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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680161

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Racial factors play a significant role in SSc. We evaluated differences in SSc presentations between white patients (WP), Asian patients (AP) and black patients (BP) and analysed the effects of geographical locations. METHODS: SSc characteristics of patients from the EUSTAR cohort were cross-sectionally compared across racial groups using survival and multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The study included 9162 WP, 341 AP and 181 BP. AP developed the first non-RP feature faster than WP but slower than BP. AP were less frequently anti-centromere (ACA; odds ratio (OR) = 0.4, P < 0.001) and more frequently anti-topoisomerase-I autoantibodies (ATA) positive (OR = 1.2, P = 0.068), while BP were less likely to be ACA and ATA positive than were WP [OR(ACA) = 0.3, P < 0.001; OR(ATA) = 0.5, P = 0.020]. AP had less often (OR = 0.7, P = 0.06) and BP more often (OR = 2.7, P < 0.001) diffuse skin involvement than had WP. AP and BP were more likely to have pulmonary hypertension [OR(AP) = 2.6, P < 0.001; OR(BP) = 2.7, P = 0.03 vs WP] and a reduced forced vital capacity [OR(AP) = 2.5, P < 0.001; OR(BP) = 2.4, P < 0.004] than were WP. AP more often had an impaired diffusing capacity of the lung than had BP and WP [OR(AP vs BP) = 1.9, P = 0.038; OR(AP vs WP) = 2.4, P < 0.001]. After RP onset, AP and BP had a higher hazard to die than had WP [hazard ratio (HR) (AP) = 1.6, P = 0.011; HR(BP) = 2.1, P < 0.001]. CONCLUSION: Compared with WP, and mostly independent of geographical location, AP have a faster and earlier disease onset with high prevalences of ATA, pulmonary hypertension and forced vital capacity impairment and higher mortality. BP had the fastest disease onset, a high prevalence of diffuse skin involvement and nominally the highest mortality.

2.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 21(1): 217, 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655622

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group, trial was to assess the effect of ambrisentan on mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and mildly elevated pulmonary hypertension (PH). METHODS: Thirty-eight SSc patients with mildly elevated mPAP at rest between 21 and 24 mmHg and/or > 30 mmHg during low-dose exercise were randomly assigned to treatment with either ambrisentan 5-10 mg/day or placebo. Right heart catheterization and further clinical parameters were assessed at baseline and after 6 months. The primary endpoint was the difference of mPAP change at rest between groups. RESULTS: After 6 months, the two groups did not differ in the primary endpoint (ambrisentan mPAP - 1 ± 6.4 mmHg vs. placebo - 0.73 ± 3.59 mmHg at rest, p = 0.884). However, three patients from the placebo group but none of the ambrisentan group progressed to SSc-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension. Furthermore, ambrisentan treatment showed significant improvements in the secondary endpoints cardiac index (CI) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) at rest (CI 0.36 ± 0.66 l/min/m2 vs. - 0.31 ± 0.71 l/min/m2, p = 0.010; PVR - 0.70 ± 0.78 WU vs. 0.01 ± 0.71 WU, p = 0.012) and during exercise (CI 0.7 ± 0.81 l/min/m2 vs. - 0.45 ± 1.36 l/min/m2, p = 0.015; PVR - 0.84 ± 0.48 WU vs. - 0.0032 ± 0.34 WU, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: This is the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study testing the effect of ambrisentan in patients with mildly elevated mPAP and/or exercise PH. The primary endpoint change in mPAP did only tendentially improve in the ambrisentan group, but the significant improvement of other hemodynamic parameters points to a possible benefit of ambrisentan and will be helpful to design future trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, unique identifier NCT: NCT02290613 , registered 14th of November 2014.

