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Cells ; 10(7)2021 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206914


Whilst the importance of keratinocytes as a first-line defense has been widely investigated, little is known about their interactions with non-resident immune cells. In this study, the impact of human keratinocytes on T cell effector functions was analyzed in an antigen-specific in vitro model of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to nickel sulfate. Keratinocytes partially inhibited T cell proliferation and cytokine production. This effect was dependent on the keratinocyte/T cell ratio and was partially reversible by increasing the number of autologous dendritic cells. The inhibition of T cell proliferation by keratinocytes was independent of the T cell subtype and antigen presentation by different professional antigen-presenting cells. Autologous and heterologous keratinocytes showed comparable effects, while the fixation of keratinocytes with paraformaldehyde abrogated the immunosuppressive effect. The separation of keratinocytes and T cells by a transwell chamber, as well as a cell-free keratinocyte supernatant, inhibited T cell effector functions to the same amount as directly co-cultured keratinocytes, thus proving that soluble factor/s account for the observed suppressive effects. In conclusion, keratinocytes critically control the threshold of inflammatory processes in the skin by inhibiting T cell proliferation and cytokine production.

Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Queratinócitos/patologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Forma Celular , Microambiente Celular , Dermatite de Contato/imunologia , Dermatite de Contato/patologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/patologia , Queratinócitos/ultraestrutura , Modelos Biológicos , Pele/imunologia , Pele/patologia , Solubilidade , Linfócitos T/ultraestrutura
World Allergy Organ J ; 13(3): 100109, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180893


The epithelial cell-derived cytokine milieu has been discussed as a "master switch" in the development of allergic disease. To understand the role of innate immune response in nasal epithelial cells during allergic inflammation, we created and established a fast and minimally invasive method to isolate and culture human nasal epithelial cells from clinically and immunologically well characterized patients. Human nasal epithelial cells from non-atopic volunteers and from allergic rhinitis patients were compared in respect to their growth, barrier integrity, pattern recognition, receptor expression, and immune responses to allergens and an array of pathogen-associated molecular patterns and inflammasome activators. Cells from nasal scrapings were clearly identified as nasal epithelial cells by staining of pan-Cytokeratin, Cytokeratin-14 and Tubulin. Additionally, Mucin 5AC staining revealed the presence of goblet cells, while staining of tight-junction protein Claudin-1, Occludin and ZO-1 showed the ability of the cells to form a tight barrier. Cells of atopic donors grew slower than cells of non-atopic donors. All nasal epithelial cells expressed TLR1-6 and 9, yet the expression of TLR-9 was lower in cells from allergic rhinitis (AR) donors. Additionally, epithelial cells from AR donors responded with a different TLR expression pattern to stimulation with TLR ligands. TLR-3 was the most potent modulator of cytokine and chemokine secretion in all human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs). The secretion of IL-1ß, CCL-5, IL-8, IL-18 and IL-33 was elevated in HNECs of AR donors as compared to cells of non-atopic donors. This was observed in the steady-state (IL-18, IL-33) as well as under stimulation with TLR ligands (IL-18, IL-33, CCL-5, IL-8), aqueous pollen extracts (IL-18, IL-33), or the inflammasome activator Nigericin (IL-1ß). In conclusion, nasal epithelial cells of AR donors show altered physical barrier responses in steady-state and in response to allergen stimulation. Cells of AR donors show increased expression of pro-inflammatory and IL-1 family cytokines at baseline and under stimulation, which could contribute to a micromilieu which is favorable for Th2.

Biofactors ; 43(3): 388-399, 2017 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28139053


Ze339, an herbal extract from Petasites hybridus leaves is effective in treatment of allergic rhinitis by inhibition of a local production of IL-8 and eicosanoid LTB4 in allergen-challenged patients. However, the mechanism of action and anti-inflammatory potential in virally induced exacerbation of the upper airways is unknown. This study investigates the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of Ze339 on primary human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) upon viral, bacterial and pro-inflammatory triggers. To investigate the influence of viral and bacterial infections on the airways, HNECs were stimulated with viral mimics, bacterial toll-like-receptor (TLR)-ligands or cytokines, in presence or absence of Ze339. The study uncovers Ze339 modulated changes in pro-inflammatory mediators and decreased neutrophil chemotaxis as well as a reduction of the nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of STAT molecules. Taken together, this study suggests that phyto drug Ze339 specifically targets STAT-signalling pathways in HNECs and has high potential as a broad anti-inflammatory drug that exceeds current indication. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(3):388-399, 2017.

Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Petasites/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/antagonistas & inibidores , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimiocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Quimiocinas/biossíntese , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Flagelina/antagonistas & inibidores , Flagelina/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Interferon gama/antagonistas & inibidores , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Interleucina-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-4/farmacologia , Lipopeptídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopeptídeos/farmacologia , Cavidade Nasal/citologia , Cavidade Nasal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Nasal/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/química , Poli I-C/antagonistas & inibidores , Poli I-C/farmacologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/genética , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
Immunity ; 45(4): 761-773, 2016 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27692612


Imiquimod is a small-molecule ligand of Toll-like receptor-7 (TLR7) that is licensed for the treatment of viral infections and cancers of the skin. Imiquimod has TLR7-independent activities that are mechanistically unexplained, including NLRP3 inflammasome activation in myeloid cells and apoptosis induction in cancer cells. We investigated the mechanism of inflammasome activation by imiquimod and the related molecule CL097 and determined that K+ efflux was dispensable for NLRP3 activation by these compounds. Imiquimod and CL097 inhibited the quinone oxidoreductases NQO2 and mitochondrial Complex I. This induced a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thiol oxidation, and led to NLRP3 activation via NEK7, a recently identified component of this inflammasome. Metabolic consequences of Complex I inhibition and endolysosomal effects of imiquimod might also contribute to NLRP3 activation. Our results reveal a K+ efflux-independent mechanism for NLRP3 activation and identify targets of imiquimod that might be clinically relevant.

Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , RNA Nuclear Pequeno/farmacologia , Animais , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Camundongos , Quinases Relacionadas a NIMA/metabolismo , Quinona Redutases/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/metabolismo
Planta ; 234(2): 305-20, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21424826


One of the most common types of modification of secondary metabolites is the acylation of oxygen- and nitrogen-containing substrates to produce esters and amides, respectively. Among the known acyltransferases, the members of the plant BAHD family are capable of acylating a wide variety of substrates. Two full-length acyltransferase cDNAs (LaAT1 and 2) were isolated from lavender flowers (Lavandula angustifolia L.) by reverse transcriptase-PCR using degenerate primers based on BAHD sequences. Recombinant LaAT1 exhibited a broad substrate tolerance accepting (hydroxy)cinnamoyl-CoAs as acyl donors and not only tyramine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine and anthranilic acid but also shikimic acid and 4-hydroxyphenyllactic acid as acceptors. Thus, LaLT1 forms esters and amides like its phylogenetic neighbors. In planta LaAT1 might be involved in the biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid, the ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid, a major constituent of lavender flowers. LaAT2 is one of three members of clade VI with unknown function.

Aciltransferases/classificação , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Cinamatos/metabolismo , Depsídeos/metabolismo , Lavandula/enzimologia , Aciltransferases/genética , Amidas/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Clonagem Molecular , Coenzima A/metabolismo , DNA Complementar/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Ésteres/metabolismo , Flores/enzimologia , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Cinética , Lavandula/genética , Lavandula/metabolismo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/classificação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão , Alinhamento de Sequência , Especificidade por Substrato