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2.
Ann Epidemiol ; 37: 37-42, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383511

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Most surveillance efforts in childhood diabetes have focused on incidence, whereas prevalence is rarely reported. This study aimed to assess whether a mathematical illness-death model accurately estimated future prevalence from baseline prevalence and incidence rates in children. METHODS: SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth is an ongoing population-based surveillance study of prevalence and incidence of diabetes and its complications among youth in the United States. We used age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-specific SEARCH estimates of the prevalence of type I and type II diabetes in 2001 and incidence from 2002 to 2008. These data were used in a partial differential equation to estimate prevalence in 2009 with 95% bootstrap confidence intervals. Model-based prevalence was compared with the observed prevalence in 2009. RESULTS: Most confidence intervals for the difference between estimated and observed prevalence included zero, indicating no evidence for a difference between the two methods. The width of confidence intervals indicated high precision for the estimated prevalence when considering all races/ethnicities. In strata with few cases, precision was reduced. CONCLUSIONS: Future prevalence of type I and type II diabetes in youth may be accurately estimated from baseline prevalence and incidence. Diabetes surveillance could benefit from potential cost savings of this method.

3.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(10): 2027-2036, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two coding variants in the apo L1 gene (APOL1) are strongly associated with kidney disease in blacks. Kidney disease itself increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, but whether these variants have an independent direct effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease is unclear. Previous studies have had inconsistent results. METHODS: We conducted a two-stage individual participant data meta-analysis to assess the association of APOL1 kidney-risk variants with adjudicated cardiovascular disease events and death, independent of kidney measures. The analysis included 21,305 blacks from eight large cohorts. RESULTS: Over 8.9±5.0 years of follow-up, 2076 incident cardiovascular disease events occurred in the 16,216 participants who did not have cardiovascular disease at study enrollment. In fully-adjusted analyses, individuals possessing two APOL1 kidney-risk variants had similar risk of incident cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure; hazard ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval, 0.96 to 1.28) compared to individuals with zero or one kidney-risk variant. The risk of coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure considered individually was also comparable by APOL1 genotype. APOL1 genotype was also not associated with death. There was no difference in adjusted associations by level of kidney function, age, diabetes status, or body-mass index. CONCLUSIONS: In this large, two-stage individual participant data meta-analysis, APOL1 kidney-risk variants were not associated with incident cardiovascular disease or death independent of kidney measures.

4.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 20(7): 815-820, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260152

RESUMO

AIM: SEARCH has recently reported that both prevalence and incidence of youth onset type 2 diabetes (YT2D) increased among most US race/ethnic groups in the early 2000s. This study reports on the incidence (2002-2013) and prevalence (2001, 2009) of YT2D in the Navajo Nation among youth age < 20 years from 2001 to 2013. METHODS: SEARCH sought to identify prevalent YT2D cases in 2001 (N = 75) and 2009 (N = 70) and all incident YT2D cases in three periods: 2002 to 2005 (N = 53), 2006 to 2009 (N = 68), and 2010 2013 (N = 90) in Navajo Nation. Denominators were based on the active Indian Health Service user population for eligible health care facilities. Prevalence (per 100 000) and period-specific incidence rates (per 100 000 person-years) were computed for youth aged 10 to 19 years. Changes in prevalence were tested with a two-sided skew-corrected inverted score test, while changes in incidence were tested with Poisson regression. RESULTS: YT2D prevalence was high but stable in 2001 and 2009, overall [146.6 (116.8, 184.0) vs 141.5 (112.0, 178.8), P = .65) and in all subgroups. In contrast, incidence rates increased particularly between the second and third periods overall and in most subgroups by age and by sex. CONCLUSIONS: These data confirm the high burden of YT2D among Navajo youth and suggest an increasing risk in more recent years. However, recent improvements in obesity reduction in this population demonstrate optimism for potential reductions in YT2D in Navajo Nation.

5.
J Lipid Res ; 60(8): 1425-1431, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133557

RESUMO

apoM is a minor HDL apolipoprotein and carrier for sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). HDL apoM and S1P concentrations are inversely associated with atherosclerosis progression in rodents. We evaluated associations between plasma concentrations of S1P, plasma concentrations of apoM, and HDL apoM levels with prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis and mortality in the African American-Diabetes Heart Study participants (N = 545). Associations between plasma S1P, plasma apoM, and HDL apoM with subclinical atherosclerosis and mortality were assessed using multivariate parametric, nonparametric, and Cox proportional hazards models. At baseline, participants' median (25th percentile, 75th percentile) age was 55 (49, 62) years old and their coronary artery calcium (CAC) mass score was 26.5 (0.0, 346.5). Plasma S1P, plasma apoM, and HDL apoM were not associated with CAC. After 64 (57.6, 70.3) months of follow-up, 81 deaths were recorded. Higher concentrations of plasma S1P [odds ratio (OR) = 0.14, P = 0.01] and plasma apoM (OR = 0.10, P = 0.02), but not HDL apoM (P = 0.89), were associated with lower mortality after adjusting for age, sex, statin use, CAC, kidney function, and albuminuria. We conclude that plasma S1P and apoM concentrations are inversely and independently associated with mortality, but not CAC, in African Americans with type 2 diabetes after accounting for conventional risk factors.