3.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 15(10): 1009-1017, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566449

RESUMO

Introduction: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare and complex connective tissue disease characterized by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common complication of SSc and the leading cause of SSc-related death. No drugs are licensed for the treatment of SSc-ILD. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of the current treatment of SSc-ILD and a perspective on investigational therapies, focusing on those studied in randomized controlled trials. Expert opinion: There is substantial room for improvement in the treatment of SSc-ILD. Current treatment focuses on immunosuppressant therapies, particularly cyclophosphamide and mycophenolate. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been shown to improve long-term outcomes, but the risk of treatment-related mortality restricts its use to select patients at specialized centers. Modifying the course of disease to improve outcomes remains the goal for new therapies. Several drugs are under investigation as potential therapies for SSc-ILD, providing hope that the limited treatment armamentarium for SSc-ILD will be expanded and improved in the near future. Expert consensus is needed on how to screen for and monitor SSc-ILD and on when to initiate and escalate therapy.

7.
Curr Protoc Immunol ; 126(1): e88, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483105

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) refers to an autoimmune disease, which is manifested by inflammation, vasculopathy, and fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. There are a number of different animal models recapitulating specific aspects of SSc. The experimental mouse model of bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis is commonly used to study the pathogenesis observed in SSc. In this model, repetitive intradermal injections of the cytotoxic agent bleomycin trigger progressive skin thickening, associated with excessive accumulation of collagen, infiltration of immune cells, and formation of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)-positive myofibroblasts. In this article, we provide a detailed protocol for the induction of skin fibrosis in experimental mice by bleomycin. Moreover, we describe procedures for processing and analyzing affected skin tissue, provide troubleshooting, highlight advantages and limitations of the presented model, and critically discuss representative results. © 2019 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Basic Protocol 1: Intradermal bleomycin injections to induce skin fibrosis in mice Support Protocol: Mouse tissue collection for fibrosis evaluation and for other molecular assays Basic Protocol 2: Evaluation of mouse skin thickness using Masson's trichrome staining Basic Protocol 3: Measurement of hydroxyproline content in skin tissue using a colorimetric assay Basic Protocol 4: Evaluation of myofibroblasts in mouse skin by immunohistochemistry.

8.
Autoimmun Rev ; 18(11): 102394, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520797

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to propose a simple "Fast Track algorithm" for capillaroscopists of any level of experience to differentiate "scleroderma patterns" from "non-scleroderma patterns" on capillaroscopy and to assess its inter-rater reliability. METHODS: Based on existing definitions to categorise capillaroscopic images as "scleroderma patterns" and taking into account the real life variability of capillaroscopic images described standardly according to the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) Study Group on Microcirculation in Rheumatic Diseases, a fast track decision tree, the "Fast Track algorithm" was created by the principal expert (VS) to facilitate swift categorisation of an image as "non-scleroderma pattern (category 1)" or "scleroderma pattern (category 2)". Mean inter-rater reliability between all raters (experts/attendees) of the 8th EULAR course on capillaroscopy in Rheumatic Diseases (Genoa, 2018) and, as external validation, of the 8th European Scleroderma Trials and Research group (EUSTAR) course on systemic sclerosis (SSc) (Nijmegen, 2019) versus the principal expert, as well as reliability between the rater pairs themselves was assessed by mean Cohen's and Light's kappa coefficients. RESULTS: Mean Cohen's kappa was 1/0.96 (95% CI 0.95-0.98) for the 6 experts/135 attendees of the 8th EULAR capillaroscopy course and 1/0.94 (95% CI 0.92-0.96) for the 3 experts/85 attendees of the 8th EUSTAR SSc course. Light's kappa was 1/0.92 at the 8th EULAR capillaroscopy course, and 1/0.87 at the 8th EUSTAR SSc course. CONCLUSION: For the first time, a clinical expert based fast track decision algorithm has been developed to differentiate a "non-scleroderma" from a "scleroderma pattern" on capillaroscopic images, demonstrating excellent reliability when applied by capillaroscopists with varying levels of expertise versus the principal expert and corroborated with external validation.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Esclerodermia Localizada/diagnóstico , Escleroderma Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Humanos , Angioscopia Microscópica/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(11): 1576-1582, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391176

