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1.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037004

RESUMO

Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), which can arise from a broad spectrum of distinct aetiologies, can manifest as a pulmonary complication of an underlying autoimmune and connective tissue disease (CTD-ILD), such as rheumatoid arthritis-ILD and systemic sclerosis (SSc-ILD). Patients with clinically distinct ILDs, whether CTD-related or not, can exhibit a pattern of common clinical disease behaviour (declining lung function, worsening respiratory symptoms and higher mortality), attributable to progressive fibrosis in the lungs. In recent years, the tyrosine kinase inhibitor nintedanib has demonstrated efficacy and safety in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), SSc-ILD and a broad range of other fibrosing ILDs with a progressive phenotype, including those associated with CTDs. Data from phase II studies also suggest that pirfenidone, which has a different-yet largely unknown-mechanism of action, may also have activity in other fibrosing ILDs with a progressive phenotype, in addition to its known efficacy in IPF. Collectively, these studies add weight to the hypothesis that, irrespective of the original clinical diagnosis of ILD, a progressive fibrosing phenotype may arise from common, underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of fibrosis involving pathways associated with the targets of nintedanib and, potentially, pirfenidone. However, despite the early proof of concept provided by these clinical studies, very little is known about the mechanistic commonalities and differences between ILDs with a progressive phenotype. In this review, we explore the biological and genetic mechanisms that drive fibrosis, and identify the missing evidence needed to provide the rationale for further studies that use the progressive phenotype as a target population.

3.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(563)2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998972

RESUMO

Aberrant activation of fibroblasts with progressive deposition of extracellular matrix is a key feature of systemic sclerosis (SSc), a prototypical idiopathic fibrotic disease. Here, we demonstrate that the profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor ß selectively up-regulates fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) and its ligand FGF9 to promote fibroblast activation and tissue fibrosis, leading to a prominent FGFR3 signature in the SSc skin. Transcriptome profiling, in silico analysis and functional experiments revealed that FGFR3 induces multiple profibrotic pathways including endothelin, interleukin-4, and connective tissue growth factor signaling mediated by transcription factor CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein). Inhibition of FGFR3 signaling by fibroblast-specific knockout of FGFR3 or FGF9 or pharmacological inhibition of FGFR3 blocked fibroblast activation and attenuated experimental skin fibrosis in mice. These findings characterize FGFR3 as an upstream regulator of a network of profibrotic mediators in SSc and as a potential target for the treatment of fibrosis.

4.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(10): 963-974, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A phase 2 trial of tocilizumab showed preliminary evidence of efficacy in systemic sclerosis. We assessed skin fibrosis and systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD) in a phase 3 trial to investigate the safety and efficacy of tocilizumab, an anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody, in the treatment of systemic sclerosis. METHODS: In this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, participants were recruited from 75 sites in 20 countries across Europe, North America, Latin America, and Japan. Adults with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis for 60 months or less and a modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS) of 10-35 at screening were randomly assigned (1:1) with a voice-web-response system to receive subcutaneous tocilizumab 162 mg or placebo weekly for 48 weeks, stratified by IL-6 levels; participants and investigators were masked to treatment group. The primary endpoint was the difference in change from baseline to week 48 in mRSS. Percentage of predicted forced vital capacity (FVC% predicted) at week 48, time to treatment failure, and patient-reported and physician-reported outcomes were secondary endpoints. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (number NCT02453256) and is closed to accrual. FINDINGS: Between Nov 20, 2015, and Feb 14, 2017, 210 individuals were randomly assigned to receive tocilizumab (n=104) or placebo (n=106). In the intention-to-treat population, least squares mean [LSM] change from baseline to week 48 in mRSS was -6·14 for tocilizumab and -4·41 for placebo (adjusted difference -1·73 [95% CI -3·78 to 0·32]; p=0·10). The shift in distribution of change from baseline in FVC% predicted at week 48 favoured tocilizumab (van Elteren nominal p=0·002 vs placebo), with a difference in LSM of 4·2 (95% CI 2·0-6·4; nominal p=0·0002), as did time to treatment failure (hazard ratio 0·63 [95% CI 0·37-1·06]; nominal p=0·08). Change in LSM from baseline to week 48 in Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index and in patient-global and physician-global visual analogue scale assessments did not differ between tocilizumab and placebo. In the safety set, infections were the most common adverse events (54 [52%] of 104 participants in the tocilizumab group, 53 [50%] of 106 in the placebo group). Serious adverse events were reported in 13 participants treated with tocilizumab and 18 with placebo, primarily infections (three events, eight events) and cardiac events (two events, seven events). INTERPRETATION: The primary skin fibrosis endpoint was not met. Findings for the secondary endpoint of FVC% predicted indicate that tocilizumab might preserve lung function in people with early SSc-ILD and elevated acute-phase reactants. Safety was consistent with the known profile of tocilizumab. FUNDING: F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.