6.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127295

RESUMO

Elevated blood pressure (BP), a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality, is influenced by both genetic and lifestyle factors. Cigarette smoking is one such lifestyle factor. Across five ancestries, we performed a genome-wide gene-smoking interaction study of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) in 129 913 individuals in stage 1 and follow-up analysis in 480 178 additional individuals in stage 2. We report here 136 loci significantly associated with MAP and/or PP. Of these, 61 were previously published through main-effect analysis of BP traits, 37 were recently reported by us for systolic BP and/or diastolic BP through gene-smoking interaction analysis and 38 were newly identified (P < 5 × 10-8, false discovery rate < 0.05). We also identified nine new signals near known loci. Of the 136 loci, 8 showed significant interaction with smoking status. They include CSMD1 previously reported for insulin resistance and BP in the spontaneously hypertensive rats. Many of the 38 new loci show biologic plausibility for a role in BP regulation. SLC26A7 encodes a chloride/bicarbonate exchanger expressed in the renal outer medullary collecting duct. AVPR1A is widely expressed, including in vascular smooth muscle cells, kidney, myocardium and brain. FHAD1 is a long non-coding RNA overexpressed in heart failure. TMEM51 was associated with contractile function in cardiomyocytes. CASP9 plays a central role in cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Identified only in African ancestry were 30 novel loci. Our findings highlight the value of multi-ancestry investigations, particularly in studies of interaction with lifestyle factors, where genomic and lifestyle differences may contribute to novel findings.

8.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 20(6): 693-701, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given diabetes is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), we examined temporal trends in CVD risk factors by comparing youth recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) from 2002 through 2012. METHODS: The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study identified youth with diagnosed T1D (n = 3954) and T2D (n = 706) from 2002 to 2012. CVD risk factors were defined using the modified Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for metabolic syndrome: (a) hypertension; (b) high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤40 mg/dL; (c) triglycerides ≥110 mg/dL; and (d) waist circumference (WC) >90th percentile. Prevalence of CVD risk factors, stratified by diagnosis year and diabetes type, was reported. Univariate and multivariate logistic models and Poisson regression were fit to estimate the prevalence trends for CVD risk factors individually and in clusters (≥2 risk factors). RESULTS: The prevalence of ≥2 CVD risk factors was higher in youth with T2D than with T1D at each incident year, but the prevalence of ≥2 risk factors did not change across diagnosis years among T1D or T2D participants. The number of CVD risk factors did not change significantly in T1D participants, but increased at an annual rate of 1.38% in T2D participants. The prevalence of hypertension decreased in T1D participants, and high WC increased in T2D participants. CONCLUSION: The increase in number of CVD risk factors including large WC among youth with T2D suggests a need for early intervention to address these CVD risk factors. Further study is needed to examine longitudinal associations between diabetes and CVD.

9.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 43(10): 1940-1950, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) estimates cardiometabolic risk in youth without need for growth charts by sex and age. Questions remain about whether waist circumference measured per protocol of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WNHAHtR) or World Health Organization (WWHOHtR) can better predict blood pressures and lipid parameters in youth. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS: WHtR was measured under both anthropometric protocols among participants in the SEARCH Study, who were recently diagnosed with diabetes (ages 5-19 years; N = 2 773). Biomarkers were documented concurrently with baseline anthropometry and again ~7 years later (ages 10-30 years; N = 1 712). For prediction of continuous biomarker outcomes, baseline WNHAHtR or WWHOHtR entered semiparametric regression models employing restricted cubic splines. To predict binary biomarkers (high-risk group defined as the most adverse quartile) linear WNHAHtR or WWHOHtR terms entered logistic models. Model covariates included demographic characteristics, pertinent medication use, and (for prospective predictions) the follow-up time since baseline. We used measures of model fit, including the adjusted-R2 and the area under the receiver operator curves (AUC) to compare WNHAHtR and WWHOHtR. RESULTS: For the concurrent biomarkers, the proportion of variation in each outcome explained by full regression models ranged from 23 to 46%; for the prospective biomarkers, the proportions varied from 11 to 30%. Nonlinear relationships were recognized with the lipid outcomes, both at baseline and at follow-up. In full logistic models, the AUCs ranged from 0.75 (diastolic pressure) to 0.85 (systolic pressure) at baseline, and from 0.69 (triglycerides) to 0.78 (systolic pressure) at the prospective follow-up. To predict baseline elevations of the triglycerides/HDL cholesterol ratio, the AUC was 0.816 for WWHOHtR compared with 0.810 for WNHAHtR (p = 0.003), but otherwise comparisons between alternative WHtR protocols were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: Among youth with recently diagnosed diabetes, measurements of WHtR by either waist circumference protocol similarly helped estimate current and prospective cardiometabolic risk biomarkers.

