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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201893

RESUMO

Lynch syndrome is a hereditary cancer-predisposing syndrome caused by germline defects in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes such as MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2. Carriers of pathogenic mutations in these genes have an increased lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) and other malignancies. Despite intensive surveillance, Lynch patients typically develop CRC after 10 years of follow-up, regardless of the screening interval. Recently, three different molecular models of colorectal carcinogenesis were identified in Lynch patients based on when MMR deficiency is acquired. In the first pathway, adenoma formation occurs in an MMR-proficient background, and carcinogenesis is characterized by APC and/or KRAS mutation and IGF2, NEUROG1, CDK2A, and/or CRABP1 hypermethylation. In the second pathway, deficiency in the MMR pathway is an early event arising in macroscopically normal gut surface before adenoma formation. In the third pathway, which is associated with mutations in CTNNB1 and/or TP53, the adenoma step is skipped, with fast and invasive tumor growth occurring in an MMR-deficient context. Here, we describe the association between molecular and histological features in these three routes of colorectal carcinogenesis in Lynch patients. The findings summarized in this review may guide the use of individualized surveillance guidelines based on a patient's carcinogenesis subtype.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
2.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(3)2021 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670833

RESUMO

Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is caused by germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene APC. To date, nearly 2000 APC mutations have been described in FAP, most of which are predicted to result in truncated protein products. Mutations leading to aberrant APC splicing have rarely been reported. Here, we characterized a novel germline heterozygous splice donor site mutation in APC exon 12 (NM_000038.5: c.1621_1626+7del) leading to exon 12 skipping in an Italian family with the attenuated FAP (AFAP) phenotype. Moreover, we performed a literature meta-analysis of APC splicing mutations. We found that 119 unique APC splicing mutations, including the one described here, have been reported in FAP patients, 69 of which have been characterized at the mRNA level. Among these, only a small proportion (9/69) results in an in-frame protein, with four mutations causing skipping of exon 12 or 13 with loss of armadillo repeat 2 (ARM2) and 3 (ARM3), and five mutations leading to skipping of exon 5, 7, 8, or (partially) 9 with loss of regions not encompassing known functional domains. The APC splicing mutations causing skipping of exon 12 or 13 considered in this study cluster with the AFAP phenotype and reveal a potential molecular mechanism of pathogenesis in FAP disease.


Assuntos
Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Éxons , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Linhagem , Família , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(4): 316, 2021 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767160

RESUMO

The prognosis of locally advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently unsatisfactory. This is mainly due to drug resistance, recurrence, and subsequent metastatic dissemination, which are sustained by the cancer stem cell (CSC) population. The main driver of the CSC gene expression program is Wnt signaling, and previous reports indicate that Wnt3a can activate p38 MAPK. Besides, p38 was shown to feed into the canonical Wnt/ß-catenin pathway. Here we show that patient-derived locally advanced CRC stem cells (CRC-SCs) are characterized by increased expression of p38α and are "addicted" to its kinase activity. Of note, we found that stage III CRC patients with high p38α levels display reduced disease-free and progression-free survival. Extensive molecular analysis in patient-derived CRC-SC tumorspheres and APCMin/+ mice intestinal organoids revealed that p38α acts as a ß-catenin chromatin-associated kinase required for the regulation of a signaling platform involved in tumor proliferation, metastatic dissemination, and chemoresistance in these CRC model systems. In particular, the p38α kinase inhibitor ralimetinib, which has already entered clinical trials, promoted sensitization of patient-derived CRC-SCs to chemotherapeutic agents commonly used for CRC treatment and showed a synthetic lethality effect when used in combination with the MEK1 inhibitor trametinib. Taken together, these results suggest that p38α may be targeted in CSCs to devise new personalized CRC treatment strategies.

4.
iScience ; 23(10): 101604, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205017

RESUMO

SMYD3 is frequently overexpressed in a wide variety of cancers. Indeed, its inactivation reduces tumor growth in preclinical in vivo animal models. However, extensive characterization in vitro failed to clarify SMYD3 function in cancer cells, although confirming its importance in carcinogenesis. Taking advantage of a SMYD3 mutant variant identified in a high-risk breast cancer family, here we show that SMYD3 phosphorylation by ATM enables the formation of a multiprotein complex including ATM, SMYD3, CHK2, and BRCA2, which is required for the final loading of RAD51 at DNA double-strand break sites and completion of homologous recombination (HR). Remarkably, SMYD3 pharmacological inhibition sensitizes HR-proficient cancer cells to PARP inhibitors, thereby extending the potential of the synthetic lethality approach in human tumors.