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of vasodilator drugs on the occurrence of features depending on myocardial ischaemia/fibrosis (ventricular arrhythmias, Q waves, cardiac blocks, pacemaker implantation, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <55%, and/or congestive heart failure and sudden cardiac death) in systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: 601 patients with SSc were enrolled from 1 December 2012 to 30 November 2015 and had a second visit 0.5-4 years apart. 153 received no vasodilators; 448 received vasodilator therapy (ie, calcium channel blockers and/or ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers or combinations of them), 89 of them being also treated with either endothelin receptor antagonists or PDE5 inhibitors or prostanoids. Associations between the occurrence of myocardial disease manifestations and any demographic, disease and therapeutic aspect were investigated by Cox regression analysis. A Cox frailty survival model with centre of enrolment as random effect was performed. RESULTS: During 914 follow-up patient-years, 12 ventricular arrhythmias, 5 Q waves, 40 cardiac blocks, 6 pacemaker implantations and 19 reduced LVEF and/or congestive heart failure (CHF) occurred. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, vasodilator therapy was associated with a lower incidence of ventricular arrhythmias (p=0.03); low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) with a lower incidence of cardiac blocks and/or Q waves and/or pacemaker implantation (p=0.02); active disease with a higher incidence of LVEF <55% and/or CHF and cardiac blocks and/or Q waves and/or pacemaker implantation (p=0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The present study might suggest a preventative effect on the occurrence of distinct myocardial manifestations by vasodilator therapy and low-dose ASA.

10.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(12): 1681-1685, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The European Scleroderma Trials and Research Group (EUSTAR) recently developed a preliminarily revised activity index (AI) that performed better than the European Scleroderma Study Group Activity Index (EScSG-AI) in systemic sclerosis (SSc). OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictive value for short-term disease severity accrual of the EUSTAR-AI, as compared with those of the EScSG-AI and of known adverse prognostic factors. METHODS: Patients with SSc from the EUSTAR database with a disease duration from the onset of the first non-Raynaud sign/symptom ≤5 years and a baseline visit between 2003 and 2014 were first extracted. To capture the disease activity variations over time, EUSTAR-AI and EScSG-AI adjusted means were calculated. The primary outcome was disease progression defined as a Δ≥1 in the Medsger's severity score and in distinct items at the 2-year follow-up visit. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify predictive factors. RESULTS: 549 patients were enrolled. At multivariate analysis, the EUSTAR-AI adjusted mean was the only predictor of any severity accrual and of that of lung and heart, skin and peripheral vascular disease over 2 years. CONCLUSION: The adjusted mean EUSTAR-AI has the best predictive value for disease progression and development of severe organ involvement over time in SSc.

11.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342624

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: T cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of early systemic sclerosis. This study assessed the safety and efficacy of abatacept in patients with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc). METHODS: A 12-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with participants randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either abatacept 125 mg subcutaneous or matching placebo, stratified by duration of dcSSc. Escape therapy was allowed at six months for worsening disease. The co-primary end points were change in modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS) and safety over 12 months. Treatment differences in longitudinal outcomes were assessed using linear mixed models, with outcomes censored after initiation of escape therapy. Baseline skin tissue was classified into intrinsic gene expression subsets. RESULTS: Among 88 participants, the adjusted mean change in mRSS at 12 months was -6.24 units in the abatacept and -4.49 units in the placebo, with adjusted mean treatment difference of -1.75 units (p=0.28). Two secondary outcome measures (HAQ-DI and a composite measure) were clinically and statistically significant favoring abatacept. A larger proportion of placebo subjects required escape therapy relative to abatacept (36% vs. 16%). Decline in mRSS over 12 months was clinically and significantly higher in abatacept vs. placebo for the Inflammatory (p<0.001) and Normal-like skin gene expression subsets (p=0.03). 35 participants in the abatacept versus 40 in the placebo had adverse events (AEs), including two and one deaths, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this Phase 2 trial, abatacept was well tolerated, but change in mRSS was not statistically significant. Secondary outcome measures, including gene expression subsets, showed some evidence in favor of abatacept. These data should be confirmed in a Phase 3 trial. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

12.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(12): 2068-2080, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309742

