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2.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 478(2): 290-302, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Local treatment of pelvic Ewing's sarcoma may be challenging, and intergroup studies have focused on improving systemic treatments rather than prospectively evaluating aspects of local tumor control. The Euro-EWING99 trial provided a substantial number of patients with localized pelvic tumors treated with the same chemotherapy protocol. Because local control included surgical resection, radiation therapy, or a combination of both, we wanted to investigate local control and survival with respect to the local modality in this study cohort. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Do patients with localized sacral tumors have a lower risk of local recurrence and higher survival compared with patients with localized tumors of the innominate bones? (2) Is the local treatment modality associated with local control and survival in patients with sacral and nonsacral tumors? (3) Which local tumor- and treatment-related factors, such as response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, institution where the biopsy was performed, and surgical complications, are associated with local recurrence and patient survival in nonsacral tumors? (4) Which factors, such as persistent extraosseous tumor growth after chemotherapy or extent of bony resection, are independently associated with overall survival in patients with bone tumors undergoing surgical treatment? METHODS: Between 1998 and 2009, 1411 patients with previously untreated, histologically confirmed Ewing's sarcoma were registered in the German Society for Pediatric Oncology and Hematology Ewing's sarcoma database and treated in the Euro-EWING99 trial. In all, 24% (339 of 1411) of these patients presented with a pelvic primary sarcoma, 47% (159 of 339) of which had macroscopic metastases at diagnosis and were excluded from this analysis. The data from the remaining 180 patients were reviewed retrospectively, based on follow-up data as of July 2016. The median (range) follow-up was 54 months (5 to 191) for all patients and 84 months (11 to 191) for surviving patients. The study endpoints were overall survival, local recurrence and event-free survival probability, which were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Hazard ratios (HRs) with their respective 95% CIs were estimated in a multivariate Cox regression model. RESULTS: Sacral tumors were associated with a reduced probability of local recurrence (12% [95% CI 1 to 22] versus 28% [95% CI 20 to 36] at 5 years, p = 0.032), a higher event-free survival probability (66% [95% CI 51 to 81] versus 50% [95% CI 41 to 58] at 5 years, p = 0.026) and a higher overall survival probability (72% [95% CI 57 to 87] versus 56% [95% CI 47 to 64] at 5 years, p = 0.025) compared with nonsacral tumors. With the numbers available, we found no differences between patients with sacral tumors who underwent definitive radiotherapy and those who underwent combined surgery and radiotherapy in terms of local recurrence (17% [95% CI 0 to 34] versus 0% [95% CI 0 to 20] at 5 years, p = 0.125) and overall survival probability (73% [95% CI 52 to 94] versus 78% [95% CI 56 to 99] at 5 years, p = 0.764). In nonsacral tumors, combined local treatment was associated with a lower local recurrence probability (14% [95% CI 5 to 23] versus 33% [95% CI 19 to 47] at 5 years, p = 0.015) and a higher overall survival probability (72% [95% CI 61 to 83] versus 47% [95% CI 33 to 62] at 5 years, p = 0.024) compared with surgery alone. Even in a subgroup of patients with wide surgical margins and a good histologic response to induction treatment, the combined local treatment was associated with a higher overall survival probability (87% [95% CI 74 to 100] versus 51% [95% CI 33 to 69] at 5 years, p = 0.009), compared with surgery alone.A poor histologic response to induction chemotherapy in nonsacral tumors (39% [95% CI 19 to 59] versus 64% [95% CI 52 to 76] at 5 years, p = 0.014) and the development of surgical complications after tumor resection (35% [95% CI 11 to 59] versus 68% [95% CI 58 to 78] at 5 years, p = 0.004) were associated with a lower overall survival probability in nonsacral tumors, while a tumor biopsy performed at the same institution where the tumor resection was performed was associated with lower local recurrence probability (14% [95% CI 4 to 24] versus 32% [95% CI 16 to 48] at 5 years, p = 0.035), respectively.In patients with bone tumors who underwent surgical treatment, we found that after controlling for tumor localization in the pelvis, tumor volume, and surgical margin status, patients who did not undergo complete (defined as a Type I/II resection for iliac bone tumors, a Type II/III resection for pubic bone and ischium tumors and a Type I/II/III resection for tumors involving the acetabulum, according to the Enneking classification) removal of the affected bone (HR 5.04 [95% CI 2.07 to 12.24]; p < 0.001), patients with a poor histologic response to induction chemotherapy (HR 3.72 [95% CI 1.51 to 9.21]; p = 0.004), and patients who did not receive additional radiotherapy (HR 4.34 [95% CI 1.71 to 11.05]; p = 0.002) had a higher risk of death. The analysis suggested that the same might be the case in patients with a persistent extraosseous tumor extension after induction chemotherapy (HR 4.61 [95% CI 1.03 to 20.67]; p = 0.046), although the wide CIs pointing at a possible sparse-data bias precluded any definitive conclusions. CONCLUSION: Patients with sacral Ewing's sarcoma appear to have a lower probability for local recurrence and a higher overall survival probability compared with patients with tumors of the innominate bones. Our results seem to support a recent recommendation of the Scandinavian Sarcoma Group to locally treat most sacral Ewing's sarcomas with definitive radiotherapy. Combined surgical resection and radiotherapy appear to be associated with a higher overall survival probability in nonsacral tumors compared with surgery alone, even in patients with a wide resection and a good histologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Complete removal of the involved bone, as defined above, in patients with nonsacral tumors may be associated with a decreased likelihood of local recurrence and improved overall survival. Persistent extraosseous tumor growth after induction treatment in patients with nonsacral bone tumors undergoing surgical treatment might be an important indicator of poorer overall survival probability, but the possibility of sparse-data bias in our cohort means that this factor should first be validated in future studies. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, therapeutic study.

