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1.
Ann Behav Med ; 55(8): 791-804, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & PURPOSE: Primary prevention of COVID-19 has focused on encouraging compliance with specific behaviors that restrict contagion. This investigation sought to characterize engagement in these behaviors in U.S. adults early during the pandemic and to build explanatory models of the psychological processes that drive them. METHODS: US adults were recruited through Qualtrics Research Panels (N = 324; 55% female; Mage = 50.91, SD = 15.98) and completed 10 days of online reports of emotion, COVID-19 perceived susceptibility and worry, and recommended behaviors (social distancing, hand washing, etc.). Factor analysis revealed behaviors loaded on two factors suggesting distinct motivational orientations: approach and avoidance. RESULTS: Changes in approach and avoidance behaviors over the 10 days indicated large individual differences consistent with three types of participants. Discrete emotions, including fear, guilt/shame, and happiness were associated with more recommended behaviors. Fear and COVID-19 worry indirectly influenced each other to facilitate more behavioral engagement. While emotions and worry strongly predicted individual differences in behavior across the 10 days, they did not predict as well why behaviors occurred on one day versus another. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest how daily affective processes motivate behavior, improving the understanding of compliance and efforts to target behaviors as primary prevention of disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Cognição , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Emoções , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Motivação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
J Affect Disord ; 291: 110-117, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although preliminary research has explored the possibility of optimal well-being after depression, it is unclear how rates compare to anxiety. Using Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and Panic Disorder (PD) as exemplars of anxiety, we tested the rates of optimal well-being one decade after being diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Based on reward deficits in depression, we pre-registered our primary hypothesis that optimal well-being would be more prevalent after anxiety than depression as well as tested two exploratory hypotheses. METHOD: We used data from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study, which contains a nationally representative sample across two waves, 10 years apart. To reach optimal well-being, participants needed to have no symptoms of GAD, PD, or major depressive disorder (MDD) at the 10 year follow-up and exceed cut-offs across nine dimensions of well-being. RESULTS: The results failed to support our primary hypothesis. Follow-up optimal well-being rates were highest for adults previously diagnosed with MDD (8.7%), then PD (6.1%), and finally GAD (0%). Exploratory analyses revealed optimal well-being was approximately twice as prevalent in people without anxiety or depression at baseline and provided partial support for baseline well-being predicting optimal well-being after anxiety. Results were largely replicated across different classifications of optimal well-being. LIMITATIONS: Findings are limited by the somewhat unique measurement of anxiety in the MIDUS sample as well as the relatively high rate of missing data. CONCLUSIONS: We discuss possible explanations for less prevalent optimal well-being after anxiety vs. depression and the long-term positivity deficits from GAD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtorno de Pânico , Adulto , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transtorno de Pânico/epidemiologia
3.
Emotion ; 21(5): 1000-1012, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829837

RESUMO

Much is known about the types of strategies people use to regulate emotions. Less is known about individual differences that influence emotion regulation strategy selection. In this study, we tested the moderating role of negative emotion differentiation (NED; i.e., the ability to label and describe subtle differences among negative emotions) on the relationship between the intensity of stressful daily events and the strategies used to regulate distress arising from these events. Prior research shows that NED is associated with low endorsement of disengagement emotion regulation (e.g., substance use), but less is known about the link to engagement regulation (e.g., problem-solving, seeking social support). Participants were college students (N = 502) completing a 30-day daily diary survey for each of four college years. We preregistered hypotheses that 1) the intensity of each day's most stressful event would be associated with greater use of disengagement and engagement regulation strategies, and 2) people higher in NED would be less likely to use disengagement and more likely to use engagement strategies when highly stressed. Results suggest that higher stress intensity is associated with greater use of all regulation strategies. Greater NED is associated with less use of disengagement regulation strategies, whereas NED was unrelated to engagement regulation strategies and did not moderate the relationship between stress and engagement strategies. The majority of hypothesized moderation effects of NED were nonsignificant, prompting a reconsideration of whether, when, and how NED plays a role in stress responding. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Regulação Emocional , Emoções , Humanos , Resolução de Problemas , Apoio Social , Estudantes
4.
Emotion ; 21(3): 595-606, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944786