5.
J Med Genet ; 57(5): 356-360, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591141

RESUMO

Germline mutations of the APC gene, which encodes a multidomain protein of 2843 amino acid residues, cause familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Three FAP clinical variants are correlated with the location of APC mutations: (1) classic FAP with profuse polyposis (>1000 adenomas), associated with mutations from codon 1250 to 1424; (2) attenuated FAP (<100 adenomas), associated with mutations at APC extremities (before codon 157 and after codon 1595); (3) classic FAP with intermediate colonic polyposis (100-1000 adenomas), associated with mutations located in the remaining part of APC In an effort to decipher the clinical phenotype associated with APC C-terminal germline truncating mutations in patients with FAP, after screening APC mutations in one family whose members (n=4) developed gastric polyposis, colon oligo-polyposis and desmoid tumours, we performed a literature meta-analysis of clinically characterised patients (n=97) harbouring truncating mutations in APC C-terminus. The APC distal mutations identified in this study cluster with a phenotype characterised by colon oligo-polyposis, diffuse gastric polyposis and desmoid tumours. In conclusion, we describe a novel FAP clinical variant, which we propose to refer to as Gastric Polyposis and Desmoid FAP, that may require tailored management.


Assuntos
Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/epidemiologia , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/patologia , Adulto , Feminino , Fibromatose Agressiva/patologia , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
6.
Cells ; 8(9)2019 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546924

RESUMO

Cellular stress response is a universal mechanism that ensures the survival or negative selection of cells in challenging conditions. The transcription factor Forkhead box protein O3 (FOXO3a) is a core regulator of cellular homeostasis, stress response, and longevity since it can modulate a variety of stress responses upon nutrient shortage, oxidative stress, hypoxia, heat shock, and DNA damage. FOXO3a activity is regulated by post-translational modifications that drive its shuttling between different cellular compartments, thereby determining its inactivation (cytoplasm) or activation (nucleus and mitochondria). Depending on the stress stimulus and subcellular context, activated FOXO3a can induce specific sets of nuclear genes, including cell cycle inhibitors, pro-apoptotic genes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers, autophagy effectors, gluconeogenic enzymes, and others. On the other hand, upon glucose restriction, 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) -dependent FOXO3a mitochondrial translocation allows the transcription of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes, restoring cellular ATP levels, while in cancer cells, mitochondrial FOXO3a mediates survival upon genotoxic stress induced by chemotherapy. Interestingly, these target genes and their related pathways are diverse and sometimes antagonistic, suggesting that FOXO3a is an adaptable player in the dynamic homeostasis of normal and stressed cells. In this review, we describe the multiple roles of FOXO3a in cellular stress response, with a focus on both its nuclear and mitochondrial functions.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/química , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Humanos
7.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 17: 737-745, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303978

RESUMO

Health span is driven by a precise interplay between genes and the environment. Cell response to environmental cues is mediated by signaling cascades and genetic variants that affect gene expression by regulating chromatin plasticity. Indeed, they can promote the interaction of promoters with regulatory elements by forming active chromatin hubs. FOXO3 encodes a transcription factor with a strong impact on aging and age-related phenotypes, as it regulates stress response, therefore affecting lifespan. A significant association has been shown between human longevity and several FOXO3 variants located in intron 2. This haplotype block forms a putative aging chromatin hub in which FOXO3 has a central role, as it modulates the physical connection and activity of neighboring genes involved in age-related processes. Here we describe the role of FOXO3 and its single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in healthy aging, with a focus on the enhancer region encompassing the SNP rs2802292, which upregulates FOXO3 expression and can promote the activity of the aging hub in response to different stress stimuli. FOXO3 protective effect on lifespan may be due to the accessibility of this region to transcription factors promoting its expression. This could in part explain the differences in FOXO3 association with longevity between genders, as its activity in females may be modulated by estrogens through estrogen receptor response elements located in the rs2802292-encompassing region. Altogether, the molecular mechanisms described here may help establish whether the rs2802292 SNP can be taken advantage of in predictive medicine and define the potential of targeting FOXO3 for age-related diseases.

