrence occurred in 7.7%. The presence of distant metastases at the time of operation was the most important negative predictor for overall survival (p = 0.003). The cumulative 5- and 10-year survival rates were 82.7% and 80.1% for non-metastasized and 61.4% and 41.6% for metastasized pelvic ES at operation. In the presence of a single-distant metastatic site at operation compared to multiple metastatic sites, the cumulative survival rates were 64.3% versus 50% at five and 50.7% versus 16.7% at 10 years. CONCLUSIONS: A combined treatment approach of tumor resection and radiation therapy leads to a local control and overall survival rates comparable with those of extremity locations in this study's patient cohort with localized pelvic ES. Therefore, surgical tumor resection (combined with (neo-)adjuvant radiation therapy) in non-metastatic pelvic ES seems feasible. In metastatic patients, however, the significance of tumor resection as a part of local treatment remains less certain and improved outcomes of combined local treatment approaches need to be weighed against these patients' prognosis and quality of life.

9.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e28801, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the prognosis of patients with Ewing sarcoma (EwS) is improving, little is known about the frequency of pain and its risk factors in survivors of EwS. This study aims to analyse the prevalence and risk factors of pain and its predictive value for recurrence. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In patients with remission after treatment of EwS, frequency and characteristics of pain within the first 5 years of follow up were assessed retrospectively. RESULTS: Of 80 patients, 37 (46%) presented with at least one episode of pain. Chronic pain (>3 months) was observed in 10 patients (13%). Experience of at least one episode of pain was associated with prior combined local treatment (surgery and radiation compared to surgery alone; odds ratio [OR] 5.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43-34.9, P = .007). A total of 59 episodes of pain were observed, including 47 acute and 12 chronic episodes. Lower limb pain accounted for 46% (27/59) of all episodes of pain, and was associated with primary tumour of the pelvis or lower extremity (OR 4.29, 95% CI 1.18-18.21, P = .025), which represented 64% (51/80) of all EwS. The positive predictive value of pain for recurrence was only 12%. CONCLUSION: Pain is a common problem in survivors of EwS, which mostly affects the lower extremity, and should be regularly assessed. Interventions to reduce pain may be particularly important in patients with combined local treatment with surgery and radiation, who seem to be at considerably increased risk for pain. Patients presenting with pain should be examined for recurrence.

10.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e036376, 2020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046463

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at developing a dynamic prediction model for patients with Ewing sarcoma (ES) to provide predictions at different follow-up times. During follow-up, disease-related information becomes available, which has an impact on a patient's prognosis. Many prediction models include predictors available at baseline and do not consider the evolution of disease over time. SETTING: In the analysis, 979 patients with ES from the Gesellschaft für Pädiatrische Onkologie und Hämatologie registry, who underwent surgery and treatment between 1999 and 2009, were included. DESIGN: A dynamic prediction model was developed to predict updated 5-year survival probabilities from different prediction time points during follow-up. Time-dependent variables, such as local recurrence (LR) and distant metastasis (DM), as well as covariates measured at baseline, were included in the model. The time effects of covariates were investigated by using interaction terms between each variable and time. RESULTS: Developing LR, DM in the lungs (DMp) or extrapulmonary DM (DMo) has a strong effect on the probability of surviving an additional 5 years with HRs and 95% CIs equal to 20.881 (14.365 to 30.353), 6.759 (4.465 to 10.230) and 17.532 (13.210 to 23.268), respectively. The effects of primary tumour location, postoperative radiotherapy (PORT), histological response and disease extent at diagnosis on survival were found to change over time. The HR of PORT versus no PORT at the time of surgery is equal to 0.774 (0.594 to 1.008). One year after surgery, the HR is equal to 1.091 (0.851 to 1.397). CONCLUSIONS: The time-varying effects of several baseline variables, as well as the strong impact of time-dependent variables, show the importance of including updated information collected during follow-up in the prediction model to provide accurate predictions of survival.