3.
J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol ; 9(1): 55-62, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621493

RESUMO

Purpose: Within a multicenter European study, we explored fertility-related wishes, concerns, and decision-making of adolescent cancer patients and their parents. Patients and Methods: Patients and parents were each asked to complete a fertility-related questionnaire 3 months after initial diagnosis. In total, 113 of 142 (79.6%) eligible patients participated; 53.1% were male and the median age was 16 years (range 13-20 years). The questionnaire was completed by 111 parents. Univariate analyses were conducted using nonparametric methods with alpha = 5%. For multivariate analyses, binary logistic regression was conducted. Results: Both patients (86.1%) and parents (96.3%) indicated a strong desire for biological parenthood for themselves/their children. Female patients (odds ratio [OR] = 3.70; confidence interval [CI]: 1.43-9.50) and parents (OR = 2.70; CI: 1.21-6.00) were more likely to report a high fear of cancer recurrence. Patients who estimated their risk for fertility impairment being high were more likely to be concerned about their fertility (OR = 5.69; CI: 1.41-22.98). Parents who received fertility preservation information were more likely to recommend its use to their children (OR = 5.50; CI: 1.07-28.40), whereas parents of female patients were less likely to do so (OR = 0.13; CI: 0.03-0.61). Conclusions: The prospect of fertility following cancer treatment is important for adolescent cancer patients and their parents, yet it is associated with many concerns. Counseling regarding fertility preservation can be more effective when the individual needs of patients and their parents are taken into consideration.

4.
Eur J Pediatr ; 179(1): 51-60, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493021

RESUMO

Infertility is a relevant late-effect following cancer treatment; yet, a large proportion of survivors cannot recall having been informed of this risk. In an intervention study, we examined if and how supportive patient information material on fertility/fertility-preserving measures influences utilization of cryopreservation in adolescent cancer patients. The control group, recruited 03/2014-01/2016, received the usual patient education at initial diagnosis. The intervention group, recruited 04/2016-10/2017, received patient education supported by a fertility flyer and brochure. Patients and parents were each asked questions on utilization of cryopreservation in a questionnaire 3 and 6 months after initial diagnosis. Patient core and therapy data were obtained from medical records. Overall, cryopreservation rates showed no significant difference between the control (32.7%, n = 37/113) and intervention group (36.6%, n = 37/101). In the control group, cryopreservation was associated with gender (OR 0.100, CI 0.023-0.427), age (OR 1.559, CI 1.077-2.258) and recalling information on fertility protection (OR 33.663, CI 2.100-539.574); in the intervention group, cryopreservation was related to gender (OR 0.093, CI 0.026-0.330) and the estimated infertility risk (OR 43.665, CI 2.157-883.974).Conclusion: Cryopreservation rates did not overall increase following the intervention; however, the individual risk seemed to be brought into attention more: Those at risk, including younger patients, cryopreserved at higher rates.What is Known:•Infertility is a relevant late-effect following adolescent cancer.•Guidelines recommend to offer fertility protection before cancer treatment.•A relevant proportion of adolescents with cancer are not aware of this risk.•Fertility protection seems under-used in cancer patients at risk for infertility.What is New:•Information material on fertility and protection in adolescents did not increase overall rates of cryopreservation.•Cryopreservation rates were improved according to individual risk for infertility.•Our flyers and brochures on fertility in cancer patients are available in various languages.