8.
Int J Biol Markers ; : 1724600818766496, 2018 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29690800

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lynch syndrome is caused by germline mutations in one of the mismatch repair genes ( MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2) or in the EPCAM gene. Lynch syndrome is defined on the basis of clinical, pathological, and genetic findings. Accordingly, the identification of predisposing genes allows for accurate risk assessment and tailored screening protocols. CASE DESCRIPTION: Here, we report a family case with three family members manifesting the Lynch syndrome phenotype, all of which harbor the rare variant c.2635-2A>G affecting the splice site consensus sequence of intron 15 of the MSH2 gene. This mutation was previously described only in one family with Lynch syndrome, in which mismatch repair protein expression in tumor tissues was not assessed. In this study, we report for the first time the molecular characterization of the MSH2 c.2635-2A>G variant through in silico prediction analysis, microsatellite instability, and mismatch repair protein expression experiments on tumor tissues of Lynch syndrome patients. The potential effect of the splice site variant was revealed by three splicing prediction bioinformatics tools, which suggested the generation of a new cryptic splicing site. The potential pathogenic role of this variant was also revealed by the presence of microsatellite instability and the absence of MSH2/MSH6 heterodimer protein expression in the tumor cells of cancer tissues of the affected family members. CONCLUSIONS: We provide compelling evidence in favor of the pathogenic role of the MSH2 variant c.2635-2A>G, which could induce an alteration of the canonical splice site and consequently an aberrant form of the protein product (MSH2).

9.
Chin J Cancer ; 35(1): 51, 2016 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27267075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), a disorder of sexual development in 46, XY individuals, is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. A variety of tumors have been reported in association with AIS, but no cases with colorectal cancer (CRC) have been described. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we present a male patient with AIS who developed multiple early-onset CRCs and his pedigree. His first cousin was diagnosed with AIS and harbored the same AR gene mutation, but with no signs of CRC. The difference in clinical management for the two patients was that testosterone treatment was given to the proband for a much longer time compared with the cousin. The CRC family history was negative, and no germline mutations in well-known CRC-related genes were identified. A single nucleotide polymorphism array revealed a microduplication on chromosome 22q11.22 that encompassed a microRNA potentially related to CRC pathogenesis. In the proband, whole exome sequencing identified a polymorphism in an oncogene and 13 rare loss-of-function variants, of which two were in CRC-related genes and four were in genes associated with other human cancers. CONCLUSIONS: By pathway analysis, all inherited germline genetic events were connected in a unique network whose alteration in the proband, together with continuous testosterone stimulation, may have played a role in CRC pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Resistência a Andrógenos/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Testosterona/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Síndrome de Resistência a Andrógenos/complicações , Síndrome de Resistência a Andrógenos/tratamento farmacológico , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22 , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Exoma , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Testosterona/metabolismo , Testosterona/farmacologia
10.
Oncotarget ; 5(15): 5965-77, 2014 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25115389

RESUMO

AIM: to investigate the events involved in the progression of myxoid liposarcoma (MLS). Gene expression profiling and immunohistochemical/biochemical analyses were applied to specimens representative of the opposite ends of the MLS spectrum: pure myxoid (ML) and pure round cell (RC) liposarcomas. The analyses revealed the involvement of both coding and non coding RNAs (SNORDs located in DLK1-DIO3 region) and support a model of stepwise progression mainly driven by epigenetic changes involving tumour vascular supply and tumoral cellular component. In this model, a switch in the vascular landscape from a normal to a pro-angiogenic signature and the silencing of DLK1-DIO3 region mark the progression from ML to RC in concert with the acquisition by the latter of the over-expression of YYI/C-MYC/HDAC2, together with over-expression of genes involved in cell proliferation and stemness: MKNK2, MSX1 and TRIM71. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that to progress from ML to RC liposarcoma the cells have to overcome the epigenetic silencing restriction point in order to reset their new stem-like differentiation signature. Our findings provide a first attempt at identifying the missing links between ML and RC liposarcomas, that may also have broader applications in other clinico-pathological settings characterised by a spectrum of progression.