11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237792, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ewing sarcoma (EwS) is a rare, aggressive solid tumor of childhood, adolescence and young adulthood associated with pathognomonic EWSR1-ETS fusion oncoproteins altering transcriptional regulation. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 6 common germline susceptibility loci but have not investigated low-frequency inherited variants with minor allele frequencies below 5% due to limited genotyped cases of this rare tumor. METHODS: We investigated the contribution of rare and low-frequency variation to EwS susceptibility in the largest EwS genome-wide association study to date (733 EwS cases and 1,346 unaffected controls of European ancestry). RESULTS: We identified two low-frequency variants, rs112837127 and rs2296730, on chromosome 20 that were associated with EwS risk (OR = 0.186 and 2.038, respectively; P-value < 5×10-8) and located near previously reported common susceptibility loci. After adjusting for the most associated common variant at the locus, only rs112837127 remained a statistically significant independent signal (OR = 0.200, P-value = 5.84×10-8). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest rare variation residing on common haplotypes are important contributors to EwS risk. IMPACT: Motivate future targeted sequencing studies for a comprehensive evaluation of low-frequency and rare variation around common EwS susceptibility loci.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Sarcoma de Ewing/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
12.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(6)2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599807

RESUMO

Intracranial Ewing sarcoma (EwS) is rare and publications on primary or metastatic intracranial EwS are minimal. The aim of this study was to describe incidence, clinical behavior, treatment, and factors associated with outcome in patients with primary intracranial EwS or patients with a primary extracranial EwS and cerebral metastases at diagnosis. We reviewed all patients with primary or with metastatic intracranial EwS at diagnosis registered in the International Clinical Trial Euro-E.W.I.N.G.99 (EE99). In total, 17 of 1435 patients (1.2%) presented with primary intracranial EwS; 3 of them had metastatic disease. Four patients (0.3%) with primary extracranial EwS presented with intracranial metastatic lesions. The 3-year event-free survival (EFS) was 64% and overall survival (OS) was 70% in patients with a primary intracranial EwS. Local control in patients with primary intracranial EwS consisted of surgery (6%), radiotherapy (RT) (18%), or both modalities (76%). Univariate analysis showed that patients < 15 years of age had significantly better outcome (EFS: 72%; OS: 76%) compared to those aged above 15 years (EFS: 13%; OS: 25%). In conclusion, primary intracranial EwS and extracranial EwS with cerebral metastases at diagnosis is rare, yet survival is comparable with local and metastatic EwS elsewhere in the body. Age and stage of disease are important prognostic factors. Besides chemotherapeutic treatment, local control with surgical resection combined with RT is recommended whenever feasible.

13.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) ; 29(5): e13279, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567091

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: As adolescent cancer patients may suffer from infertility following treatment, fertility counselling is essential. Our aim was to explore the current situation in four European countries in terms of (I) education about the risk for infertility, (II) counselling on fertility preservation, (III) patients' knowledge on fertility, (IV) sufficiency of information and (V) uptake of cryopreservation. METHODS: In total, 113 patients (13-20 years) at 11 study centres completed a self-report questionnaire three and six months after cancer diagnosis. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: As many as 80.2% of participants reported having received education about the risk for infertility prior to treatment, 73.2% recalled counselling on fertility preservation. Only 52.3% stated they felt sufficiently informed to make a decision. Inability to recall counselling on fertility preservation (OR = 0.03, CI: 0.00-0.47) and female gender (OR = 0.11, CI: 0.03-0.48) was associated with lower use of cryopreservation, whereas older age was associated with higher use. CONCLUSION: Fertility counselling was available to a relatively high proportion of patients, and it did influence the utilisation of cryopreservation. However, many patients did not feel sufficiently informed. Further improvement is needed to enable adolescent cancer patients to make an informed decision on fertility preservation.