5.
Mol Oncol ; 14(2): 248-260, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811703

RESUMO

Oncogenesis of Ewing sarcoma (EwS), the second most common malignant bone tumor of childhood and adolescence, is dependent on the expression of chimeric EWSR1-ETS fusion oncogenes, most often EWSR1-FLI1 (E/F). E/F expression leads to dysregulation of focal adhesions (FAs) enhancing the migratory capacity of EwS cells. Here, we show that, in EwS cell lines and tissue samples, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is expressed and phosphorylated at Y397 in an E/F-dependent way involving Ezrin. Employing different EwS cell lines as in vitro models, we found that key malignant properties of E/F are mediated via substrate-independent autophosphorylation of FAK on Y397. This phosphorylation results in enhanced FA formation, Rho-dependent cell migration, and impaired caspase-3-mediated apoptosis in vitro. Conversely, treatment with the FAK inhibitor 15 (1,2,4,5-benzenetetraamine tetrahydrochloride (Y15) enhanced caspase-mediated apoptosis and EwS cell migration, independent from the respective EWSR1-ETS fusion type, mimicking an anoikis-like phenotype and paralleling the effects of FAK siRNA knockdown. Our findings were confirmed in vivo using an avian chorioallantoic membrane model and provide a first rationale for the therapeutic use of FAK inhibitors to impair metastatic dissemination of EwS.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19704, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873172

RESUMO

Tumors of soft tissue and bone represent a heterogeneous group of neoplasias characterized by a wide variety of genetic aberrations. Albeit knowledge on tumorigenesis in mesenchymal tumors is continuously increasing, specific insights on altered signaling pathways as a basis for molecularly targeted therapeutic strategies are still sparse. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of YAP1/TAZ-mediated signals in tumors of soft tissue and bone. Expression levels of YAP1 and TAZ were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in a large cohort of 486 tumor specimens, comprising angiosarcomas (AS), Ewing sarcomas, leiomyosarcomas, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST), solitary fibrous tumors, synovial sarcomas (SySa), well-differentiated/dedifferentiated/pleomorphic and myxoid liposarcomas (MLS). Moderate to strong nuclear staining of YAP1 and TAZ was detected in 53% and 33%, respectively. YAP1 nuclear expression was most prevalent in MPNST, SySa and MLS, whereas nuclear TAZ was predominately detected in AS, MLS and MPNST. In a set of sarcoma cell lines, immunoblotting confirmed nuclear localization of YAP1 and TAZ, corresponding to their transcriptionally active pool. Suppression of YAP1/TAZ-TEAD mediated transcriptional activity significantly impaired sarcoma cell viability in vitro and in vivo. Our findings identify nuclear YAP1 and TAZ positivity as a common feature in subsets of sarcomas of soft tissue and bone and provide evidence of YAP1/TAZ-TEAD signaling as a specific liability to be considered as a new target for therapeutic intervention. Nuclear YAP1/TAZ expression may represent a biomarker suited to identify patients that could benefit from YAP1/TAZ-TEAD directed therapeutic approaches within future clinical trials.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853559

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to perform a prospective integrated analysis of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) to assess responses to multimodal chemotherapy in children and adolescents suffering from Ewing sarcoma (EwS). METHODS: A total of 20 patients with histologically confirmed EwS underwent multiple 18F-FDG-PET/CT, performed at the time of each patient's initial diagnosis and after the second and fifth induction chemotherapy block (EWING2008 treatment protocol, NCT00987636). Additional PET examinations were performed as clinically indicated in some patients, e.g., in patients suspected of having progressive or relapsing disease. All 263 18F-FDG-positive lesions in the field of view suggestive of tumor tissue were assessed quantitatively to calculate PET-derived parameters, including whole-body metabolic tumor volume (wb-MTV) and whole-body total lesion glycolysis (wb-TLG), as well as the following data: standardized uptake value (SUV)max and SUVmean. Tumor-specific ctDNA in patient plasma samples was quantified using digital droplet PCR (ddPCR), and the correlations between ctDNA levels and PET-derived parameters were analyzed. Metabolic responses to multimodal chemotherapy as assessed with PET-parameters were compared to biochemical responses as assessed with changes in ctDNA levels. RESULTS: Twenty patients underwent a total of 87 18F-FDG-PET/CT scans, which detected 263 FDG-positive tumor lesions. Significant correlations between SUVmax, SUVmean, wb-MTV and wb-TLG values, and ctDNA levels were observed (all p < 0.0001). All patients suffering from EwS, with histology serving as gold standard, also presented with a positive corresponding ctDNA sample and a positive 18F-FDG-PET/CT examination before initiation of therapy. There were no false-negative results. Evaluation of treatment response after the fifth block of induction chemotherapy showed that the agreement between the metabolic response and biochemical response was 90%, which was statistically significant (Cohen κ = 0.62; p < 0.05). Non-detectable ctDNA after the second block of induction chemotherapy was associated with complete biochemical and metabolic responses after the fifth block of induction chemotherapy in 16/17 patients (94%). During a median follow-up period of 36 months (range: 8-104 months), four patients had tumor relapses, which, in all cases, were accompanied by an increase in plasma ctDNA levels and a positive 18F-FDG-PET/CT. No false-negative results were observed in the study cohort. Complete biochemical and metabolic responses after the fifth block of induction chemotherapy had a high positive predictive value for disease remission during the follow-up period; specifically, the positive predictive value was 88%. CONCLUSION: The combination of 18F-FDG-PET/CT and ctDNA quantification is a very promising noninvasive tool for assessing treatment responses and detecting tumor relapses in children and young adolescents suffering from EwS who are undergoing multimodal chemotherapy.