5.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988845

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify overall disease course, progression patterns and risk factors predictive for progressive interstitial lung disease (ILD) in patients with systemic sclerosis-associated ILD (SSc-ILD), using data from the European Scleroderma Trials And Research (EUSTAR) database over long-term follow-up. METHODS: Eligible patients with SSc-ILD were registered in the EUSTAR database and had measurements of forced vital capacity (FVC) at baseline and after 12±3 months. Long-term progressive ILD and progression patterns were assessed in patients with multiple FVC measurements. Potential predictors of ILD progression were analysed using multivariable mixed-effect models. RESULTS: 826 patients with SSc-ILD were included. Over 12±3 months, 219 (27%) showed progressive ILD: either moderate (FVC decline 5% to 10%) or significant (FVC decline >10%). A total of 535 (65%) patients had multiple FVC measurements available over mean 5-year follow-up. In each 12-month period, 23% to 27% of SSc-ILD patients showed progressive ILD, but only a minority of patients showed progression in consecutive periods. Most patients with progressive ILD (58%) had a pattern of slow lung function decline, with more periods of stability/improvement than decline, whereas only 8% showed rapid, continuously declining FVC; 178 (33%) experienced no episode of FVC decline. The strongest predictive factors for FVC decline over 5 years were male sex, higher modified Rodnan skin score and reflux/dysphagia symptoms. CONCLUSION: SSc-ILD shows a heterogeneous and variable disease course, and thus monitoring all patients closely is important. Novel treatment concepts, with treatment initiation before FVC decline occurs, should aim for prevention of progression to avoid irreversible organ damage.

6.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963052

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the transient reduction in rheumatology services imposed by virus containment measures during the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with disease worsening in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or psoriatic arthritis (PsA). METHODS: Patient-reported disease activity assessed during face-to-face visits and/or via a smartphone application were compared between three periods of each 2 months duration (before, during and after the COVID-19-wave) from January to June 2020 in 666 patients with axSpA, RA and PsA in the Swiss Clinical Quality Management cohort. RESULTS: The number of consultations dropped by 52%, whereas the number of remote assessments increased by 129%. The proportion of patients with drug non-compliance slightly increased during the pandemic, the difference reaching statistical significance in axSpA (19.9% vs 13.2% before the pandemic, p=0.003). The proportion of patients with disease flares remained stable (<15%). There was no increase in mean values of the Bath Ankylosing Disease Activity Index, the Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity Index-5 and the Patient Global Assessment in patients with axSpA, RA and PsA, respectively. CONCLUSION: A short interruption of in-person patient-rheumatologist interactions had no major detrimental impact on the disease course of axSpA, RA and PsA as assessed by patient-reported outcomes.

7.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38 Suppl 125(3): 137-139, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865166

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The assessment of digital ulcers (DUs) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) depends crucially on visual aspects. However, little is known about the differences in visual assessment of these wounds between experts and non-experts or medical lay persons (novices). To develop potential training recommendations for the visual assessment of digital ulcers in SSc, we analysed gaze pattern data during assessment of digital ulcers between assessors with different levels of expertise. METHODS: Gaze pattern data from 36 participants were collected with a mobile eye tracking device. 20 pictures from digital ulcers of SSc patients were presented to each participant. The analysis comprised the scan path, the dwell times (for areas of interest), fixation counts and the entry time for each picture and subject. RESULTS: Most significant differences were found between novices and medically educated groups. Dwell times in the wound area for novices differed statistically significantly from all medically educated groups (1.76s-3.1s less). Above all, novices had lower dwell times in wound margin and wound surrounding and spent more time in other areas (up to 1.92s longer). Correspondingly, they had less fixation points and longer overall scan paths in wound areas. Similar gaze pattern data were generated for medically educated groups. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we could analyse the visual assessment of digital ulcers in SSc and detected differences according to levels of medical education and expertise. Adequate training on proper interpretation of changes in all wound areas are warranted to improve wound assessment in digital ulcers.


