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1.
J Med Chem ; 62(7): 3228-3250, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893553

RESUMO

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, is a member of the Tec family of kinases and is essential for B cell receptor (BCR) mediated signaling. BTK also plays a critical role in the downstream signaling pathways for the Fcγ receptor in monocytes, the Fcε receptor in granulocytes, and the RANK receptor in osteoclasts. As a result, pharmacological inhibition of BTK is anticipated to provide an effective strategy for the clinical treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. This article will outline the evolution of our strategy to identify a covalent, irreversible inhibitor of BTK that has the intrinsic potency, selectivity, and pharmacokinetic properties necessary to provide a rapid rate of inactivation systemically following a very low dose. With excellent in vivo efficacy and a very desirable tolerability profile, 5a (branebrutinib, BMS-986195) has advanced into clinical studies.

2.
J Chromatogr A ; 1487: 116-128, 2017 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28131592

RESUMO

Atropisomers are stereoisomers resulting from hindered bond rotation. From synthesis of pure atropisomers, characterization of their interconversion thermodynamics to investigation of biological stereoselectivity, the evaluation of drug candidates subject to atropisomerism creates special challenges and can be complicated in both early drug discovery and later drug development. In this paper, we demonstrate an array of analytical techniques and systematic approaches to study the atropisomerism of drug molecules to meet these challenges. Using a case study of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor drug candidates at Bristol-Myers Squibb, we present the analytical strategies and methodologies used during drug discovery including the detection of atropisomers, the determination of their relative composition, the identification of relative chirality, the isolation of individual atropisomers, the evaluation of interconversion kinetics, and the characterization of chiral stability in the solid state and in solution. In vivo and in vitro stereo-stability and stereo-selectivity were investigated as well as the pharmacological significance of any changes in atropisomer ratios. Techniques applied in these studies include analytical and preparative enantioselective supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), enantioselective high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), circular dichroism (CD), and mass spectrometry (MS). Our experience illustrates how atropisomerism can be a very complicated issue in drug discovery and why a thorough understanding of this phenomenon is necessary to provide guidance for pharmaceutical development. Analytical techniques and methodologies facilitate key decisions during the discovery of atropisomeric drug candidates by characterizing time-dependent physicochemical properties that can have significant biological implications and relevance to pharmaceutical development plans.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia , Dicroísmo Circular , Descoberta de Drogas/instrumentação , Cinética , Espectrometria de Massas , Estereoisomerismo , Termodinâmica
3.
J Med Chem ; 59(19): 9173-9200, 2016 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27583770

RESUMO

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, is a member of the Tec family of kinases. BTK plays an essential role in B cell receptor (BCR)-mediated signaling as well as Fcγ receptor signaling in monocytes and Fcε receptor signaling in mast cells and basophils, all of which have been implicated in the pathophysiology of autoimmune disease. As a result, inhibition of BTK is anticipated to provide an effective strategy for the clinical treatment of autoimmune diseases such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. This article details the structure-activity relationships (SAR) leading to a novel series of highly potent and selective carbazole and tetrahydrocarbazole based, reversible inhibitors of BTK. Of particular interest is that two atropisomeric centers were rotationally locked to provide a single, stable atropisomer, resulting in enhanced potency and selectivity as well as a reduction in safety liabilities. With significantly enhanced potency and selectivity, excellent in vivo properties and efficacy, and a very desirable tolerability and safety profile, 14f (BMS-986142) was advanced into clinical studies.


Assuntos
Carbazóis/química , Carbazóis/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia , Animais , Carbazóis/farmacocinética , Cristalografia por Raios X , Feminino , Humanos , Isomerismo , Macaca fascicularis , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Moleculares , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Quinazolinas/química , Quinazolinas/farmacocinética , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
4.
J Med Chem ; 59(17): 7915-35, 2016 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27531604