14.
J Surg Oncol ; 122(3): 506-514, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Primary pulmonary sarcoma (PPS) accounts for less than 1.1% of all pulmonary tumors. Few outcome data are reported. We evaluated outcome and prognostic factors in our series. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent resection for PPS in our center from 2002 to 2018. Survival was calculated from the date of surgery until last follow-up. Impact on survival of gender, type of lung resection, completeness of resection, grade, size, and TNM staging for lung cancer and soft tissue sarcoma (STS) was assessed. RESULTS: Thirteen patients were included. Eight (61.5%) patients received neoadjuvant treatment. Median tumor size at diagnosis was 11.5 cm (1-30 cm). Type of lung resection was wedge (n = 2, 15%), lobectomy (n = 4, 31%), intrapericardial (n = 3, 23%), and extrapleural pneumonectomies (n = 4, 31%). In-hospital mortality was 8%. Overall 5-year survival was 60%. Median disease-free survival was 17 months. Tumor size was a predictor for survival (P = .02) and recurrence (P = .05). Gender (P = .04) and type of lung resection (P = .04) were predictors of survival. T stage for STS of trunk and extremity, and TNM stage for lung cancer were predictors for recurrence (P = .03 and P = .04, respectively). CONCLUSION: Surgical resection within a multimodality therapy concept in highly selected patients can offer good long-term outcome.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Sarcoma/patologia , Sarcoma/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Pneumonectomia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcoma/terapia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(4)2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272784

RESUMO

The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) RON is linked to an aggressive metastatic phenotype of carcinomas. While gaining interest as a therapeutic target, RON remains unstudied in sarcomas. In Ewing sarcoma, we identified RON among RTKs conferring resistance to insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) targeting. Therefore, we explored RON in pediatric sarcoma cell lines and an embryonic Tg(kdrl:mCherry) zebrafish model, using an shRNA-based approach. To examine RON-IGF1R crosstalk, we employed the clinical-grade monoclonal antibody IMC-RON8, alone and together with the IGF1R-antibody IMC-A12. RON silencing demonstrated functions in vitro and in vivo, particularly within micrometastatic cellular capacities. Signaling studies revealed a unidirectional IGF1-mediated cross-activation of RON. Yet, IMC-A12 failed to sensitize cells to IMC-RON8, suggesting additional mechanisms of RON activation. Here, RT-PCR revealed that childhood sarcomas express short-form RON, an isoform resistant to antibody-mediated targeting. Interestingly, in contrast to carcinomas, treatment with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor did not diminish but increased short-form RON expression. Thus, this first report supports a role for RON in the metastatic progression of Ewing sarcoma. While principal molecular functions appear transferrable between carcinomas, Ewing sarcoma and possibly more common sarcoma subtypes, RON highlights that specific regulations of cellular networks and isoforms require better understanding to successfully transfer targeting strategies.

17.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(3)2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164354

RESUMO

Ewing sarcoma (EwS) is an aggressive cancer displaying an undifferentiated small-round-cell histomorphology that can be easily confused with a broad spectrum of differential diagnoses. Using comparative transcriptomics and immunohistochemistry (IHC), we previously identified BCL11B and GLG1 as potential specific auxiliary IHC markers for EWSR1-FLI1-positive EwS. Herein, we aimed at validating the specificity of both markers in a far larger and independent cohort of EwS (including EWSR1-ERG-positive cases) and differential diagnoses. Furthermore, we evaluated their intra-tumoral expression heterogeneity. Thus, we stained tissue microarrays from 133 molecularly confirmed EwS cases and 320 samples from morphological mimics, as well as a series of patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models for BCL11B, GLG1, and CD99, and systematically assessed the immunoreactivity and optimal cut-offs for each marker. These analyses demonstrated that high BCL11B and/or GLG1 immunoreactivity in CD99-positive cases had a specificity of 97.5% and an accuracy of 87.4% for diagnosing EwS solely by IHC, and that the markers were expressed by EWSR1-ERG-positive EwS. Only little intra-tumoral heterogeneity in immunoreactivity was observed for differential diagnoses. These results indicate that BCL11B and GLG1 may help as specific auxiliary IHC markers in diagnosing EwS in conjunction with CD99, especially if confirmatory molecular diagnostics are not available.