8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4128, 2019 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511524

RESUMO

Pediatric malignancies including Ewing sarcoma (EwS) feature a paucity of somatic alterations except for pathognomonic driver-mutations that cannot explain overt variations in clinical outcome. Here, we demonstrate in EwS how cooperation of dominant oncogenes and regulatory germline variants determine tumor growth, patient survival and drug response. Binding of the oncogenic EWSR1-FLI1 fusion transcription factor to a polymorphic enhancer-like DNA element controls expression of the transcription factor MYBL2 mediating these phenotypes. Whole-genome and RNA sequencing reveals that variability at this locus is inherited via the germline and is associated with variable inter-tumoral MYBL2 expression. High MYBL2 levels sensitize EwS cells for inhibition of its upstream activating kinase CDK2 in vitro and in vivo, suggesting MYBL2 as a putative biomarker for anti-CDK2-therapy. Collectively, we establish cooperation of somatic mutations and regulatory germline variants as a major determinant of tumor progression and highlight the importance of integrating the regulatory genome in precision medicine.


Assuntos
Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/terapia , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Quinase 2 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 2 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo Genético , Transativadores , Resultado do Tratamento , Regulação para Cima/genética
9.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(34): 3192-3202, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553693

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The R2Pulm trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of busulfan-melphalan high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell rescue (BuMel) without whole-lung irradiation (WLI) on event-free survival (main end point) and overall survival, compared with standard chemotherapy with WLI in Ewing sarcoma (ES) presenting with pulmonary and/or pleural metastases. METHODS: From 2000 to 2015, we enrolled patients younger than 50 years of age with newly diagnosed ES and with only pulmonary or pleural metastases. Patients received chemotherapy with six courses of vincristine, ifosfamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide (VIDE) and one course of vincristine, dactinomycin, and ifosfamide (VAI) before either BuMel or seven courses of VAI and WLI (VAI plus WLI) by randomized assignment. The analysis was conducted as intention to treat. The estimates of the hazard ratio (HR), 95% CI, and P value were corrected for the three previous interim analyses by the inverse normal method. RESULTS: Of 543 potentially eligible patients, 287 were randomly assigned to VAI plus WLI (n = 143) or BuMel (n = 144). Selected patients requiring radiotherapy to an axial primary site were excluded from randomization to avoid excess organ toxicity from interaction between radiotherapy and busulfan. Median follow-up was 8.1 years. We did not observe any significant difference in survival outcomes between treatment groups. Event-free survival was 50.6% versus 56.6% at 3 years and 43.1% versus 52.9% at 8 years, for VAI plus WLI and BuMel patients, respectively, resulting in an HR of 0.79 (95% CI, 0.56 to 1.10; P = .16). For overall survival, the HR was 1.00 (95% CI, 0.70 to 1.44; P = .99). Four patients died as a result of BuMel-related toxicity, and none died after VAI plus WLI. Significantly more patients in the BuMel arm experienced severe acute toxicities than in the VAI plus WLI arm. CONCLUSION: In ES with pulmonary or pleural metastases, there is no clear benefit from BuMel compared with conventional VAI plus WLI.

10.
Psychooncology ; 28(11): 2218-2225, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442341

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVES: Fertility preservation is a major concern for adolescent cancer patients; yet, educational gaps remain. Our intervention study examined whether specially designed educational materials regarding fertility preservation increase knowledge and empowerment of patients and parents. METHODS: Eleven paediatric-oncological centres in four European countries agreed to enrol all eligible patients and parents in a questionnaire survey at 3 and 6 months after diagnosis. Treating physicians were surveyed on their medical consultation regarding fertility. RESULTS: Educational intervention increased knowledge in both patients (n = 113 and n = 101 in the control and intervention groups, respectively) and parents (n = 111 and n = 99 in the control and intervention groups, respectively), but the difference did not achieve statistical significance (knowledge difference patients: 5.6% (t0)/13.1% (t1); parents: 6.4% (t0)/3.8% (t1)). Parents of older patients (OR = 1.3, 95%CI = 1.1-1.7) and higher educational groups (OR = 6.2, 95%CI = 2.1-18.3) in the intervention group (OR = 1.9, 95%CI = 1.03-3.7) achieved higher knowledge levels. Empowerment was significantly improved in both patients (p = 0.046, d = 0.27) and parents (p = 0.046, d = 0.48) in the intervention group. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS: In our study, the use of specifically prepared flyers and brochures successfully raised the level of fertility preservation knowledge in parents of older patients as well as parents with higher educational levels. Overall, the intervention improved patient and parent empowerment. Subsequent projects will include simpler information and digital material to particularly reach out to younger and less educated individuals.