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the expression, regulation, and role of microRNA-125b (miR-125b) in systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: MiR-125b expression was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of RNA from dermal fibroblasts and whole skin biopsy specimens from healthy controls and SSc patients. To identify downstream effectors, RNA from healthy control fibroblasts was sequenced after miR-125b knockdown and further validated using qPCR and Western blotting. Fibrosis, apoptosis, and proliferation were assessed by Caspase-Glo 3/7 assay, Western blotting, immunofluorescence staining for cleaved caspase 3, and annexin V real-time assay in dermal fibroblasts. RESULTS: Expression of miR-125b was significantly down-regulated in SSc skin biopsy specimens by 53% (median fold change 0.47 [interquartile range 0.35-0.69]; P < 0.001) and in SSc dermal fibroblasts by 47% (median fold change 0.53 [interquartile range 0.36-0.58]; P < 0.001) compared to healthy control skin biopsy specimens and fibroblasts, respectively (n = 10 samples per group). Treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitors trichostatin A and tubastatin A significantly decreased the expression of miR-125b in dermal fibroblasts. MiR-125b knockdown significantly reduced cell proliferation and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression at the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. RNA-Seq identified BAK1, BMF, and BBC3 as potential targets of miR-125b. Quantitative PCR confirmed that knockdown of miR-125b up-regulated these genes (P < 0.01; n = 12). Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer 1 showed the strongest induction confirmed at the protein level (P < 0.01; n = 10). Consequently, miR-125b knockdown increased apoptosis compared to scrambled control. Accordingly, miR-125b overexpression decreased apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that miR-125b is down-regulated in SSc skin and primary dermal fibroblasts. MiR-125b down-regulation increases apoptosis and decreases proliferation and α-SMA expression in dermal fibroblasts, indicating that its compensatory, antifibrotic mechanism may be a potential novel therapeutic option.

14.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP4) identifies a dermal fibroblast lineage involved in scaring during wound healing. The role of DDP4 in tissue fibrosis, however, is unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate DPP4 as a potential target for the treatment of fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: The expression of DPP4 was analyzed by real-time PCR, immunofluorescence and Western blot. The activity of DPP4 was modulated by overexpression, knockdown and pharmacological inhibition using Sitagliptin and Vildagliptin. The effects of DPP4 inhibition were analyzed in human dermal fibroblasts and in different mouse models of SSc (n=6). RESULTS: The expression of DPP4 and the number of DPP4 positive fibroblasts were increased in fibrotic skin of SSc patients in a TGF-ß dependent manner. DPP4 positive fibroblasts expressed higher levels of myofibroblast markers and collagen (p<0.001). Overexpression of DPP4 promoted fibroblast activation, whereas pharmacological or genetic inactivation of DPP4 reduced proliferation, migration, expression of contractile proteins and release of collagen by interfering with TGF-ß-induced ERK signaling (p<0.001). DPP4-knockout mice were less sensitive to bleomycin-induced dermal and pulmonary fibrosis (p<0.0001). Treatment with DPP4 inhibitors promoted regression of fibrosis induced by bleomycin- or chronic graft-versus-host disease and ameliorated fibrosis in TSK1 mice (p<0.001). The antifibrotic effects were associated with reduced inflammation. CONCLUSION: DPP4 characterizes a population of activated fibroblasts and regulates TGF-ß-induced fibroblast activation. Inhibition of DPP4 exerts potent anti-fibrotic effects in well tolerated doses. These results may have direct translational implications as DPP4 inhibitors are already in clinical use for diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

15.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(9): 1242-1248, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227488

