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1.
Trop Med Health ; 48(1): 89, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal hypoglycemia is the most common endocrine abnormality in children, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The burden and risk factors of neonatal hypoglycemia in rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for neonatal hypoglycemia in Lira District, Northern Uganda. METHODS: This was a community-based cross-sectional study, nested in a cluster randomized controlled trial designed to promote health facility births and newborn care practices in Lira District, Northern Uganda. This study recruited neonates born to mothers in the parent study. Random blood glucose was measured using an On Call® Plus glucometer (ACON Laboratories, Inc., 10125 Mesa Road, San Diego, CA, USA). We defined hypoglycemia as a blood glucose of < 47 mg/dl. To determine the factors associated with neonatal hypoglycemia, a multivariable linear regression mixed-effects model was used. RESULTS: We examined 1416 participants of mean age 3.1 days (standard deviation (SD) 2.1) and mean weight of 3.2 kg (SD 0.5). The mean neonatal blood glucose level was 81.6 mg/dl (SD 16.8). The prevalence of a blood glucose concentration of < 47 mg/dl was 2.2% (31/1416): 95% CI 1.2%, 3.9%. The risk factors for neonatal hypoglycemia were delayed breastfeeding initiation [adjusted mean difference, - 2.6; 95% CI, - 4.4, - 0.79] and child age of 3 days or less [adjusted mean, - 12.2; 95% CI, - 14.0, - 10.4]. CONCLUSION: The incidence of neonatal hypoglycemia was low in this community and was predicted by delay in initiating breastfeeding and a child age of 3 days or less. We therefore suggest targeted screening and management of neonatal hypoglycemia among neonates before 3 days of age and those who are delayed in the onset of breastfeeding.

2.
Res Involv Engagem ; 6: 57, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974053

RESUMO

Background: Maternal and newborn deaths and ill health are relatively common in low income countries, but can adequately be addressed through locally, collaboratively designed, and responsive research. This has the potential to enable the affected women, their families and health workers themselves to explore 'why maternal and newborn adverse outcomes continue to occur. The objectives of the study include; To work with seldom heard groups of mothers, their families, and health workers to identify unanswered research questions for maternal and newborn health in villages and health facilities in rural UgandaTo establish locally responsive research questions for maternal and newborn health that could be prioritised together with the public in UgandaTo support the case for locally responsive research in maternal and newborn health by the ministry of health, academic researchers and funding bodies in Uganda. Methods: The present study will follow the James Lind Alliance (JLA) Priority Setting Partnership (PSP) methodology. The project was initiated by an academic research group and will be managed by a research team at the Sanyu Africa Research Institute on a day to day basis. A steering group with a separate lay mothers' group and partners' group (individuals or organisations with interest in maternal and newborn health) will be recruited. The PSP will be initiated by launch meetings, then a face-to-face initial survey for the collection of raw unanswered questions; followed by data collation. A face-to-face interim prioritisation survey will then be performed to choose questions before the three separate final prioritisation workshops.The PSP will involve many participants from an illiterate, non-internet population in rural eastern Uganda, but all with an interest in strategies to avert maternal and newborn deaths or morbidities in rural eastern Uganda. This includes local rural women, their families, health and social workers, and relevant local groups or organisations.We will generate a top 10 list of maternal and newborn health research priorities from a group with no prior experience in setting a research agenda in rural eastern Uganda. Discussion: The current protocol elaborates the JLA methods for application with a new topic and in a new setting translating the JLA principles not just into the local language, but into a rural, vulnerable, illiterate, and non-internet population in Uganda. The face-to-face human interaction is powerful in eliciting what exactly matters to individuals in this particular context as opposed to online surveys.This will be the first time that mothers and lay public with current or previous experience of maternal or neonatal adverse outcomes will have the opportunity to identify and prioritise research questions that matter to them in Uganda. We will be able to compare how the public would prioritise maternal health research questions over newborn health in this setting.