Assuntos
Escleroderma Sistêmico , Úlcera Cutânea , Dedos , Humanos , Úlcera
8.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38 Suppl 125(3): 161-168, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865169

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Both intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) cyclophosphamide (CYC) showed beneficial effects on skin and lung involvement in systemic sclerosis (SSc) in placebo-controlled randomised clinical trials and observational studies. Our goal was to compare the relative efficacy and safety of PO- versus IV-CYC for treating interstitial lung disease and/or skin involvement in SSc. METHODS: Patients were derived from the EUSTAR centres and the Scleroderma Lung Studies I and II. A minimum of 6 months of CYC treatment and 12 months follow-up were required. Serious (SAEs) and non-serious adverse events and efficacy data (change in FVC%, DLCO%, mRSS) were analysed at the end of CYC treatment (EoT) and at follow-up (FU). Analysis included descriptive statistics and linear regressions. RESULTS: Differences in ethnicity, previous DMARD exposure, previous and concomitant steroid exposure/dosage were observed in the PO (n=149) and IV (n=153) CYC groups. Adjusted and unadjusted changes in FVC%, DLCO% and mRSS were similar irrespective of mode of administration. PO patients had more leukopenia (p<0.001), haemorrhagic cystitis (p=0.011) and alopecia (p<0.001) at the EoT visit, while the IV group had more SAEs (p=0.025) and need for oxygen supplementation at FU (p=0.049). CONCLUSIONS: In a comparison of PO- to IV-CYC for SSc, we found no differences in lung function or cutaneous sclerosis after one year. Some differences in side effects were seen. The results need to be considered as preliminary; however, because we needed to use a combination of RCT and registry data, with some differences in demographics and concomitant medications, well-controlled studies are warranted.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores , Escleroderma Sistêmico , Ciclofosfamida , Fibrose , Humanos , Pulmão , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840062

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Anti-topoisomerase I (anti-topo I) autoantibodies in systemic sclerosis (SSc) are associated with diffuse skin involvement and interstitial lung fibrosis. Thus far, however, the relationship between anti-topo I antibody response and disease course has not yet been fully evaluated. This study was undertaken to gain insight into the association between characteristics of the anti-topo I antibody response and clinical disease course in SSc patients positive for anti-topo I antibodies. METHODS: Levels of anti-topo I IgG, anti-topo I IgM, and anti-topo I IgA were assessed in consecutive serum samples obtained from patients at baseline who were positive for anti-topo I IgG in the Leiden Combined Care In Systemic Sclerosis (CCISS) cohort. One-year disease progression was defined by a relevant increase in modified Rodnan skin thickness score (MRSS), decline in pulmonary function, development of digital ulcers, renal crisis, and pulmonary hypertension, and/or mortality. Validation was performed in SSc patients who were positive for anti-topo I from the Oslo University Hospital and University Hospital Zurich. RESULTS: Of the 103 patients with anti-topo I IgG in the CCISS cohort, clinical data were available to assess 1-year disease progression in 81 patients. Of these 81 patients, 23 (28%) had disease progression. At baseline, patients with disease progression were significantly more often anti-topo I IgM-positive than those who did not experience disease progression (21 [91%] of 23 versus 33 [57%] of 58; P < 0.01). This finding was confirmed in the independent validation samples. CONCLUSION: In SSc patients who were anti-topo I IgG-positive, presence of anti-topo I IgM, which might be considered as a surrogate for an ongoing autoreactive B cell immune response, is associated with disease progression.

10.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(11): 1478-1484, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterise the safety and tolerability of nintedanib and the dose adjustments used to manage adverse events in patients with systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD). METHODS: In the SENSCIS trial, patients with SSc-ILD were randomised to receive nintedanib 150 mg two times per day or placebo. To manage adverse events, treatment could be interrupted or the dose reduced to 100 mg two times per day. We assessed adverse events and dose adjustments over 52 weeks. RESULTS: A total of 576 patients received nintedanib (n=288) or placebo (n=288). The most common adverse event was diarrhoea, reported in 75.7% of patients in the nintedanib group and 31.6% in the placebo group; diarrhoea led to permanent treatment discontinuation in 6.9% and 0.3% of patients in the nintedanib and placebo groups, respectively. In the nintedanib and placebo groups, respectively, 48.3% and 12.2% of patients had ≥1 dose reduction and/or treatment interruption, and adverse events led to permanent discontinuation of the trial drug in 16.0% and 8.7% of patients. The adverse events associated with nintedanib were similar across subgroups defined by age, sex, race and weight. The rate of decline in forced vital capacity in patients treated with nintedanib was similar irrespective of dose adjustments. CONCLUSIONS: The adverse event profile of nintedanib in patients with SSc-ILD is consistent with its established safety and tolerability profile in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Dose adjustment is important to minimise the impact of adverse events and help patients remain on therapy.