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mortality and worsening of organ function are desirable endpoints for clinical trials in systemic sclerosis (SSc). The aim of this study was to identify factors that allow enrichment of patients with these endpoints, in a population of patients from the European Scleroderma Trials and Research group database. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of diffuse SSc and follow-up over 12±3 months. Disease worsening/organ progression was fulfilled if any of the following events occurred: new renal crisis; decrease of lung or heart function; new echocardiography-suspected pulmonary hypertension or death. In total, 42 clinical parameters were chosen as predictors for the analysis by using (1) imputation of missing data on the basis of multivariate imputation and (2) least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression. RESULTS: Of 1451 patients meeting the inclusion criteria, 706 had complete data on outcome parameters and were included in the analysis. Of the 42 outcome predictors, eight remained in the final regression model. There was substantial evidence for a strong association between disease progression and age, active digital ulcer (DU), lung fibrosis, muscle weakness and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) level. Active DU, CRP elevation, lung fibrosis and muscle weakness were also associated with a significantly shorter time to disease progression. A bootstrap validation step with 10 000 repetitions successfully validated the model. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the predictive factors presented here could enable cohort enrichment with patients at risk for overall disease worsening in SSc clinical trials.

16.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1100, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156645

RESUMO

Antisense long non-coding RNAs (AS lncRNAs) have increasingly been recognized as important regulators of gene expression and they have been found to play key roles in several diseases. However, very little is known about the role of AS lncRNAs in fibrotic diseases such as systemic sclerosis (SSc). Our recent screening experiments by RNA sequencing showed that ovarian tumor domain containing 6B antisense RNA1 (OTUD6B-AS1) and its sense gene OTUD6B were significantly downregulated in SSc skin biopsies. Therefore, we aimed to identify key regulators of OTUD6B-AS1 and to analyze the functional relevance of OTUD6B-AS1 in SSc. OTUD6B-AS1 and OTUD6B expression in SSc and healthy control (HC) dermal fibroblasts (Fb) after stimulation with transforming growth factor-ß (TGFß), Interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was analyzed by qPCR. To identify the functional role of OTUD6B-AS1, dermal Fb or human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPASMC) were transfected with a locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) targeting OTUD6B-AS1. Proliferation was measured by BrdU and real-time proliferation assay. Apoptosis was measured by Caspase 3/7 assay and Western blot for cleaved caspase 3. While no difference was recorded at the basal level between HC and SSc dermal Fb, the expression of OTUD6B-AS1 and OTUD6B was significantly downregulated in both SSc and HC dermal Fb after PDGF stimulation in a time-dependent manner. Only mild and inconsistent effects were observed with TGFß, IL-4, and IL-13. OTUD6B-AS1 knockdown in Fb and HPASMC did not affect extracellular matrix or pro-fibrotic/proinflammatory cytokine production. However, OTUD6B-AS1 knockdown significantly increased Cyclin D1 expression at the mRNA and protein level. Moreover, silencing of OTUD6B-AS1 significantly reduced proliferation and suppressed apoptosis in both dermal Fb and HPASMC. OTUD6B-AS1 knockdown did not affect OTUD6B expression at the mRNA level and protein level. Our data suggest that OTUD6B-AS1 regulates proliferation and apoptosis via cyclin D1 expression in a sense gene independent manner. This is the first report investigating the function of OTUD6B-AS1. Our data shed light on a novel apoptosis resistance mechanism in Fb and vascular smooth muscle cells that might be relevant for pathogenesis of SSc.

17.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218551, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216336

RESUMO

Activation of macrophages and overexpression of TNFα is associated with the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms leading to TNFα overexpression are still unknown. 5-methylocytosine (5-mC) is an epigenetic modification that is associated with silenced genes. Recent studies showed that it is converted to 5-hydroxylmethylocytosine (5-hmC) and reactivates gene expression through the action of the family of Ten-Eleven-Translocation (TET1-3) enzymes. In this study, we show that 5-hmC levels are increased globally and specifically in the TNFα promoter during the differentiation of monocytes to macrophages. In addition, the levels of 5-hmC are increased upon LPS stimulation of macrophages. Furthermore, CRIPSR stable knockout of TET1 decreases the expression of TNFα and other pro-inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, we showed that TET1 contributes to the activation of macrophages possibly through regulation of 5-hydroxymethylation in the promoter of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes. The TET1 enzyme could be a promising therapeutic target to inhibit the persistent inflammation caused by macrophages in chronic inflammatory diseases.