3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 439, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, 15 million infants are born preterm each year, and 1 million die due to complications of prematurity. Over 60% of preterm births occur in Sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. Care at birth for premature infants may be critical for survival and long term outcome. We conducted a prospective audit to assess whether women giving birth preterm could be identified, and to describe cord clamping and neonatal care at hospitals in Africa and south Asia. METHODS: This prospective audit of livebirths was conducted at six hospitals in Uganda, Kenya, India and Pakistan. Births were considered preterm if between 28+ 0 and 33+ 6 weeks gestation and/or the birthweight was 1.00 to 1.99 kg. A pre-specified audit plan was agreed with each hospital. Livebirths before 28 weeks gestation with birthweight less than 1.0 kg were excluded. Data were collected on estimated and actual gestation and birthweight, cord clamping, and neonatal care. RESULTS: Of 4149 women who gave birth during the audit, data were available for 3687 (90%). As 107 were multiple births, 3781 livebirths were included, of which 257 (7%) were preterm. Antenatal assessment correctly identified 148 infants as 'preterm' and 3429 as 'term', giving a positive predictive value of 72% and negative predictive value of 97%. For term births, cord clamping was usually later at the two Ugandan hospitals, median time to clamping 50 and 76 s, compared with 23 at Kenyatta (Kenya), 7 at CMC (India) and 12 at FBH/LNH (Pakistan). At the latter two, timing was similar between term and preterm births, and between vaginal and Caesarean births. For all the hospitals, the cord was clamped quickly at Caesarean births, with Mbale (Uganda) having the highest median time to clamping (15 s 'term', 19 'preterm'). For preterm infants temperature on admission to the neonatal unit was below 35.5 °C for 50%, and 59 (23%) died before hospital discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Antenatal identification of preterm birth was good. Timing of cord clamping varied between hospitals, although at each there was no difference between 'term' and 'preterm' births. For premature infants hypothermia was common, and mortality before hospital discharge was high.

4.
Int Breastfeed J ; 15(1): 28, 2020 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human milk is the best nutrition for all infants. When the mother's own milk is not available, the World Health Organization recommends the use of donated human milk and milk banking for neonates born prematurely or with medical problems. Donor human milk is rarely available in low-resource settings where both the rates of preterm birth and neonatal mortality are highest. The potential to reduce neonatal mortality through use of donated human milk is one that is yet to be fully explored in the African setting. For the introduction of any new health intervention to be successful, determining the barriers and facilitators to its acceptability is a vital first step. There are limited studies on this in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: This qualitative study used focus group discussions and in-depth interviews to explore the potential barriers and facilitators to utilizing donated human milk for neonates in a hospital setting in eastern Uganda from the perspectives of caregivers (parents, grandparents) and healthcare workers. RESULTS: Six focus group discussions involving 28 caregivers were conducted in a hospital setting in eastern Uganda. Four in-depth interviews were then also held with healthcare staff. Lack of knowledge of donated human milk emerged with discussants, and the barriers relating to transmission of infection (HIV) and poor hygiene. Common reasons which facilitated its acceptability were; a general knowledge and recognition that human milk is better than formula milk and a strong belief by caregivers in healthcare workers providing knowledgeable and safe care. Healthcare workers were supportive of introducing donor human milk but perceived a need for community and hospital education programs to enable this to be facilitated and scaled up. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that donor human milk can be acceptable to the caregivers of vulnerable babies in hospital settings in Uganda. Lack of awareness of donor human milk, its benefits and the methods of screening, acquisition and storage of donor milk are all barriers that could be addressed through improved education. This study advocates for national policies and programs that build capacity for effective and sustainable donor milk banking.

5.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 21(6): 540-546, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196425