RESUMO

Understanding how individuals with varying levels of social anxiety respond to daily positive events is important. Psychological processes that increase positive emotions are being widely used as strategies to not only enhance well-being but also reduce the symptoms and impairment tied to negative emotional dispositions and conditions, including excessive social anxiety. At present, it is unclear whether and how levels of social anxiety impact the psychological benefits derived from momentary positive events. We used ecological momentary assessment to examine the impact of trait social anxiety on momentary changes in emotions, sense of belonging, and social approach versus avoidance motivation following positive events in daily life. Over the course of a week, people with elevated social anxiety experienced greater momentary anxiety and social avoidance motivation and lower momentary happiness and sense of belonging on average. Despite these impairments, individuals with elevated social anxiety experienced greater psychological benefits-in the form of reduced anxiety and motivation to avoid social situations, and an increased sense of belonging-following positive events during the past hour that were rated as particularly intense. This pattern of findings was not specific to social anxiety, with evidence of similar effects for other forms of internalizing psychopathology (general anxiety and depression). These observations detail circumstances in which individuals with social anxiety, and other emotional disturbances, can thrive-creating potentially important targets for intervention. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica/normas , Emoções/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Psychol Assess ; 32(9): 829-850, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614192

RESUMO

Psychological flexibility (PF), defined as the ability to pursue valued life aims despite the presence of distress, is a fundamental contributor to health (Kashdan & Rottenberg, 2010). Existing measures of PF have failed to consider the valued goals that give context for why people are willing to manage distress. Using 4 independent samples and 3 follow-up samples, we examined the role of PF in well-being, emotional experience and regulation, resilience, goal pursuit, and daily functioning. We describe the development and psychometric properties of the Personalized Psychological Flexibility Index (PPFI), which captures tendencies to avoid, accept, and harness discomfort during valued goal pursuit. Correlational, laboratory, and experience-sampling methods show that the PPFI measures a trait-like individual difference dimension that is related to a variety of well-being and healthy personality constructs. Unlike existing measures of PF, the PPFI was shown to be distinct from negative emotionality. Beyond trait measures, the PPFI is associated with effective daily goals and life strivings pursuit and adaptive emotional and regulatory responses to stressful life events. By adopting our measurement index, PF may be better integrated into mainstream theory and research on adaptive human functioning. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Psicometria/métodos , Resiliência Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Emoções , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Objetivos , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estresse Psicológico
6.
Clin Psychol Sci ; 7(3): 621-627, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223519

RESUMO

Can people achieve optimal well-being and thrive after major depression? Contemporary epidemiology dismisses this possibility, viewing depression as a recurrent, burdensome condition with a bleak prognosis. To estimate the prevalence of thriving after depression in United States adults, we used data from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study. To count as thriving after depression, a person had to exhibit no evidence of major depression, and had to exceed cut offs across nine facets of psychological well-being that characterize the top 25% of US nondepressed adults. Overall, nearly 10% of adults with study documented depression were thriving ten years later. The phenomenon of thriving after depression has implications for how the prognosis of depression is conceptualized and for how mental health professionals communicate with patients. Knowing what makes thriving outcomes possible offers new leverage points to help reduce the global burden of depression.

7.
J Pers ; 87(2): 194-211, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29573415

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Researchers conceptualize grit as the combination of two facets: perseverance of effort and consistency of interests toward long-term goals. We tested the reliability of grit facet scores across the globe and examined how differently each grit facet related to well-being and personality strengths. METHOD: An international sample of 7,617 participants from six of the seven continents (excluding Antarctica) completed an online survey. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analyses and omega reliability coefficients indicated that the 12 items from the original Grit Scale were multidimensional and reliably measured perseverance of effort and consistency of interests. Concurrent validity analyses showed that perseverance of effort was moderately to strongly related to subjective well-being, beliefs about well-being, and personality strengths, whereas consistency of interests had weak or negative correlations with these outcomes. The stronger relations with perseverance of effort were replicated across seven regions of the world. The presence of overall grit was supported in individualistic countries, but not collectivistic countries (i.e., those in Latin America and Asia). CONCLUSIONS: We discuss the multidimensionality of grit, including a conceptual understanding of overall grit and how it may differ across cultures. We suggest well-being and strengths researchers study grit facets separately due to their differential validity.