11.
EBioMedicine ; 47: 156-162, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Up to 30-40% of Ewing sarcoma (EwS) patients with non-metastatic disease develop local or metastatic relapse within a time span of 2-10 years. This is in part caused by the absence of prognostic biomarkers that can identify high-risk patients and thus assign them to risk-adapted monitoring and treatment regimens. Since cancer stemness has been associated with tumour relapse and poor patient outcomes, we investigated in the current study the prognostic potential SOX2 (sex determining region Y box 2) - a major transcription factor involved in development and stemness - which was previously described to contribute to the undifferentiated phenotype of EwS. METHODS: Two independent patient cohorts, one consisting of 189 retrospectively collected EwS tumours with corresponding mRNA expression data (test-cohort) and the other consisting of 141 prospectively collected formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded resected tumours (validation and cohort), were employed to analyse SOX2 expression levels through DNA microarrays or immunohistochemistry, respectively, and to compare them with clinical parameters and patient outcomes. Two methods were employed to test the validity of the results at both the mRNA and protein levels. FINDINGS: Both cohorts showed that only a subset of EwS patients (16-20%) expressed high SOX2 mRNA or protein levels, which significantly correlated with poor overall survival. Multivariate analyses of our validation-cohort revealed that high SOX2 expression represents a major risk-factor for poor survival (HR = 3·19; 95%CI 1·74-5·84; p < 0·01) that is independent from metastasis and other known clinical risk-factors at the time of diagnosis. Univariate analyses demonstrated that SOX2-high expression was correlated with tumour relapse (p = 0·002). The median first relapse was at 14·7 months (range: 3·5-180·7). INTERPRETATION: High SOX2 expression constitutes an independent prognostic biomarker for EwS patients with poor outcomes. This may help to identify patients with localised disease who are at high risk for tumour relapse within the first two years after diagnosis. FUNDING: The laboratory of T. G. P. Grünewald is supported by grants from the 'Verein zur Förderung von Wissenschaft und Forschung an der Medizinischen Fakultät der LMU München (WiFoMed)', by LMU Munich's Institutional Strategy LMUexcellent within the framework of the German Excellence Initiative, the 'Mehr LEBEN für krebskranke Kinder - Bettina-Bräu-Stiftung', the Walter Schulz Foundation, the Wilhelm Sander-Foundation (2016.167.1), the Friedrich-Baur foundation, the Matthias-Lackas foundation, the Barbara & Hubertus Trettner foundation, the Dr. Leopold & Carmen Ellinger foundation, the Gert & Susanna Mayer foundation, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG 391665916), and by the German Cancer Aid (DKH-111886 and DKH-70112257). J. Li was supported by a scholarship of the China Scholarship Council (CSC), J. Musa was supported by a scholarship of the Kind-Philipp foundation, and T. L. B. Hölting by a scholarship of the German Cancer Aid. M. F. Orth and M. M. L. Knott were supported by scholarships of the German National Academic Foundation. G. Sannino was supported by a scholarship from the Fritz-Thyssen Foundation (FTF-40.15.0.030MN). The work of U. Dirksen is supported by grants from the German Cancer Aid (DKH-108128, DKH-70112018, and DKH-70113419), the ERA-Net-TRANSCAN consortium (project number 01KT1310), and Euro Ewing Consortium (EEC, project number EU-FP7 602,856), both funded under the European Commission Seventh Framework Program FP7-HEALTH (http://cordis.europa.eu/), the Barbara & Hubertus Trettner foundation, and the Gert & Susanna Mayer foundation. G. Hardiman was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation (SC EPSCoR) and National Institutes of Health (U01-DA045300). The laboratory of J. Alonso was supported by Instituto de Salud Carlos III (PI12/00816; PI16CIII/00026); Asociación Pablo Ugarte (TPY-M 1149/13; TRPV 205/18), ASION (TVP 141/17), Fundación Sonrisa de Alex & Todos somos Iván (TVP 1324/15).


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/metabolismo , Sarcoma de Ewing/genética , Sarcoma de Ewing/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Sarcoma de Ewing/diagnóstico , Sarcoma de Ewing/mortalidade
12.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(5): 1273-1281, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895378