11.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38 Suppl 125(3): 120-126, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828144

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Gastrointestinal involvement and impaired nutritional status are frequent in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Hereby, we hypothesised that micronutrients and/or prealbumin could be deficitary in SSc. METHODS: Patients with SSc and very early SSc (veSSc) were prospectively included. Clinical assessment, data recording and quality controls followed EUSTAR standards. The UCLA SCTCGIT 2.0 questionnaire was applied and the serum levels of zinc, selenium, prealbumin, holotranscobalamin, folic acid were measured. RESULTS: Half (52.4%) of the 176 patients with established SSc showed a deficiency in at least one of the measured nutrients. The most frequent deficit was seen in folic acid (17.9%), followed closely by selenium, prealbumin and zinc (around 15% each). Nearly a fifth (19%) of these patients had multiple deficiencies. Patients with more severe disease, including advanced skin fibrosis, positive ACR 1980 classification criteria, anemia and elevated serum inflammation markers were more likely to be nutrient deficient. Lower BMI<20kg/m2 was associated with several nutrient deficiencies. Prealbumin deficiency was associated with more frequent stomach symptoms and methotrexate therapy. A third of veSSc patients (27%, 44/74) presented a nutrient deficiency, mostly of zinc (10%). Surprisingly, micronutrient deficiencies were not associated with usual parameters of gastrointestinal involvement. CONCLUSIONS: These novel data reveal deficiencies in micronutrients and/or prealbumin are a frequent burden in patients with SSc. Moreover, these correlate with clinical aspects of the disease. Especially patients with advanced disease appear at high risk for an impaired nutrient status, suggesting that screening of micronutrients status should be performed in these patients.


Assuntos
Micronutrientes , Escleroderma Sistêmico , Ácido Fólico , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Pré-Albumina
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725139

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: NF-κB regulates genes that control inflammation, cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Dysregulated NF-κB signalling alters normal skin physiology and deletion of cRel limits bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis. This study investigates the role of cRel in modulating fibroblast phenotype in the context of SSc. METHODS: Fibrosis was assessed histologically in mice challenged with bleomycin to induce lung or skin fibrosis. RNA sequencing and pathway analysis was performed on wild type and Rel-/- murine lung and dermal fibroblasts. Functional assays examined fibroblast proliferation, migration and matrix production. cRel overexpression was investigated in human dermal fibroblasts. cRel immunostaining was performed on lung and skin tissue sections from SSc patients and non-fibrotic controls. RESULTS: cRel expression was elevated in murine lung and skin fibrosis models. Rel-/- mice were protected from developing pulmonary fibrosis. Soluble collagen production was significantly decreased in fibroblasts lacking cRel while proliferation and migration of these cells was significantly increased. cRel regulates genes involved in extracellular structure and matrix organization. Positive cRel staining was observed in fibroblasts in human SSc skin and lung tissue. Overexpression of constitutively active cRel in human dermal fibroblasts increased expression of matrix genes. An NF-κB gene signature was identified in diffuse SSc skin and nuclear cRel expression was elevated in SSc skin fibroblasts. CONCLUSION: cRel regulates a pro-fibrogenic transcriptional programme in fibroblasts that may contribute to disease pathology. Targeting cRel signalling in fibroblasts of SSc patients could provide a novel therapeutic avenue to limit scar formation in this disease.