18.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(2)2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previously, we used inhibitors blocking BET bromodomain binding proteins (BRDs) in Ewing sarcoma (EwS) and observed that long term treatment resulted in the development of resistance. Here, we analyze the possible interaction of BRD4 with cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 9. METHODS: Co-immunoprecipitation experiments (CoIP) to characterize BRD4 interaction and functional consequences of inhibiting transcriptional elongation were assessed using drugs targeting of BRD4 or CDK9, either alone or in combination. RESULTS: CoIP revealed an interaction of BRD4 with EWS-FLI1 and CDK9 in EwS. Treatment of EwS cells with CDKI-73, a specific CDK9 inhibitor (CDK9i), induced a rapid downregulation of EWS-FLI1 expression and block of contact-dependent growth. CDKI-73 induced apoptosis in EwS, as depicted by cleavage of Caspase 7 (CASP7), PARP and increased CASP3 activity, similar to JQ1. Microarray analysis following CDKI-73 treatment uncovered a transcriptional program that was only partially comparable to BRD inhibition. Strikingly, combined treatment of EwS with BRD- and CDK9-inhibitors re-sensitized cells, and was overall more effective than individual drugs not only in vitro but also in a preclinical mouse model in vivo. CONCLUSION: Treatment with BRD inhibitors in combination with CDK9i offers a new treatment option that significantly blocks the pathognomonic EWS-ETS transcriptional program and malignant phenotype of EwS.

20.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 47(6): 1564-1575, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853559

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to perform a prospective integrated analysis of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) to assess responses to multimodal chemotherapy in children and adolescents suffering from Ewing sarcoma (EwS). METHODS: A total of 20 patients with histologically confirmed EwS underwent multiple 18F-FDG-PET/CT, performed at the time of each patient's initial diagnosis and after the second and fifth induction chemotherapy block (EWING2008 treatment protocol, NCT00987636). Additional PET examinations were performed as clinically indicated in some patients, e.g., in patients suspected of having progressive or relapsing disease. All 263 18F-FDG-positive lesions in the field of view suggestive of tumor tissue were assessed quantitatively to calculate PET-derived parameters, including whole-body metabolic tumor volume (wb-MTV) and whole-body total lesion glycolysis (wb-TLG), as well as the following data: standardized uptake value (SUV)max and SUVmean. Tumor-specific ctDNA in patient plasma samples was quantified using digital droplet PCR (ddPCR), and the correlations between ctDNA levels and PET-derived parameters were analyzed. Metabolic responses to multimodal chemotherapy as assessed with PET-parameters were compared to biochemical responses as assessed with changes in ctDNA levels. RESULTS: Twenty patients underwent a total of 87 18F-FDG-PET/CT scans, which detected 263 FDG-positive tumor lesions. Significant correlations between SUVmax, SUVmean, wb-MTV and wb-TLG values, and ctDNA levels were observed (all p < 0.0001). All patients suffering from EwS, with histology serving as gold standard, also presented with a positive corresponding ctDNA sample and a positive 18F-FDG-PET/CT examination before initiation of therapy. There were no false-negative results. Evaluation of treatment response after the fifth block of induction chemotherapy showed that the agreement between the metabolic response and biochemical response was 90%, which was statistically significant (Cohen κ = 0.62; p < 0.05). Non-detectable ctDNA after the second block of induction chemotherapy was associated with complete biochemical and metabolic responses after the fifth block of induction chemotherapy in 16/17 patients (94%). During a median follow-up period of 36 months (range: 8-104 months), four patients had tumor relapses, which, in all cases, were accompanied by an increase in plasma ctDNA levels and a positive 18F-FDG-PET/CT. No false-negative results were observed in the study cohort. Complete biochemical and metabolic responses after the fifth block of induction chemotherapy had a high positive predictive value for disease remission during the follow-up period; specifically, the positive predictive value was 88%. CONCLUSION: The combination of 18F-FDG-PET/CT and ctDNA quantification is a very promising noninvasive tool for assessing treatment responses and detecting tumor relapses in children and young adolescents suffering from EwS who are undergoing multimodal chemotherapy.

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