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Recent studies revealed divergent gene expression patterns in Ewing sarcoma (EwS) with canonical EWSR1-ETS gene fusions and undifferentiated round cell sarcomas (URCS) with EWSR1 rearrangements fused to the non-ETS gene NFATc2. Thus, the question arises whether the latter tumors really belong to EwS. METHODS: We collected five cases matching the group of URCS with EWSR1-NFATc2 fusion and performed DNA methylation and copy number profiling. Results were compared to methylation data of 30 EwS with various EWSR1-ETS fusions and one EwS with FUS-ERG fusion, 16 URCS with CIC rearrangement and 10 URCS with BCOR alteration and a total of 81 EWSR1-associated soft tissue sarcomas including 7 angiomatoid fibrous histiocytomas, 7 clear cell sarcomas of the soft tissue, 28 desmoplastic small round cell tumors, 10 extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas and 29 myxoid liposarcomas. RESULTS: Unsupervised hierarchical clustering and t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding analysis of DNA methylation data revealed a homogeneous methylation cluster for URCS with EWSR1-NFATc2 fusion, which clearly segregated from EwS and the other subtypes. Copy number profiles of EWSR1-NFATc2 cases showed recurrent losses on chromosome 9q and segmental gains on 20q13 and 22q12 involving the EWSR1 and NFATc2 loci, respectively. CONCLUSION: In summary, URCS with EWSR1-NFATc2 fusion share a distinct DNA methylation signature and carry characteristic copy number alterations, which emphasizes that these sarcomas should be considered separately from EwS.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Proteína EWS de Ligação a RNA/genética , Sarcoma de Ewing/diagnóstico , Sarcoma de Ewing/genética , Sarcoma/diagnóstico , Sarcoma/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Transcriptoma , Adulto Jovem
13.
Cancer Med ; 8(3): 1086-1094, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice for local staging and response evaluation of Ewing sarcoma (EwS). Aim of this study was to determine the relevance of tumor volume response (TVR) in relation to histological response (HisRes) and survival, in order to evaluate if early modification of chemotherapy might be indicated in patients with inadequate TVR. METHODS: Three dimensional (3D)-tumor volume data at diagnosis, during early induction phase (1-3 courses of chemotherapy; n = 195) and/or late induction phase (4-6 courses; n = 175) from 241 localized patients were retrospectively analyzed. A distinction was made between adequate response (reduction ≥67%) and inadequate response (reduction <67% or progression). Correlations between TVR, HisRes, event free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed using chi-square tests, log-rank tests, and the Cox-regression model. RESULTS: Early adequate TVR, noted in 41% of patients, did not correlate with EFS (P = 0.92) or OS (P = 0.38). During late induction phase 62% of patients showed an adequate TVR. EFS for patients with late adequate TVR was better (78%) than for those with inadequate late TVR (61%) (P = 0.01); OS was 80% and 69% (P = 0.26), respectively. No correlation was found between TVR and HisRes. Multivariate analysis showed that poor HisRes, pelvic location and late inadequate TVR were associated with poor outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Early inadequate TVR does not predict adverse outcome; therefore, changing the treatment to second line chemotherapy is not indicated in case of inadequate early TVR. Late adequate TVR and good HisRes correlate with better EFS; patients with late inadequate TVR might benefit from augmented therapy.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(12)2018 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563222

RESUMO

One of the still open questions in Ewing sarcoma, a rare bone tumor with weak therapeutic options, is to identify the tumor-driving cell (sub) population and to understand the specifics in the biological network of these cells. This basic scientific insight might foster the development of more specific therapeutic target patterns. The experimental approach is based on a side population (SP) of Ewing cells, based on the model cell line CADO-ES1. The SP is established by flow cytometry and defined by the idea that tumor stem-like cells can be identified by the time-course in clearing a given artificial dye. The SP was characterized by a higher colony forming activity, by a higher differentiation potential, by higher resistance to cytotoxic drugs, and by morphology. Several SP and non-SP cell fractions and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell reference were analyzed by short read sequencing of the full transcriptome. The double-differential analysis leads to an altered expression structure of SP cells centered around the AP-1 and APC/c complex. The SP cells share only a limited proportion of the full mesenchymal stem cell stemness set of genes. This is in line with the expectation that tumor stem-like cells share only a limited subset of stemness features which are relevant for tumor survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Sarcoma de Ewing/genética , Células da Side Population/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ósseas/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Epigênese Genética , Citometria de Fluxo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Sarcoma de Ewing/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA
15.
Eur J Cancer ; 103: 227-237, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273888

RESUMO

AIMS: Survival after cancer diagnosed during childhood or adolescence continues to improve with new treatments and supportive therapies. Optimal long-term care requires that risks to vulnerable organs are clearly defined and translated into guidelines that are implemented into practice. PanCareLIFE is a pan-European consortium that addresses survivorship issues comprising fertility, hearing impairment and quality of life. This article describes the scientific basis of PanCareLIFE's studies. METHODS: PanCareLIFE involves 17 partner institutions from eight European countries, with additional 11 data providers from five other countries. Study designs and methods include molecular genetic, cohort and case-control studies, a longitudinal study and an intervention study. Ethics and data protection issues have been taken into account from the beginning. RESULTS: PanCareLIFE will investigate the way that treatment impairs female fertility, by evaluating anti-Müllerian hormone levels and the underlying genetic susceptibility to loss of fertility. For our fertility studies, more than 6000 survivors have completed questionnaires, more than 1500 provided serum samples and more than 400 case-control triads have been identified. Fertility preservation guidelines for boys and girls will be developed. More than 2000 survivors have contributed audiograms for the ototoxicity study. Almost 1000 samples were sent for genetic analysis related to ototoxicity and gonadal reserve. The SF-36 questionnaire will measure quality of life in more than 10,000 survivors. CONCLUSIONS: The large number of subjects enrolled in PanCareLIFE and the detailed information accumulated will allow in-depth evaluation of important outcomes. Fertility preservation guidelines will help patients and their families make informed decisions and contribute to their long-term well-being.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Europa (Continente) , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Preservação da Fertilidade , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Assistência de Longa Duração , Masculino , Neoplasias , Projetos Piloto , Sobreviventes , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 102(3): 584-592, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30244879