RESUMO

Background: Prolonged surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis (SAP) to prevent surgical site infection (SSI) is generally discouraged after completion of surgery. However, little is known about the pattern of peri-operative antibiotic use in resource-limited settings. We aimed to describe its use at a typical government hospital in Uganda. Methods: A study was originally conducted in a rural Ugandan regional referral and teaching hospital in 2014 and 2015 to improve hand hygiene practice and measure its impact on health-care-associated infections including SSI (WardGel study). This is a secondary analysis of the data from the WardGel study to assess the frequency of peri-operative antibiotic use among surgical patients. Results: Of 3,627 patients enrolled into the original study, 960 (26.5%) underwent surgery at the hospital and 907 patients (94.5%) received antibiotic agents during hospitalization. Of these, 880 patients (97.0%, of 907 patients) received antibiotic agents on the day of surgery. A combination of ceftriaxone and metronidazole was the most common regimen (609/907 patients, 67.1%). Thirty-six of 907 patients (4.0%) started and completed their antibiotic agents on the day of surgery. The mean length of antibiotic use during hospitalization was 3.5 days (standard deviation, 3.3). After adjusting for covariates, linear regression analysis showed an extra 1.9 days of antibiotic use post-operatively (95% confidence interval = 1.7-2.3). During the total 4,960 inpatient-days for those having surgery, there were 6,503 days of therapy (DOTs) of antibiotic agents and 1,649 antibiotic-free days (AFDs). Conclusions: Most patients received prolonged antibiotic therapy after surgery. Antimicrobial stewardship for SAP can play a major role in combating antimicrobial resistance in resource-limited settings.

6.
Implement Sci ; 14(1): 38, 2019 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interventions aimed at reducing maternal mortality are increasingly complex. Understanding how complex interventions are delivered, to whom, and how they work is key in ensuring their rapid scale-up. We delivered a vital signs triage intervention into routine maternity care in eight low- and middle-income countries with the aim of reducing a composite outcome of morbidity and mortality. This was a pragmatic, hybrid effectiveness-implementation stepped-wedge randomised controlled trial. In this study, we present the results of the mixed-methods process evaluation. The aim was to describe implementation and local context and integrate results to determine whether differences in the effect of the intervention across sites could be explained. METHODS: The duration and content of implementation, uptake of the intervention and its impact on clinical management were recorded. These were integrated with interviews (n = 36) and focus groups (n = 19) at 3 months and 6-9 months after implementation. In order to determine the effect of implementation on effectiveness, measures were ranked and averaged across implementation domains to create a composite implementation strength score and then correlated with the primary outcome. RESULTS: Overall, 61.1% (n = 2747) of health care providers were trained in the intervention (range 16.5% to 89.2%) over a mean of 10.8 days. Uptake and acceptability of the intervention was good. All clusters demonstrated improved availability of vital signs equipment. There was an increase in the proportion of women having their blood pressure measured in pregnancy following the intervention (79.2% vs. 97.6%; OR 1.30 (1.29-1.31)) and no significant change in referral rates (3.7% vs. 4.4% OR 0.89; (0.39-2.05)). Availability of resources and acceptable, effective referral systems influenced health care provider interaction with the intervention. There was no correlation between process measures within or between domains, or between the composite score and the primary outcome. CONCLUSIONS: This process evaluation has successfully described the quantity and quality of implementation. Variation in implementation and context did not explain differences in the effectiveness of the intervention on maternal mortality and morbidity. We suggest future trials should prioritise in-depth evaluation of local context and clinical pathways. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration: ISRCTN41244132 . Registered on 2 Feb 2016.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/instrumentação , Países em Desenvolvimento , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/diagnóstico , Mortalidade Materna , Avaliação de Processos em Cuidados de Saúde , Triagem , Sinais Vitais , Adulto , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Ciência da Implementação , Entrevistas como Assunto , Gravidez , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
7.
N Engl J Med ; 380(11): 1012-1021, 2019 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical intervention is needed in some cases of spontaneous abortion to remove retained products of conception. Antibiotic prophylaxis may reduce the risk of pelvic infection, which is an important complication of this surgery, particularly in low-resource countries. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial investigating whether antibiotic prophylaxis before surgery to complete a spontaneous abortion would reduce pelvic infection among women and adolescents in low-resource countries. We randomly assigned patients to a single preoperative dose of 400 mg of oral doxycycline and 400 mg of oral metronidazole or identical placebos. The primary outcome was pelvic infection within 14 days after surgery. Pelvic infection was defined by the presence of two or more of four clinical features (purulent vaginal discharge, pyrexia, uterine tenderness, and leukocytosis) or by the presence of one of these features and the clinically identified need to administer antibiotics. The definition of pelvic infection was changed before the unblinding of the data; the original strict definition was two or more of the clinical features, without reference to the administration of antibiotics. RESULTS: We enrolled 3412 patients in Malawi, Pakistan, Tanzania, and Uganda. A total of 1705 patients were assigned to receive antibiotics and 1707 to receive placebo. The risk of pelvic infection was 4.1% (68 of 1676 pregnancies) in the antibiotics group and 5.3% (90 of 1684 pregnancies) in the placebo group (risk ratio, 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56 to 1.04; P = 0.09). Pelvic infection according to original strict criteria was diagnosed in 1.5% (26 of 1700 pregnancies) and 2.6% (44 of 1704 pregnancies), respectively (risk ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.96). There were no significant between-group differences in adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic prophylaxis before miscarriage surgery did not result in a significantly lower risk of pelvic infection, as defined by pragmatic broad criteria, than placebo. (Funded by the Medical Research Council and others; AIMS Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN97143849.).