Assuntos
Lipossarcoma Mixoide/genética , Progressão da Doença , Epigenômica/métodos , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lipossarcoma Mixoide/metabolismo , Lipossarcoma Mixoide/patologia
11.
BMC Med Genet ; 15: 59, 2014 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24884915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Association of melanoma, neural system tumors and germ line mutations at the 9p21 region in the CDKN2A, CDKN2B and CDKN2BAS genes has been reported in a small number of families worldwide and described as a discrete syndrome in melanoma families registered as a rare disease, the melanoma-astrocytoma syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION: We here studied two young patients developing melanoma after radiotherapy for astrocytoma, both reporting lack of family history for melanoma or neural system tumors at genetic counselling. Patient A is a girl treated for anaplastic astrocytoma at 10 years and for multiple melanomas on the scalp associated to dysplastic nevi two years later. Her monozygotic twin sister carried dysplastic nevi and a slow growing, untreated cerebral lesion. Direct sequencing analysis showed no alterations in melanoma susceptibility genes including CDKN2A, CDK4, MC1R and MITF or in TP53. By microsatellite analysis, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, and array comparative genomic hybridization a deletion including the CDKN2A, CDKN2B and CDKN2BAS gene cluster was detected in both twin sisters, encompassing a large region at 9p21.3 and occurring de novo after the loss of one paternal allele.Patient B is a boy of 7 years when treated for astrocytoma then developing melanoma associated to congenital nevi on the head 10 years later: sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification revealed a normal profile of the CDKN2A/CDKN2B/CDKN2BAS region. Array comparative genomic hybridization confirmed the absence of deletions at 9p21.3 and failed to reveal known pathogenic copy number variations. CONCLUSIONS: By comparison with the other germ line deletions at the CDKN2A, CDKN2B and CDKN2BAS gene cluster reported in melanoma susceptible families, the deletion detected in the two sisters is peculiar for its de novo origin and for its extension, as it represents the largest constitutive deletion at 9p21.3 region identified so far.In addition, the two studied cases add to other evidence indicating association of melanoma with exposure to ionizing radiation and with second neoplasm after childhood cancer. Melanoma should be considered in the monitoring of pigmented lesions in young cancer patients.


Assuntos
Astrocitoma/diagnóstico , Astrocitoma/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9 , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Melanoma/genética , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Adolescente , Alelos , Biópsia , Criança , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Deleção de Sequência
12.
Am J Med Genet A ; 164A(7): 1666-76, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24700646

RESUMO

Phelan-McDermid syndrome (22q13.3 deletion syndrome) is a contiguous gene disorder resulting from the deletion of the distal long arm of chromosome 22. SHANK3, a gene within the minimal critical region, is a candidate gene for the major neurological features of this syndrome. We report clinical and molecular data from a study of nine patients with overlapping interstitial deletions in 22q13 not involving SHANK3. All of these deletions overlap with the largest, but not with the smallest deletion associated with Phelan-McDermid syndrome. The deletion sizes and breakpoints varied considerably among our patients, with the largest deletion spanning 6.9 Mb and the smallest deletion spanning 2.7 Mb. Eight out of nine patients had a de novo deletion, while in one patient the origin of deletion was unknown. These patients shared clinical features common to Phelan-McDermid syndrome: developmental delay (11/12), speech delay (11/12), hypotonia (9/12), and feeding difficulties (7/12). Moreover, the majority of patients (8/12) exhibited macrocephaly. In the minimal deleted region, we identified two candidate genes, SULT4A1 and PARVB (associated with the PTEN pathway), which could be associated in our cohort with neurological features and macrocephaly/hypotonia, respectively. This study suggests that the haploinsufficiency of genes in the 22q13 region beside SHANK3 contributes to cognitive and speech development, and that these genes are involved in the phenotype associated with the larger Phelan-McDermid syndrome 22q13 deletions. Moreover, because the deletions in our patients do not involve the SHANK3 gene, we posit the existence of a new contiguous gene syndrome proximal to the smallest terminal deletions in the 22q13 region.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22 , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fenótipo , Síndrome
14.
Pathol Oncol Res ; 18(3): 703-12, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22278416

RESUMO

Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in children. Two step inactivation of RB1 (M1-M2) represents the key event in the pathogenesis of retinoblastoma but additional genetic and epigenetic events (M3-Mn) are required for tumor development. In the present study, we employed Methylation Specific Multiplex Ligation Probe Assay to investigate methylation status and copy number changes of 25 and 39 oncosuppressor genes, respectively. This technique was applied to analyse 12 retinoblastomas (5 bilateral and 7 unilateral) and results were compared to corresponding normal retina. We identified hypermethylation in seven new genes: MSH6 (50%), CD44 (42%), PAX5 (42%), GATA5 (25%), TP53 (8%), VHL (8%) and GSTP1 (8%) and we confirmed the previously reported hypermethylation of MGMT (58%), RB1 (17%) and CDKN2 (8%). These genes belong to key pathways including DNA repair, pRB and p53 signalling, transcriptional regulation, protein degradation, cell-cell interaction, cellular adhesion and migration. In the same group of retinoblastomas, a total of 29 copy number changes (19 duplications and 10 deletions) have been identified. Interestingly, we found deletions of the following oncosuppressor genes that might contribute to drive retinoblastoma tumorigenesis: TP53, CDH13, GATA5, CHFR, TP73 and IGSF4. The present data highlight the importance of epigenetic changes in retinoblastoma and indicate seven hypermethylated oncosuppressors never associated before to retinoblastoma pathogenesis. This study also confirms the presence of copy number variations in retinoblastoma, expecially in unilateral cases (mean 3 ± 1.3) where these changes were found more frequently respect to bilateral cases (mean 1.4 ± 1.1).