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is no standard treatment procedure for relapsed Ewing sarcoma (EwS). This retrospective analysis evaluates the survival outcome in patients with an isolated pulmonary relapse of EwS treated with whole lung irradiation (WLI) in addition to second line chemotherapy (Ctx). METHODS AND MATERIALS: In our study, 136 patients with pulmonary relapsed EwS who were registered in the relapse register of the Cooperative Ewing Sarcoma Study group or the Sarcoma Relapse Registry for relapsed sarcoma of bone and soft tissues were analyzed. All patients received relapse Ctx or an additional total resection of lung metastasis. Of these patients, 88 (median age, 21 years; range, 7-52 years) achieved a second remission by the relapse treatment. Of these 88 patients, 48 patients received an additional WLI. The 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and 3-year overall survival (OS) were analyzed (median follow-up, 3 years; range, 7 months to 11 years and 9 months). Additional prognostic factors for survival outcomes, including the response of lung metastases to Ctx, were also estimated. RESULTS: The survival outcome was significantly improved after WLI when analyzing the entire group of pulmonary relapsed patients: 3-year PFS 36% (+WLI) versus 14% (-WLI) (P = .001); 3- year OS 47% (+WLI) versus 33% (-WLI) (P = .007). The 3-year PFS in patients with complete remission of lung relapse receiving WLI (n = 48) compared with those without WLI (n = 40), was 37% (+WLI) versus 21% (-WLI) (P = .18). The site of the primary tumor and the response of pulmonary lesions to Ctx were significant prognostic indicators for survival in patients treated with WLI. No severe pulmonary function disorders or lung toxicities were observed after WLI treatment in both pediatric and adult patients. CONCLUSIONS: The WLI does not correlate with improved OS in patients with pulmonary relapsed EwS. However, a marginal trend toward superior PFS and improved local control of pulmonary disease suggests the application of WLI in patients with EwS with isolated lung relapse and second clinical remission.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ósseas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Pulmão/efeitos da radiação , Sarcoma de Ewing/mortalidade , Sarcoma de Ewing/radioterapia , Sarcoma/mortalidade , Sarcoma/radioterapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Quimiorradioterapia , Criança , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Sistema de Registros , Indução de Remissão , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2018782516, 2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30188789

RESUMO

Purpose For over 30 years, the place of consolidation high-dose chemotherapy in Ewing sarcoma (ES) has been controversial. A randomized study was conducted to determine whether consolidation high-dose chemotherapy improved survival in patients with localized ES at high risk for relapse. Methods Randomization between busulfan and melphalan (BuMel) or standard chemotherapy (vincristine, dactinomycin, and ifosfamide [VAI], seven courses) was offered to patients if they were younger than 50 years of age with poor histologic response (≥ 10% viable cells) after receiving vincristine, ifosfamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide (six courses); or had a tumor volume at diagnosis ≥ 200 mL if unresected, or initially resected, or resected after radiotherapy. A 15% improvement in 3-year event-free survival (EFS) was sought (hazard ratio [HR], 0.60). Results Between 2000 and 2015, 240 patients classified as high risk (median age, 17.1 years) were randomly assigned to VAI (n = 118) or BuMel (n = 122). Seventy-eight percent entered the trial because of poor histologic response after chemotherapy alone. Median follow-up was 7.8 years. In an intent-to-treat analysis, the risk of event was significantly decreased by BuMel compared with VAI: HR, 0.64 (95% CI, 0.43 to 0.95; P = .026); 3- and 8-year EFS were, respectively, 69.0% (95% CI, 60.2% to 76.6%) versus 56.7% (95% CI, 47.6% to 65.4%) and 60.7% (95% CI, 51.1% to 69.6%) versus 47.1% (95% CI, 37.7% to 56.8%). Overall survival (OS) also favored BuMel: HR, 0.63 (95% CI, 0.41 to 0.95; P = .028); 3- and 8-year OS were, respectively, 78.0% (95% CI, 69.6% to 84.5%) versus 72.2% (95% CI, 63.3% to 79.6%) and 64.5% (95% CI, 54.4% to 73.5%) versus 55.6% (95% CI, 45.8% to 65.1%). Results were consistent in the sensitivity analysis. Two patients died as a result of BuMel-related toxicity, one after standard chemotherapy. Significantly more BuMel patients experienced severe acute toxicities from this course of chemotherapy compared with multiple VAI courses. Conclusion BuMel improved EFS and OS when given after vincristine, ifosfamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide induction in localized ES with predefined high-risk factors. For this group of patients, BuMel may be an important addition to the standard of care.