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/cirurgia , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Infecção Pélvica/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Países em Desenvolvimento , Método Duplo-Cego , Doxiciclina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Metronidazol/efeitos adversos , Paquistão , Infecção Pélvica/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Trials ; 19(1): 245, 2018 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29685179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The estimated annual global burden of miscarriage is 33 million out of 210 million pregnancies. Many women undergoing miscarriage have surgery to remove pregnancy tissues, resulting in miscarriage surgery being one of the most common operations performed in hospitals in low-income countries. Infection is a serious consequence and can result in serious illness and death. In low-income settings, the infection rate following miscarriage surgery has been reported to be high. Good quality evidence on the use of prophylactic antibiotics for surgical miscarriage management is not available. Given that miscarriage surgery is common, and infective complications are frequent and serious, prophylactic antibiotics may offer a simple and affordable intervention to improve outcomes. METHODS: Eligible patients will be approached once the diagnosis of miscarriage has been made according to local practice. Once informed consent has been given, participants will be randomly allocated using a secure internet facility (1:1 ratio) to a single dose of oral doxycycline (400 mg) and metronidazole (400 mg) or placebo. Allocation will be concealed to both the patient and the healthcare providers. A total of 3400 women will be randomised, 1700 in each arm. The medication will be given approximately 2 hours before surgery, which will be provided according to local practice. The primary outcome is pelvic infection 2 weeks after surgery. Women will be invited to the hospital for a clinical assessment at 2 weeks. Secondary outcomes include overall antibiotic use, individual components of the primary outcome, death, hospital admission, unplanned consultations, blood transfusion, vomiting, diarrhoea, adverse events, anaphylaxis and allergy, duration of clinical symptoms, and days before return to usual activities. An economic evaluation will be performed to determine if prophylactic antibiotics are cost-effective. DISCUSSION: This trial will assess whether a single dose of doxycycline (400 mg) and metronidazole (400 mg) taken orally 2 hours before miscarriage surgery can reduce the incidence of pelvic infection in women up to 2 weeks after miscarriage surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered with the ISRCTN (international standard randomised controlled trial number) registry: ISRCTN 97143849 . (Registered on April 17, 2013).