19.
N Engl J Med ; 380(26): 2518-2528, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common manifestation of systemic sclerosis and a leading cause of systemic sclerosis-related death. Nintedanib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been shown to have antifibrotic and antiinflammatory effects in preclinical models of systemic sclerosis and ILD. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the efficacy and safety of nintedanib in patients with ILD associated with systemic sclerosis. Patients who had systemic sclerosis with an onset of the first non-Raynaud's symptom within the past 7 years and a high-resolution computed tomographic scan that showed fibrosis affecting at least 10% of the lungs were randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive 150 mg of nintedanib, administered orally twice daily, or placebo. The primary end point was the annual rate of decline in forced vital capacity (FVC), assessed over a 52-week period. Key secondary end points were absolute changes from baseline in the modified Rodnan skin score and in the total score on the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) at week 52. RESULTS: A total of 576 patients received at least one dose of nintedanib or placebo; 51.9% had diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis, and 48.4% were receiving mycophenolate at baseline. In the primary end-point analysis, the adjusted annual rate of change in FVC was -52.4 ml per year in the nintedanib group and -93.3 ml per year in the placebo group (difference, 41.0 ml per year; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9 to 79.0; P = 0.04). Sensitivity analyses based on multiple imputation for missing data yielded P values for the primary end point ranging from 0.06 to 0.10. The change from baseline in the modified Rodnan skin score and the total score on the SGRQ at week 52 did not differ significantly between the trial groups, with differences of -0.21 (95% CI, -0.94 to 0.53; P = 0.58) and 1.69 (95% CI, -0.73 to 4.12 [not adjusted for multiple comparisons]), respectively. Diarrhea, the most common adverse event, was reported in 75.7% of the patients in the nintedanib group and in 31.6% of those in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with ILD associated with systemic sclerosis, the annual rate of decline in FVC was lower with nintedanib than with placebo; no clinical benefit of nintedanib was observed for other manifestations of systemic sclerosis. The adverse-event profile of nintedanib observed in this trial was similar to that observed in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; gastrointestinal adverse events, including diarrhea, were more common with nintedanib than with placebo. (Funded by Boehringer Ingelheim; SENSCIS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02597933.).


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Administração Oral , Adulto , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Inibidores Enzimáticos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Indóis/efeitos adversos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escleroderma Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Capacidade Vital
20.
Front Immunol ; 10: 791, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037071

RESUMO

Objectives: Most DAMPs in inflammatory diseases are TLR2- and TLR4-ligands and according to the current concept, repeated stimuli would result in tolerance. Aims of the study were to verify this assumption, to investigate whether epigenetic effectors are involved and to explore the situation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: A trained immunity (TI) and tolerance protocol was established using peripheral blood monocytes from healthy donors, ß-glucan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The training or tolerance capacities of RA-relevant DAMPs were tested. Results: ß-Glucan-, oS100A4-, HMBG1-, and HSP90-pretreated monocytes showed increased IL-6 responses to LPS re-stimulation. ß-Glucan, oS100A and tenascin C induced training of monocytes to release more TNFα. In comparison to ß-glucan, most DAMPs tested induced less TI, with exception of oS100A4. Monocytes exposed to oS100A4 showed increased IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNFα in response to LPS, in spite that both stimulate TLR4. RNASEq upon ß-glucan or oS100A4 revealed similar changes in chemokines/cytokines and epigenetic effectors; 17 epigenetic effectors correlated with chemokine/cytokine gene expression; PRDM8 was associated with more chemokine and cytokine transcripts. Knockdown of PRDM8 abolished TI induced by oS100A4. In RA, plasma S100A4 correlated with increased CSF2, and increased PRDM8 transcription in RA monocytes was associated with increased plasma CCL5 and IL-6, as well as therapy-resistance. Conclusion: Bypass of tolerance by DAMPs might be a phenomenon as important as TI, since it could explain how chronic inflammation can be maintained in spite of an environment with multiple TLR2/TLR4-ligands. In RA monocytes, a PRDM8-dependent TI mechanism could be responsible for sustained chemokine/cytokines levels.

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