14.
J Clin Invest ; 130(9): 4888-4905, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603313

RESUMO

TGF-ß is a master regulator of fibrosis, driving the differentiation of fibroblasts into apoptosis-resistant myofibroblasts and sustaining the production of extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Here, we identified the nuclear long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) H19X as a master regulator of TGF-ß-driven tissue fibrosis. H19X was consistently upregulated in a wide variety of human fibrotic tissues and diseases and was strongly induced by TGF-ß, particularly in fibroblasts and fibroblast-related cells. Functional experiments following H19X silencing revealed that H19X was an obligatory factor for TGF-ß-induced ECM synthesis as well as differentiation and survival of ECM-producing myofibroblasts. We showed that H19X regulates DDIT4L gene expression, specifically interacting with a region upstream of the DDIT4L gene and changing the chromatin accessibility of a DDIT4L enhancer. These events resulted in transcriptional repression of DDIT4L and, in turn, in increased collagen expression and fibrosis. Our results shed light on key effectors of TGF-ß-induced ECM remodeling and fibrosis.

15.
ACR Open Rheumatol ; 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720753

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS) is often used as a primary outcome measure in systemic sclerosis (SSc) randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Previous cohort studies with predominantly European Caucasian patients showed that setting an upper limit of mRSS as a selection criterion for RCTs leads effectively to enrichment with progressive patients. This study aimed to demonstrate this effect in an ethnically diverse cohort, rich in patients positive for anti-RNA polymerase III antibodies (Pol3). METHODS: We selected from the Genetics versus Environment in Scleroderma Outcomes Study (GENISOS) cohort patients with diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc), who had mRSS of 7 or more at inclusion and a documented mRSS after 12 ± 2 months. Progression of skin fibrosis was defined as an increase in mRSS greater than 5 points and 25% or more from baseline. To identify the optimal cutoff for the baseline mRSS yielding the highest sensitivity for progressive skin fibrosis, we developed ROC curves and logistic regression models with "progression" as the outcome variable and a binary variable of baseline mRSS cutoff point as predictor. RESULTS: We included 152 patients (age and disease duration [mean ± SD, years]: 48.7 ± 13.0 and 2.4 ± 1.5 respectively, 22.4% males, 34.2% Pol3-positive). Seventeen patients (11.2%) had skin fibrosis progression after 12 ± 2 months. An mRSS cutoff of 27 or less had the highest probability of progression (odds ratio, 9.12; 95% confidence interval: 1.173-70.851; P = 0.035; area under the curve, 0.652; sensitivity, 94%). CONCLUSION: We demonstrated in an ethnically diverse cohort of patients with early dcSSc and with a high proportion of patients who are Pol3-positive that setting an upper limit of the mRSS as a selection criterion leads effectively to cohort enrichment with progressors.

16.
Br J Pharmacol ; 177(18): 4296-4309, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Genetic deletion and pharmacological studies suggest a role for lysophosphatidic acid (LPA1 ) receptor in fibrosis. We investigated the therapeutic potential in systemic sclerosis (SSc) of a new orally active selective LPA1 receptor antagonist using dermal fibroblasts from patients and an animal model of skin fibrosis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Dermal fibroblast and skin biopsies from systemic sclerosis patients were used. Myofibroblast differentiation, gene expression and cytokine secretion were measured following LPA and/or SAR100842 treatment. Pharmacolgical effect of SAR100842 was assessed in the tight skin 1 (Tsk1) mouse model. KEY RESULTS: SAR100842 is equipotent against various LPA isoforms. Dermal fibroblasts and skin biopsies from patients with systemic sclerosis expressed high levels of LPA1 receptor. The LPA functional response (Ca2+ ) in systemic sclerosis dermal fibroblasts was fully antagonized with SAR100842. LPA induced myofibroblast differentiation in systemic sclerosis dermal and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis lung fibroblasts and the secretion of inflammatory markers and activated Wnt markers. Results from systemic sclerosis dermal fibroblasts mirror those obtained in a mouse Tsk1 model of skin fibrosis. Using a therapeutic protocol, SAR100842 consistently reversed dermal thickening, inhibited myofibroblast differentiation and reduced skin collagen content. Inflammatory and Wnt pathway markers were also inhibited by SAR100842 in the skin of Tsk1 mice. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: The effects of SAR100842 on LPA-induced inflammation and on mechanisms linked to fibrosis like myofibroblast differentiation and Wnt pathway activation indicate that LPA1 receptor activation plays a key role in skin fibrosis. Our results support the therapeutic potential of LPA1 receptor antagonists in systemic sclerosis.