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/cirurgia , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Doxiciclina/administração & dosagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/efeitos adversos , Metronidazol/administração & dosagem , Infecção Pélvica/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Doxiciclina/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Malaui , Metronidazol/efeitos adversos , Paquistão , Infecção Pélvica/diagnóstico , Infecção Pélvica/microbiologia , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Tanzânia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Res Notes ; 10(1): 516, 2017 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29073923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advance provision of misoprostol to women during antenatal care aims to achieve broader access to uterotonics for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. Studies of this community-based approach usually involve antenatal education as well as timely postpartum follow-up visits to confirm maternal and neonatal outcomes. The MamaMiso study in Mbale, Uganda sought to assess the feasibility of conducting follow-up visits in the postpartum period following advance provision of misoprostol for postpartum hemorrhage prevention. MamaMiso recruited women during antenatal care visits. Participants were asked to contact the research team within 48 h of giving birth so that postpartum follow-up visits could be carried out at their homes. Women's baseline and delivery characteristics were collected and analyzed with respect to follow-up time ('on time' ≤ 7 days, 'late' > 7 days, and 'lost to follow up'). Every woman who was followed up late due to a failure to report the delivery was asked for the underlying reasons for the delay. When attempts at following up participants were unsuccessful, a file note was generated explaining the details of the failure. We abstracted data and identified themes from these notes. RESULTS: Of 748 recruited women, 700 (94%) were successfully followed up during the study period, 465 (62%) within the first week postpartum. The median time to follow up was 4 days and was similar for women who delivered at home or in facilities and for women who had attended or unattended births. Women recruited at the urban hospital site (as opposed to rural health clinics) were more likely to be lost to follow up or followed up late. Of the women followed up late, 202 provided a reason. File notes explaining failed attempts at follow up were generated for 164 participants. Several themes emerged from qualitative analysis of these notes including phone difficulties, inaccurate baseline information, misperceptions, postpartum travel, and the condition of the mother and neonate. CONCLUSIONS: Keeping women connected to the health system in the postpartum period is feasible, though reaching them within the first week of their delivery is challenging. Understanding characteristics of women who are harder to reach can help tailor follow-up efforts and elucidate possible biases in postpartum study data. Trial Registration Number ISRCTN70408620 December 28, 2011.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Misoprostol/administração & dosagem , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Assistência Perinatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente/normas , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Assistência Perinatal/normas , Período Pós-Parto , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29299303