10.
Nat Genet ; 51(4): 636-648, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926973

RESUMO

The concentrations of high- and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides are influenced by smoking, but it is unknown whether genetic associations with lipids may be modified by smoking. We conducted a multi-ancestry genome-wide gene-smoking interaction study in 133,805 individuals with follow-up in an additional 253,467 individuals. Combined meta-analyses identified 13 new loci associated with lipids, some of which were detected only because association differed by smoking status. Additionally, we demonstrate the importance of including diverse populations, particularly in studies of interactions with lifestyle factors, where genomic and lifestyle differences by ancestry may contribute to novel findings.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/genética , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(6): 2286-2294, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715336

RESUMO

PURPOSE: African Americans who shed JC polyomavirus (JCV) in their urine have reduced rates of nondiabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD). We assessed the associations between urinary JCV and urine BK polyomavirus (BKV) with CKD in African Americans with diabetes mellitus. METHODS: African Americans with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and controls lacking nephropathy from the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes Consortium (FIND) and African American-Diabetes Heart Study (AA-DHS) had urine tested for JCV and BKV using quantitative PCR. Of the 335 individuals tested, 148 had DKD and 187 were controls. RESULTS: JCV viruria was detected more often in the controls than in the patients with DKD (FIND: 46.6% vs 32.2%; OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.29 to 0.93; P = 0.03; AA-DHS: 30.4% vs 26.2%; OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.27 to 1.48; P = 0.29). A joint analysis adjusted for age, sex, and study revealed that JC viruria was inversely associated with DKD (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.91; P = 0.02). Statistically significant relationships between BKV and DKD were not observed. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: The results from the present study extend the inverse association between urine JCV and nondiabetic nephropathy in African Americans to DKD. These results imply that common pathways likely involving the innate immune system mediate coincident chronic kidney injury and restriction of JCV replication. Future studies are needed to explore causative pathways and characterize whether the absence of JC viruria can serve as a biomarker for DKD in the African American population.

12.
Diabetes Care ; 42(3): 406-415, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Genetic risk scores (GRS) have been developed that differentiate individuals with type 1 diabetes from those with other forms of diabetes and are starting to be used for population screening; however, most studies were conducted in European-ancestry populations. This study identifies novel genetic variants associated with type 1 diabetes risk in African-ancestry participants and develops an African-specific GRS. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We generated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data with the ImmunoChip on 1,021 African-ancestry participants with type 1 diabetes and 2,928 control participants. HLA class I and class II alleles were imputed using SNP2HLA. Logistic regression models were used to identify genome-wide significant (P < 5.0 × 10-8) SNPs associated with type 1 diabetes in the African-ancestry samples and validate SNPs associated with risk in known European-ancestry loci (P < 2.79 × 10-5). RESULTS: African-specific (HLA-DQA1*03:01-HLA-DQB1*02:01) and known European-ancestry HLA haplotypes (HLA-DRB1*03:01-HLA-DQA1*05:01-HLA-DQB1*02:01, HLA-DRB1*04:01-HLA-DQA1*03:01-HLA-DQB1*03:02) were significantly associated with type 1 diabetes risk. Among European-ancestry defined non-HLA risk loci, six risk loci were significantly associated with type 1 diabetes in subjects of African ancestry. An African-specific GRS provided strong prediction of type 1 diabetes risk (area under the curve 0.871), performing significantly better than a European-based GRS and two polygenic risk scores in independent discovery and validation cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic risk of type 1 diabetes includes ancestry-specific, disease-associated variants. The GRS developed here provides improved prediction of type 1 diabetes in African-ancestry subjects and a means to identify groups of individuals who would benefit from immune monitoring for early detection of islet autoimmunity.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/etnologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Testes Genéticos , Antígenos HLA-D/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Testes Genéticos/normas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Cadeias alfa de HLA-DQ/genética , Cadeias beta de HLA-DQ/genética , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco
13.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(6): 1033-1054, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698716