17.
J Biomech Eng ; 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601661

RESUMO

In-vivo skin characterization methods were shown to be useful in detection of microstructural alterations of the dermis due to skin diseases. Specifically the diagnostic potential of skin suction has been widely explored, yet measurement uncertainties prevented so far its application in clinical assessment. In the present work, we analyse specific factors influencing the reliability of suction measurements. We recently proposed a novel suction device, called Nimble, addressing the limitations of existing instruments, and applied it in clinical trials quantifying mechanical differences between healthy skin and scars. Measurements were performed with the commercial device Cutometer and with the new device. A set of new suction measurements was carried out on scar tissue and healthy skin and FE-based inverse analysis was applied to determine corresponding parameters of a hyperelastic-viscoelastic material model. FE simulations were used to rationalize differences between suction protocols and to analyse specific factors influencing the measurement procedure. Tissue stiffness obtained from Cutometer measurements was significantly higher compared to the one from Nimble measurements, which was shown to be associated with the higher deformation levels in the Cutometer and the non-linear mechanical response of skin. The effect of the contact force exerted on skin during suction measurements was quantified, along with an analysis of the effectiveness of a corresponding correction procedure. Parametric studies demonstrated the inherently higher sensitivity of displacement- over load-controlled suction measurements, thus rationalizing the superior ability of the Nimble to distinguish between tissues.

18.
Cell Rep ; 31(13): 107826, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610127

RESUMO

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) represent a major population in the control of immune homeostasis and autoimmunity. Here we show that Fos-like 2 (Fosl2), a TCR-induced AP1 transcription factor, represses Treg development and controls autoimmunity. Mice overexpressing Fosl2 (Fosl2tg) indeed show a systemic inflammatory phenotype, with immune infiltrates in multiple organs. This phenotype is absent in Fosl2tg × Rag2-/- mice lacking T and B cells, and Fosl2 induces T cell-intrinsic reduction of Treg development that is responsible for the inflammatory phenotype. Fosl2tg T cells can transfer inflammation, which is suppressed by the co-delivery of Tregs, while Fosl2 deficiency in T cells reduces the severity of autoimmunity in the EAE model. We find that Fosl2 could affect expression of FoxP3 and other Treg development genes. Our data highlight the importance of AP1 transcription factors, in particular Fosl2, during T cell development to determine Treg differentiation and control autoimmunity.

19.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 197, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703199

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multi-organ autoimmune disease with complex interactions between immune-mediated inflammatory processes and vascular pathology leading to small vessel obliteration, promoting uncontrolled fibrosis of skin and internal organs. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common but highly variable manifestation of SSc and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Treatment approaches have focused on immunosuppressive therapies, which have shown some efficacy on lung function. Recently, a large phase 3 trial showed that treatment with nintedanib was associated with a reduction in lung function decline. None of the conducted randomized clinical trials have so far shown convincing efficacy on other outcome measures including quality of life determined by patient reported outcomes. Little evidence is available for non-pharmacological treatment and supportive care specifically for SSc-ILD patients, including pulmonary rehabilitation, supplemental oxygen, symptom relief and adequate information. Improved management of SSc-ILD patients based on a holistic approach is necessary to support patients in maintaining as much quality of life as possible throughout the disease course and to improve long-term outcomes.

20.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 22(1): 128, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493508

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Skin fibrosis is a main hallmark of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Clinical assessment is done semi-quantitatively using the modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS). Objective measurements for quantifying skin fibrosis could complement the mRSS to achieve higher reproducibility. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of suction measurements to detect structural changes in the skin that are associated with skin fibrosis. METHODS: This clinical trial included 30 SSc patients and 30 healthy volunteers (HC). We validated a novel suction device-the Nimble-to quantify skin stiffness in comparison to the Cutometer using the OMERACT filter. RESULTS: A significant difference (p < 0.05) between the skin stiffness of HC and SSc patient groups was found for each location measured. The correlation between the measurements of forearm skin stiffness and the mRSS values was high for the Nimble (r = 0.82) and moderate for the Cutometer (r = 0.58). A ROC analysis showed good ability for the Nimble to distinguish between SSc patients with and without skin involvement (AUC = 0.82). Both suction devices provided excellent reliability in all measurements on HC and SSc patients and proved face validity and feasibility. CONCLUSION: Suction devices assessing skin stiffness, such as the Nimble, show clear potential to objectively quantify skin fibrosis in SSc patients and might be promising outcome measures complementing established methods such as the mRSS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03644225, Registered 23 August 2018-Retrospectively registered, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.

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