RESUMO

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) belongs to the TEC family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases and plays a critical role in multiple cell types responsible for numerous autoimmune diseases. This article will detail the structure-activity relationships (SARs) leading to a novel second generation series of potent and selective reversible carbazole inhibitors of BTK. With an excellent pharmacokinetic profile as well as demonstrated in vivo activity and an acceptable safety profile, 7-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-4-[2-methyl-3-(4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-3-yl)phenyl]-9H-carbazole-1-carboxamide 6 (BMS-935177) was selected to advance into clinical development.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/química , Carbazóis/química , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinazolinonas/química , Administração Oral , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia , Animais , Antirreumáticos/síntese química , Antirreumáticos/farmacocinética , Antirreumáticos/farmacologia , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Disponibilidade Biológica , Carbazóis/síntese química , Carbazóis/farmacocinética , Carbazóis/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cães , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis , Camundongos , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Permeabilidade , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/química , Quinazolinonas/síntese química , Quinazolinonas/farmacocinética , Quinazolinonas/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
5.
Bioanalysis ; 8(4): 265-74, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26807991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A target protein-based affinity extraction LC-MS/MS method was developed to enable plasma level determination following ultralow dosing (0.1-3 µg/kg) of an inhibitor of apoptosis proteins molecule. Methodology & results: Affinity extraction (AE) utilizing immobilized target protein BIR2/BIR3 was used to selectively capture the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins molecule from dog plasma and enable removal of background matrix components. Pretreatment of plasma samples using protein precipitation was found to provide an additional sensitivity gain. A LLOQ of 7.8 pM was achieved by combining protein precipitation with AE. The method was used to support an ultralow dose dog toxicity study. CONCLUSION: AE-LC-MS/MS, utilizing target protein, is a highly sensitive methodology for small molecule quantification with potential for broader applicability.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue/métodos , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoquinolinas/análise , Limite de Detecção , Oligopeptídeos/análise , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Proteínas Imobilizadas/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Imobilizadas/química , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/química , Isoquinolinas/química , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Masculino , Oligopeptídeos/química , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia
6.
Bioanalysis ; 4(9): 1057-64, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22612686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & METHOD: The small sample volumes characteristic to dried blood spot (DBS) sampling enabled us to right-shift the linear dynamic range of an LC-MS/MS plasma assay tenfold and eliminate the need for extensive sample dilution in support of three discovery toxicology studies in which both plasma and DBS samples were collected. With the right-shifted DBS assay range, no DBS study samples required dilution, while all of the plasma samples were diluted 5-50-fold. RESULTS: DBS standard curves from 78-80,000 nM were linear, the performance of the curve and QC samples was within acceptable discovery-assay criteria and individual plasma and DBS data were comparable. Linear correlations of C(max) and AUC derived from DBS and plasma data resulted in R(2) > 0.9. CONCLUSION: This bioanalytical strategy represents a benefit to the bioanalyst that can expedite the return of data and minimize the potential for error and variability that can result from extensive dilutions of study samples.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/normas , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/normas , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Espectrometria de Massas/normas , Plasma/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Cães , Macaca fascicularis , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Controle de Qualidade , Ratos
7.
Bioanalysis ; 2(8): 1415-22, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21083342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prodrugs that exhibit ex vivo instability owing to high levels of esterases in rodent blood, plasma and serum present challenges in the accurate determination of drug exposure in samples from pharmacokinetic, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic, efficacy and toxicology studies in drug discovery. Ensuring the stability of analytes in sample collection, handling, analysis and storage must be established for program progression. Current protocols for the stabilization of prodrugs include the immediate quenching of whole blood with acetonitrile or methanol to stop enzyme activity, or the addition of an esterase inhibitor such as phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride to the blood collection tubes before serum or plasma is generated. Dried blood spots (DBS) sampling may offer an alternative prodrug stabilization method for sample collection and storage from rodent studies in drug discovery. RESULTS: Two different prodrugs of the same parent compound that were known to exhibit ex vivo instability in rodent blood were selected for the evaluation of DBS for analyte stabilization. Each prodrug was spiked separately into fresh rat EDTA whole blood and prepared three ways: from liquid whole blood, prepared and analyzed as lysate; from whole blood spotted onto Whatman 903(®) Protein Saver untreated cards (903 cards); and from whole blood spotted onto Whatman FTA(®) Elute Micro treated cards, currently known as DMPK-B cards (FTA cards). Samples were extracted by filtration-assisted protein precipitation at 0, 2, 5 and 24 h and 4, 7, 14 and 21 days after spiking and analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS. CONCLUSIONS: For these two prodrugs, stability on DBS cards was observed in rat EDTA whole blood for at least 21 days at room temperature as determined by loss of prodrug and appearance of parent. The Whatman FTA Elute cards, treated with reagents that lyse cells, did not offer more stability for the investigated compounds than the Whatman 903 Protein Saver untreated cards.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue/métodos , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Inibidores Enzimáticos , Esterases , Pró-Fármacos/química , Animais , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/instrumentação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dessecação , Ácido Edético/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Esterases/antagonistas & inibidores , Esterases/metabolismo , Indicadores e Reagentes/química , Pró-Fármacos/análise , Pró-Fármacos/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci ; 878(19): 1583-9, 2010 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20451474

RESUMO

BMS-754807 and metformin were co-administered in drug discovery studies which required the quantitation of both compounds in plasma. Since the two compounds are chemically and structurally dissimilar, developing a single bioanalytical method presented a number of chromatographic challenges including the achievement of appropriate retention times and peak shapes on a single analytical column. To address this chromatographic challenge, we investigated different LC columns under different gradient elution schemes using aqueous/organic mobile phases. Using unbonded silica column and aqueous/methanol mobile phase, we were able to obtain robust and well-resolving chromatographic conditions to support the development and implementation of a single LC-MS/MS bioanalytical method. The use of sub-2 micron particle sizes and a high flow rate, which are attainable with UPLC systems, enhanced the method. The method performance evaluation showed that the method easily met the normally used acceptance criteria for bioanalytical methods, namely a deviation of +/-15% from the nominal concentration except at lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ), where +/-20% is accepted. The reported LLOQ of 7.8 ng/ml, for both BMS-754807 and metformin, was adequate to support the pharmacokinetic studies.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Metformina/sangue , Pirazóis/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Triazinas/sangue , Acetonitrilos , Animais , Bicarbonatos , Calibragem , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Formiatos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Metformina/química , Pirazóis/química , Ratos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Triazinas/química
9.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 20(5): 1744-8, 2010 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20153189
10.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 8(12): 3341-9, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19996272