RESUMO

A person's lipid profile is influenced by genetic variants and alcohol consumption, but the contribution of interactions between these exposures has not been studied. We therefore incorporated gene-alcohol interactions into a multiancestry genome-wide association study of levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. We included 45 studies in stage 1 (genome-wide discovery) and 66 studies in stage 2 (focused follow-up), for a total of 394,584 individuals from 5 ancestry groups. Analyses covered the period July 2014-November 2017. Genetic main effects and interaction effects were jointly assessed by means of a 2-degrees-of-freedom (df) test, and a 1-df test was used to assess the interaction effects alone. Variants at 495 loci were at least suggestively associated (P < 1 × 10-6) with lipid levels in stage 1 and were evaluated in stage 2, followed by combined analyses of stage 1 and stage 2. In the combined analysis of stages 1 and 2, a total of 147 independent loci were associated with lipid levels at P < 5 × 10-8 using 2-df tests, of which 18 were novel. No genome-wide-significant associations were found testing the interaction effect alone. The novel loci included several genes (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 5 (PCSK5), vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGFB), and apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide 1 (APOBEC1) complementation factor (A1CF)) that have a putative role in lipid metabolism on the basis of existing evidence from cellular and experimental models.

14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 376, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670697

RESUMO

Many genetic loci affect circulating lipid levels, but it remains unknown whether lifestyle factors, such as physical activity, modify these genetic effects. To identify lipid loci interacting with physical activity, we performed genome-wide analyses of circulating HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in up to 120,979 individuals of European, African, Asian, Hispanic, and Brazilian ancestry, with follow-up of suggestive associations in an additional 131,012 individuals. We find four loci, in/near CLASP1, LHX1, SNTA1, and CNTNAP2, that are associated with circulating lipid levels through interaction with physical activity; higher levels of physical activity enhance the HDL cholesterol-increasing effects of the CLASP1, LHX1, and SNTA1 loci and attenuate the LDL cholesterol-increasing effect of the CNTNAP2 locus. The CLASP1, LHX1, and SNTA1 regions harbor genes linked to muscle function and lipid metabolism. Our results elucidate the role of physical activity interactions in the genetic contribution to blood lipid levels.


Assuntos
Exercício , Loci Gênicos/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Brasil , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/genética , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/genética , Adulto Jovem
15.
Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens ; 28(1): 65-69, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30320619

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The presence of viruses in urine (urine virome) typically reflects infection in the kidneys and urinary tract. The urinary virome is associated with HIV-associated nephropathy and chronic glomerulosclerosis. There are many associations of this microbiome with human diseases that remain to be described. This manuscript reviews emerging data on relationships between kidney disease and urinary tract infection/colonization with JC polyomavirus (JCPyV). RECENT FINDINGS: Approximately 30% of the adult population sheds JCPyV in the urine. Further, urinary tract infection with one polyomavirus strain appears to inhibit secondary infections. The presence of urinary JCPyV and BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) replication were measured with polymerase chain reaction in African Americans to assess relationships with apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1)-associated nephropathy. Urinary JCPyV was associated with paradoxically lower rates of nephropathy in those with APOL1 high-risk genotypes. Subsequent studies revealed African Americans with JCPyV viruria had lower rates of nondiabetic nephropathy independent from APOL1. SUMMARY: Urinary tract JCPyV replication is common and associates with lower rates of nephropathy. This relationship is observed in diverse settings. Results support a host immune system that fails to eradicate nonnephropathic viruses and is also less likely to manifest renal parenchymal inflammation resulting in glomerulosclerosis.


Assuntos
Vírus JC/fisiologia , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Urinárias/virologia , Urina/virologia , Apolipoproteína L1/genética , Apolipoproteína L1/fisiologia , Humanos , Replicação Viral
16.
Transplantation ; 2018 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An improved understanding of the pathogenesis in apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1)-gene associated chronic kidney disease (CKD) arose from observations in kidney transplantation. APOL1 genotyping could soon improve the safety of living kidney donation in individuals with recent African ancestry and alter the allocation of deceased donor kidneys. METHODS: This manuscript reviews the potential mechanisms that underlie development of APOL1-associated nephropathy. Roles for circulating APOL1 protein versus intrinsic renal expression of APOL1 are discussed, as well as the requirement for modifying genetic and/or environmental factors. RESULTS: Abundant evidence supports local kidney production of APOL1 renal-risk variant protein in the development of nephropathy; this is true in both native kidney disease and after renal transplantation. Only a minority of kidneys from individuals with APOL1 high-risk genotypes will develop CKD or manifest shorter renal allograft survival after transplantation. Therefore, modifying factors that explain why only a subset of kidneys develops nephropathy remain critical to identify. It appears likely that environmental exposures, as opposed to major APOL1-second gene interactions, will prove to be stronger modifiers of the risk for nephropathy. CONCLUSIONS: The evolving understanding of the pathogenesis in APOL1-associated nephropathy will identify biomarkers predicting nephropathy in individuals at high genetic risk and lead to novel therapies to prevent or slow native CKD progression and prolong survival of transplanted kidneys. In the interim, the National Institutes of Health-sponsored "APOL1 Long-term Kidney Transplantation Outcomes" (APOLLO) Network will determine whether APOL1 genotyping in individuals with recent African ancestry improves outcomes and safety in kidney transplantation.