Assuntos
Cultura , Objetivos , Satisfação Pessoal , Personalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
8.
Perspect Psychol Sci ; 13(5): 549-566, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30213257

RESUMO

We address a key issue at the intersection of emotion, psychopathology, and public health-the startling lack of attention to people who experience benign outcomes, and even flourish, after recovering from depression. A rereading of the epidemiological literature suggests that the orthodox view of depression as chronic, recurrent, and lifelong is overstated. A significant subset of people recover and thrive after depression, yet research on such individuals has been rare. To facilitate work on this topic, we present a generative research framework. This framework includes (a) a proposed definition of healthy end-state functioning that goes beyond a reduction in clinical symptoms, (b) recommendations for specific measures to assess high functioning, and (c) a road map for a research agenda aimed at discovering how and why people flourish after emotional disturbance. Given that depression remains the most burdensome health condition worldwide, focus on what makes these excellent outcomes possible has enormous significance for the public health.


Assuntos
Depressão/reabilitação , Transtorno Depressivo/reabilitação , Satisfação Pessoal , Humanos
9.
J Am Coll Health ; 66(8): 731-738, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29447625

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to replicate and extend research on social facilitators of college student's help seeking for psychological problems. PARTICIPANTS: We collected data on 420 ethnically diverse college students at a large public university (September 2008-May 2010). METHODS: Students completed a cross-sectional online survey. RESULTS: We found that students who were aware of close others' (eg, family, friends) help seeking were two times more likely to have sought formal (eg, psychologist) and informal (eg, clergy) help themselves. Tests of moderation revealed the incremental effect (ie, controlling for help-seeking attitudes, internalizing symptoms, cultural demographics) of close others' formal help seeking was strong and significant for men (R2 = 0.112), while it was negligible and nonsignificant for women (R2 = .002). CONCLUSIONS: We discuss the importance for students-particularly men-to learn about close others' help seeking for facilitating their own help seeking during times of distress.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Atitude , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Amigos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Clin Psychol ; 74(7): 1106-1116, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29393518

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to test a 1-hour peer suicide gatekeeper training for students from the broad college community in the context of an open pilot trial. METHOD: Two-hundred and thirty-one college students were recruited university-wide, Mage  = 20.7, 65.4% female, and completed a peer suicide prevention gatekeeping training program. Assessments were completed at pre-training and post-training as well as 3-month follow-up. RESULTS: This brief peer suicide gatekeeper training program was associated with increases in suicide prevention knowledge. It was also associated with an increase in the number of students who identified suicidal youth and made mental health referrals, as well as total number of referrals made, over the course of three months. Females reported greater improvement in suicide prevention skills and knowledge post-training than males. CONCLUSIONS: Offering peer suicide gatekeeper training to students from the general college population may hold promise in suicide prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Controle de Acesso , Grupo Associado , Estudantes/psicologia , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Militares , Projetos Piloto , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Pers ; 85(3): 423-434, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26918328

RESUMO

We examined how personality strengths prospectively predict reactions to negative life events. Participants were 797 community adults from 42 countries. At five points over the course of 1 year, participants completed a series of questionnaires measuring seven personality strengths (hope, grit, meaning in life, curiosity, gratitude, control beliefs, and use of strengths), subjective well-being, and frequency and severity of negative life events. Using hierarchical linear modeling with assessment periods nested within participants, results from lagged analyses found that only hope emerged as a resilience factor. To illustrate the importance of using appropriate lagged analyses in resilience research, we ran nonlagged analyses; these results suggest that all seven personality strengths moderated the effect of negative life events on subjective well-being, with greater strengths associated with healthier outcomes. To provide evidence that personality strengths confer resilience, a prospective examination is needed with the inclusion of events and responses to them. The use of concurrent methodologies and analyses, which is the norm in psychology, often leads to erroneous conclusions. Hope, the ability to generate routes to reach goals and the motivation to use those routes, was shown to be particularly important in promoting resilience.