RESUMO

Background: Good hand hygiene (HH) practice is crucial to reducing healthcare associated infections (HAIs). Use of alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) at health facilities is strongly recommended but it is limited in Uganda. Data on the practice of HH and the incidence of HAIs is sparse in resource-limited settings. We conducted a quasi-experimental study to evaluate HH practices of health care providers (HCPs) utilizing locally made ABHR and the incidence of HAIs. Methods: HH compliance among HCPs and the incidence of HAIs were assessed at Mbale Regional Referral Hospital, a teaching hospital in rural Uganda. Inpatients from the obstetrics/gynecology (OBGYN), pediatric and surgical departments were enrolled on their day of admission and followed up during their hospital stay. The baseline (pre-intervention) phase of 12-weeks was followed by a 12-week intervention phase where training for HH practice was provided to all HCPs present on the target wards and ABHR was supplied on the wards. Incidence of HAIs and or Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) was measured and compared between the baseline and intervention phases. Multivariate survival analysis was performed to identify associated variables with HAIs/SIRS. Results: A total of 3335 patients (26.3%) were enrolled into the study from a total of 12,665 admissions on the study wards over a 24-week period. HH compliance rate significantly improved from 9.2% at baseline to 56.4% during the intervention phase (p < 0.001). The incidence of HAIs/SIRS was not significantly changed between the baseline and intervention phases (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.07, 95% CI: 0.79 - 1.44). However, subgroup analyses showed significant reduction in HAIs/SIRS on the pediatric and surgical departments (IRR 0.21 (95% CI: 0.10 - 0.47) and IRR 0.39 (95% CI: 0.16 - 0.92), respectively) while a significant increase in HAIs/SIRS was found on the OBGYN department (IRR 2.99 (95% CI: 1.92 - 4.66)). Multivariate survival analysis showed a significant reduction in HAIs/SIRS with ABHR use on pediatric and surgical departments (adjusted hazard ratio 0.26 (95% CI: 0.15 - 0.45)). Conclusions: To our knowledge, this study is one of the largest studies that address HAIs in Africa. During the 24-week study period, significant improvement in HH compliance was observed by providing training and ABHR. The intervention was associated with a significant reduction in HAIs/SIRS on the pediatric and surgical departments. Further research is warranted to integrate HAIs surveillance into routine practice and to identify measures to further prevent HAIs in resource limited settings. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02435719, registered on 20 April, 2015 (retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/educação , Uganda/epidemiologia
12.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 132(1): 89-93, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26475077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the level of adherence to postpartum hemorrhage clinical guideline recommendations and to explore context-specific barriers and facilitators to evidence-based obstetric care. METHODS: Using direct observation of deliveries at a Ugandan healthcare facility, a mixed-methods study was conducted between February and March 2014 to document practices related to the active management of the third stage of labor (AMTSL). The degree to which practice concurred with WHO postpartum hemorrhage guidelines was determined. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with maternal healthcare practitioners. RESULTS: Of 154 women, individual AMTSL, in the form of administering a uterotonic during the third stage of labor, controlled cord traction, or delayed cord clamping, occurred in 105 (68.2%), 119 (77.3%), and, of a subset of 60 patients, 37 (61.7%) individuals, respectively. However, only 18 of 53 (34.0%) individuals observed for receipt of all of the three AMTSL components received all of the essential elements of AMTSL. Three major themes influencing the uptake of evidence-based practice were identified through 18 interviews: healthcare system issues; current knowledge, awareness, and use of clinical guidelines; and healthcare practitioner attitudes to updating their clinical practice. CONCLUSION: Overall guideline adherence was low. There is a need to address context-specific barriers to uptake, ensuring guideline implementation to reduce maternal mortality in low-resource settings.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/psicologia , Parto Obstétrico/normas , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Terceira Fase do Trabalho de Parto/psicologia , Ocitócicos/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/psicologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/terapia , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Projetos de Pesquisa , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 15: 219, 2015 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26370443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 600 mcg of oral misoprostol reduces the incidence of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH), but in previous research this medication has been administered by health workers. It is unclear whether it is also safe and effective when self-administered by women. METHODS: This placebo-controlled, double-blind randomised trial enrolled consenting women of at least 34 weeks gestation, recruited over a 2-month period in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda. Participants had their haemoglobin measured antenatally and were given either 600 mcg misoprostol or placebo to take home and use immediately after birth in the event of delivery at home. The primary clinical outcome was the incidence of fall in haemoglobin of over 20% in home births followed-up within 5 days. RESULTS: 748 women were randomised to either misoprostol (374) or placebo (374). Of those enrolled, 57% delivered at a health facility and 43% delivered at home. 82% of all medicine packs were retrieved at postnatal follow-up and 97% of women delivering at home reported self-administration of the medicine. Two women in the misoprostol group took the study medication antenatally without adverse effects. There was no significant difference between the study groups in the drop of maternal haemoglobin by >20% (misoprostol 9.4% vs placebo 7.5%, risk ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 0.717 to 1.719). There was significantly more fever and shivering in the misoprostol group, but women found the medication highly acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that antenatally distributed, self-administered misoprostol can be appropriately taken by study participants. The rarity of the primary outcome means that a very large sample size would be required to demonstrate clinical effectiveness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered with the ISRCTN Register (ISRCTN70408620).


Assuntos
Parto Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Misoprostol/administração & dosagem , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Incidência , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Gravidez , População Rural , Autoadministração , Uganda/epidemiologia
14.
AIDS Res Treat ; 2012: 817506, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22400106

RESUMO

Although the advantages of early infant HIV diagnosis and treatment initiation are well established, children often present late to HIV programs in resource-limited settings. We aimed to assess factors related to the timing of treatment initiation among HIV-infected children attending three clinical sites in Uganda. Clinical and demographic determinants associated with early disease (WHO clinical stages 1-2) or late disease (stages 3-4) stage at presentation were assessed using multilevel logistic regression. Additionally, semistructured interviews with caregivers and health workers were conducted to qualitatively explore determinants of late disease stage at presentation. Of 306 children initiating first-line regimens, 72% presented late. Risk factors for late presentation were age below 2 years old (OR 2.83, P = 0.014), living without parents (OR 3.93, P = 0.002), unemployment of the caregiver (OR 4.26, P = 0.001), lack of perinatal HIV prophylaxis (OR 5.66, P = 0.028), and high transportation costs to the clinic (OR 2.51, P = 0.072). Forty-nine interviews were conducted, confirming the identified risk factors and additionally pointing to inconsistent referral from perinatal care, caregivers' unawareness of HIV symptoms, fear, and stigma as important barriers. The problem of late disease at presentation requires a multifactorial approach, addressing both health system and individual-level factors.

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