RESUMO

BMS-754807 is a potent and reversible inhibitor of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor/insulin receptor family kinases (Ki, <2 nmol/L). It is currently in phase I development for the treatment of a variety of human cancers. BMS-754807 effectively inhibits the growth of a broad range of human tumor types in vitro, including mesenchymal (Ewing's, rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma, and liposarcoma), epithelial (breast, lung, pancreatic, colon, gastric), and hematopoietic (multiple myeloma and leukemia) tumor cell lines (IC50, 5-365 nmol/L); the compound caused apoptosis in a human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line, Rh41, as shown by an accumulation of the sub-G1 fraction, as well as by an increase in poly ADP ribose polymerase and Caspase 3 cleavage. BMS-754807 is active in vivo in multiple (epithelial, mesenchymal, and hematopoietic) xenograft tumor models with tumor growth inhibition ranging from 53% to 115% and at a minimum effective dose of as low as 6.25 mg/kg dosed orally daily. Combination studies with BMS-754807 have been done on multiple human tumor cell types and showed in vitro synergies (combination index, <1.0) when combined with cytotoxic, hormonal, and targeted agents. The combination of cetuximab and BMS-754807 in vivo, at multiple dose levels, resulted in improved clinical outcome over single agent treatment. These data show that BMS-754807 is an efficacious, orally active growth factor 1 receptor/insulin receptor family-targeted kinase inhibitor that may act in combination with a wide array of established anticancer agents.


Assuntos
Pirazóis/farmacologia , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Insulina/antagonistas & inibidores , Triazinas/farmacologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Western Blotting , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cetuximab , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Estrutura Molecular , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/farmacocinética , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/metabolismo , Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Triazinas/administração & dosagem , Triazinas/farmacocinética , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
11.
J Med Chem ; 52(23): 7360-3, 2009 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19778024
12.
J Med Chem ; 51(23): 7541-51, 2008 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18998662

RESUMO

An indole-based P1 moiety was incorporated into a previously established factor Xa inhibitor series. The indole group was designed to hydrogen-bond with the carbonyl of Gly218, while its 3-methyl or 3-chloro substituent was intended to interact with Tyr228. These interactions were subsequently observed in the X-ray crystal structure of compound 18. SAR studies led to the identification of compound 20 as the most potent FXa inhibitor in this series (IC(50) = 2.4 nM, EC(2xPT) = 1.2 microM). An in-depth energetic analysis suggests that the increased binding energy of 3-chloroindole-versus 3-methylindole-containing compounds in this series is due primarily to (a) the more hydrophobic nature of chloro- versus methyl-containing compounds and (b) an increased interaction of 3-chloroindole versus 3-methylindole with Gly218 backbone. The stronger hydrophobicity of chloro- versus methyl-substituted aromatics may partly explain the general preference for chloro- versus methyl-substituted P1 groups in FXa, which extends beyond the current series.


Assuntos
Desenho de Drogas , Inibidores Enzimáticos , Inibidores do Fator Xa , Indóis , Teoria Quântica , Animais , Sítios de Ligação/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação por Computador , Cristalografia por Raios X , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Fator Xa/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Indóis/síntese química , Indóis/química , Indóis/farmacologia , Camundongos , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Moleculares , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Análise de Sobrevida , Peçonhas/farmacologia , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose Venosa/enzimologia
13.
J Med Chem ; 51(19): 5897-900, 2008 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18763755

RESUMO

We previously reported that 1 (BMS-536924), a benzimidazole inhibitor of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, had demonstrated in vivo antitumor activity. This lead compound was found to have potent CYP3A4 inhibition, CYP3A4 induction mediated by PXR transactivation, poor aqueous solubility, and high plasma protein binding. Herein we disclose the evolution of this chemotype to address these issues. This effort led to 10 (BMS-695735), which exhibits improved ADME properties, a low risk for drug-drug interactions, and in vivo efficacy in multiple xenograft models.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/farmacologia , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Benzimidazóis/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Estrutura Molecular , Transplante de Neoplasias , Receptor de Pregnano X , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Piridonas/química , Receptores de Esteroides/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo , Solubilidade , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
15.
J Med Chem ; 51(5): 1145-9, 2008 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18260618

RESUMO

The C-aryl glucoside 6 (dapagliflozin) was identified as a potent and selective hSGLT2 inhibitor which reduced blood glucose levels in a dose-dependent manner by as much as 55% in hyperglycemic streptozotocin (STZ) rats. These findings, combined with a favorable ADME profile, have prompted clinical evaluation of dapagliflozin for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/síntese química , Hipoglicemiantes/síntese química , Rim/metabolismo , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Administração Oral , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Ratos , Estereoisomerismo
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