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Metilação de DNA , Epigenômica , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Retina/metabolismo , Retinoblastoma/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Hum Genet ; 56(9): 685-6, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21814224

RESUMO

The tumor suppressor p53 and its negative regulator MDM2 have crucial roles in a variety of cellular functions such as the control of the cell cycle, senescence, genome stability and apoptosis, and are frequently deregulated in carcinogenesis. Previous studies have highlighted the contribution of the common functional polymorphisms p53 p.Arg72Pro and MDM2 309SNP to the risk of both common cancers and Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Their possible role in retinoblastoma has recently been addressed by Castéra et al, who however only studied the MDM2 309SNP. Here, for the first time, we analyzed both single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a case-control study of 111 Italian hereditary retinoblastoma patients. We found a significant association of the p53 Pro/Pro genotype with the disease (odds ratio=3.58, P=0.002). The MDM2 309SNP showed a weak negative association of allele G that deserves further investigation. These findings further support the hypothesis that genetic variability of the p53 pathway contributes to the individual susceptibility to retinoblastoma, as shown for Li-Fraumeni syndrome and a variety of non-hereditary cancers.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/genética , Retinoblastoma/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Itália , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
16.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 19(12): 1246-55, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21750574

RESUMO

Rett syndrome (RTT) is a progressive neurologic disorder representing one of the most common causes of mental retardation in females. To date mutations in three genes have been associated with this condition. Classic RTT is caused by mutations in the MECP2 gene, whereas variants can be due to mutations in either MECP2 or FOXG1 or CDKL5. Mutations in CDKL5 have been identified both in females with the early onset seizure variant of RTT and in males with X-linked epileptic encephalopathy. CDKL5 is a kinase protein highly expressed in neurons, but its exact function inside the cell is unknown. To address this issue we established a human cellular model for CDKL5-related disease using the recently developed technology of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). iPSCs can be expanded indefinitely and differentiated in vitro into many different cell types, including neurons. These features make them the ideal tool to study disease mechanisms directly on the primarily affected neuronal cells. We derived iPSCs from fibroblasts of one female with p.Q347X and one male with p.T288I mutation, affected by early onset seizure variant and X-linked epileptic encephalopathy, respectively. We demonstrated that female CDKL5-mutated iPSCs maintain X-chromosome inactivation and clones express either the mutant CDKL5 allele or the wild-type allele that serve as an ideal experimental control. Array CGH indicates normal isogenic molecular karyotypes without detection of de novo CNVs in the CDKL5-mutated iPSCs. Furthermore, the iPS cells can be differentiated into neurons and are thus suitable to model disease pathogenesis in vitro.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Síndrome de Rett/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Masculino , Mutação , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Síndrome de Rett/diagnóstico , Inativação do Cromossomo X
17.
J Hum Genet ; 56(7): 508-15, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21593744

RESUMO

MECP2 mutations are responsible for two different phenotypes in females, classical Rett syndrome and the milder Zappella variant (Z-RTT). We investigated whether copy number variants (CNVs) may modulate the phenotype by comparison of array-CGH data from two discordant pairs of sisters and four additional discordant pairs of unrelated girls matched by mutation type. We also searched for potential MeCP2 targets within CNVs by chromatin immunopreceipitation microarray (ChIP-chip) analysis. We did not identify one major common gene/region, suggesting that modifiers may be complex and variable between cases. However, we detected CNVs correlating with disease severity that contain candidate modifiers. CROCC (1p36.13) is a potential MeCP2 target, in which a duplication in a Z-RTT and a deletion in a classic patient were observed. CROCC encodes a structural component of ciliary motility that is required for correct brain development. CFHR1 and CFHR3, on 1q31.3, may be involved in the regulation of complement during synapse elimination, and were found to be deleted in a Z-RTT but duplicated in two classic patients. The duplication of 10q11.22, present in two Z-RTT patients, includes GPRIN2, a regulator of neurite outgrowth and PPYR1, involved in energy homeostasis. Functional analyses are necessary to confirm candidates and to define targets for future therapies.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Síndrome de Rett/genética , Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Proteínas Inativadoras do Complemento C3b/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/genética , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/metabolismo , Fenótipo
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