18.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 7(9): e10824, 2018 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30215599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite a significant number of studies on female fertility following childhood, adolescent, and young adult (CAYA) cancer, studies establishing precise (dose-related) estimates of treatment-related risks are still scarce. Previous studies have been underpowered, did not include detailed treatment information, or were based on self-report only without any hormonal assessments. More precise assessments of who is at risk for sub- or infertility are needed. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study is to describe the design and methods of 2 studies on female fertility (a cohort study and a nested case-control study) among female survivors of CAYA cancer performed within the European PanCareLIFE project. METHODS: For the cohort study, which aims to evaluate the overall risk of fertility impairment, as well as the risk for specific subgroups of female CAYA cancer survivors, 13 institutions from 9 countries provide data on fertility impairment. Survivors are defined as being fertility impaired if they meet at least one of 8 different criteria based on self-reported and hormonal data. For the nested case-control study, which aims to identify specific treatment-related risk factors associated with fertility impairment in addition to possible dose-response relationships, cases (fertility impaired survivors) are selected from the cohort study and matched to controls (survivors without fertility impairment) on a 1:2 basis. RESULTS: Of the 10,964 survivors invited for the cohort study, data are available from 6619 survivors, either questionnaire-based only (n=4979), hormonal-based only (n=72), or both (n=1568). For the nested case-control study, a total of 450 cases and 882 controls are identified. CONCLUSIONS: Results of both PanCareLIFE fertility studies will provide detailed insight into the risk of fertility impairment following CAYA cancer and diagnostic- or treatment-related factors associated with an increased risk. This will help clinicians to adequately counsel both girls and young women, who are about to start anticancer treatment, as well as adult female CAYA cancer survivors, concerning future parenthood and to timely refer them for fertility preservation. Ultimately, we aim to empower patients and survivors and improve their quality of life. REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER: RR1-10.2196/10824.

19.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 930, 2018 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30257669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improved risk stratification, more effective therapy and better supportive care have resulted in survival rates after childhood cancer of around 80% in developed countries. Treatment however can be harsh, and three in every four childhood cancer survivors (CCS) develop at least one late effect, such as gonadal impairment. Gonadal impairment can cause involuntary childlessness, with serious consequences for the well-being of CCS. In addition, early menopause increases the risk of comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. Inter-individual variability in susceptibility to therapy related gonadal impairment suggests a role for genetic variation. Currently, only one candidate gene study investigated genetic determinants in relation to gonadal impairment in female CCS; it yielded one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that was previously linked with the predicted age at menopause in the general population of women, now associated with gonadal impairment in CCS. Additionally, one genome wide association study (GWAS) evaluated an association with premature menopause, but no GWAS has been performed using endocrine measurements for gonadal impairment  as the primary outcome in CCS. METHODS: As part of the PanCareLIFE study, the genetic variability of chemotherapy induced gonadal impairment among CCS will be addressed. Gonadal impairment will be determined by anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels or alternatively by fertility and reproductive medical history retrieved by questionnaire. Clinical and genetic data from 837 non-brain or non-bilateral gonadal irradiated long-term CCS will result in the largest clinical European cohort assembled for this late-effect study to date. A candidate gene study will examine SNPs that have already been associated with age at natural menopause and DNA maintenance in the general population. In addition, a GWAS will be performed to identify novel allelic variants. The results will be validated in an independent CCS cohort. DISCUSSION: This international collaboration aims to enhance knowledge of genetic variation which may be included in risk prediction models for gonadal impairment in CCS.


Assuntos
Hormônio Antimülleriano/análise , Menopausa Precoce/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Menopausa Precoce/metabolismo , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3184, 2018 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093639

RESUMO

Ewing sarcoma (EWS) is a pediatric cancer characterized by the EWSR1-FLI1 fusion. We performed a genome-wide association study of 733 EWS cases and 1346 unaffected individuals of European ancestry. Our study replicates previously reported susceptibility loci at 1p36.22, 10q21.3 and 15q15.1, and identifies new loci at 6p25.1, 20p11.22 and 20p11.23. Effect estimates exhibit odds ratios in excess of 1.7, which is high for cancer GWAS, and striking in light of the rarity of EWS cases in familial cancer syndromes. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses identify candidate genes at 6p25.1 (RREB1) and 20p11.23 (KIZ). The 20p11.22 locus is near NKX2-2, a highly overexpressed gene in EWS. Interestingly, most loci reside near GGAA repeat sequences and may disrupt binding of the EWSR1-FLI1 fusion protein. The high locus to case discovery ratio from 733 EWS cases suggests a genetic architecture in which moderate risk SNPs constitute a significant fraction of risk.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sarcoma de Ewing/genética , Alelos , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica c-fli-1/genética , Controle de Qualidade , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Proteína EWS de Ligação a RNA/genética , Risco , Sarcoma de Ewing/etnologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra
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