Assuntos
Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Personalidade , Resiliência Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação da Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Psychol Serv ; 13(3): 272-82, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27243111

RESUMO

The current study tested the effectiveness of a self-administered, cognitive-behavioral intervention targeting criminal thinking for inmates in segregated housing: Taking a Chance on Change (TCC). Participants included 273 inmates in segregated housing at state correctional institutions. Reductions in criminal thinking, as assessed by the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Styles-Simplified Version, were found in the general criminal thinking score as well as the proactive and reactive composite scores. Examination of demographic predictors of change (i.e., age, years of education, length of sentence) revealed older and more educated participants decreased in criminal thinking more than younger and less educated participants. For a subset of 48 inmates, completion of TCC was associated with significant reduction of disciplinary infractions. Reductions in reactive criminal thinking predicted reductions in disciplinary infractions. Although further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of TCC in reducing recidivism, the reductions in criminal thinking and disordered conduct suggest this is a promising intervention and mode of treatment delivery. By utilizing self-directed study at an accessible reading level, the intervention is uniquely suited to a correctional setting where staff and monetary resources are limited and security and operational issues limit the feasibility of traditional cognitive-behavioral group treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/legislação & jurisprudência , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Psicologia Criminal/legislação & jurisprudência , Prisioneiros/legislação & jurisprudência , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Prisões , Autocuidado/métodos , Autocuidado/psicologia , Pensamento , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Transtorno da Conduta/terapia , Escolaridade , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Psychopathol Behav Assess ; 38(3): 456-464, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28190916

RESUMO

The Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) is one of the most widely used measures of criminal thinking. Although the PICTS has adequate psychometric qualities with many general population inmates, the measurement confound of reading ability may decrease its construct validity in low-literacy inmates. To help resolve this confound, we present psychometric evaluation of a simplified version of the PICTS (PICTS-SV) in which item language was simplified but item content was preserved. We first conducted Lexile analyses to confirm the reading level of the PICTS-SV is significantly lower than the original PICTS (i.e., sixth grade versus ninth grade). We then tested a bifactor model to confirm the PICTS-SV contains the same two factors as the original PICTS: proactive and reactive criminal thinking. These PICTS-SV results are commensurate with the factor structure of the original PICTS. Results suggest the PICTS-SV is a valid alternative for assessing criminal thinking in inmates with low reading ability.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28919701

RESUMO

Progress in clinical science, theory, and practice requires the integration of advances from multiple fields of psychology, but much integration remains to be done. The current article seeks to address the specific gap that exists between basic social psychological theories and the implementation of related therapeutic techniques. We propose several "wise additions," based upon the principles outlined by Walton (2014), intended to bridge current social psychological research with clinical psychological therapeutic practice using cognitive behavioral therapy as an example. We consider how recent advances in social psychological theories can inform the development and implementation of wise additions in clinical case conceptualization and interventions. We specifically focus on self and identity, self-affirmation, transference, social identity, and embodied cognition, five dominant areas of interest in the field that have clear clinical applications.

15.
Psychol Assess ; 28(5): 471-82, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26348031

RESUMO

A large international sample was used to test whether hedonia (the experience of positive emotional states and satisfaction of desires) and eudaimonia (the presence of meaning and development of one's potentials) represent 1 overarching well-being construct or 2 related dimensions. A latent correlation of .96 presents negligible evidence for the discriminant validity between Diener's (1984) subjective well-being model of hedonia and Ryff's (1989) psychological well-being model of eudaimonia. When compared with known correlates of well-being (e.g., curiosity, gratitude), eudaimonia and hedonia showed very similar relationships, save goal-directed will and ways (i.e., hope), a meaning orientation to happiness, and grit. Identical analyses in subsamples of 7 geographical world regions revealed similar results around the globe. A single overarching construct more accurately reflects hedonia and eudaimonia when measured as self-reported subjective and psychological well-being. Nevertheless, measures of eudaimonia may contain aspects of meaningful goal-directedness unique from hedonia. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Felicidade , Satisfação Pessoal , Psicometria/métodos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
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