17.
Ophthalmology ; 2018 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352225

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To find genetic contributions to glaucoma in African Americans. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, case-control study. PARTICIPANTS: One thousand eight hundred seventy-five primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients and 1709 controls, self-identified as being of African descent (AD), from the African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES) III and Wake Forest School of Medicine. METHODS: MegaChip genotypes were imputed to Thousand Genomes data. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with POAG and advanced POAG was tested by linear mixed model correcting for relatedness and population stratification. Genetic risk scores were tested by receiver operator characteristic curves (ROC-AUCs). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary open-angle glaucoma defined by visual field loss without other nonocular conditions (n = 1875). Advanced POAG was defined by age-based mean deviation of visual field (n = 946). RESULTS: Eighteen million two hundred eighty-one thousand nine hundred twenty SNPs met imputation quality of r2 > 0.7 and minor allele frequency > 0.005. Association of a novel locus, EN04, was observed for advanced POAG (rs185815146 ß, 0.36; standard error, 0.065; P < 3×10-8). For POAG, an AD signal was observed at the 9p21 European descent (ED) POAG signal (rs79721419; P < 6.5×10-5) independent of the previously observed 9p21 ED signal (rs2383204; P < 2.3×10-5) by conditional analyses. An association with POAG in FNDC3B (rs111698934; P < 3.9×10-5) was observed, not in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the previously reported ED SNP. Additional previously identified loci associated with POAG in persons of AD were: 8q22, AFAP1, and TMC01. An AUC of 0.62 was observed with an unweighted genetic risk score comprising 11 SNPs in candidate genes. Two additional risk scores were studied by using a penalized matrix decomposition with cross-validation; risk scores of 50 and 400 SNPs were identified with ROC of AUC = 0.74 and AUC = 0.94, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A novel association with advanced POAG in the EN04 locus was identified putatively in persons of AD. In addition to this finding, this genome-wide association study in POAG patients of AD contributes to POAG genetics by identification of novel signals in prior loci (9p21), as well as advancing the fine mapping of regions because of shorter average LD (FNDC3B). Although not useful without confirmation and clinical trials, the use of genetic risk scores demonstrated that considerable AD-specific genetic information remains in these data.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30316542

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine among adolescents and young adults with youth-onset type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes the rates and risk factors for albuminuria regression and progression. METHODS: Data from SEARCH, a longitudinal observational study of youth-onset type 1 diabetes (N = 1316) and type 2 diabetes (N = 143) were analyzed. Urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) was measured from random urine specimens at baseline and follow-up visits (mean 7 years later). Albuminuria regression was defined as halving of baseline UACR when baseline UACR was ≥30 µg/mg; progression was defined as doubling of baseline UACR when follow-up UACR was ≥30 µg/mg, respectively. Multivariable regression assessed risk factors associated with low-risk albuminuria category (combined persistently-low albuminuria and regression) versus moderate-risk albuminuria category (combined persistently-high albuminuria and progression). RESULTS: Albuminuria progression was more common in type 2 diabetes versus type 1 diabetes (15.4% versus 6.0%, p<0.001). Moderate-risk albuminuria was associated with increasing HbA1c (adjusted OR (aOR) = 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.6) and lack of private health insurance (aOR = 2.7, 95%CI 1.1-6.5) in type 1 diabetes; and African American race (OR = 4.6, 95% CI 1.2-14.2), lower estimated insulin sensitivity score (aOR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.4-3.3), baseline UACR (aOR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.7-5.8), and follow-up estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (10-unit increase aOR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.0, 1.5) in type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: In the first decade of diabetes duration, kidney complications in type 2 diabetes are significantly more aggressive than in type 1 diabetes and may be associated with less modifiable risk factors including race, insulin sensitivity, and eGFR. Early interventions may help reduce long-term kidney complications.

19.
Geroscience ; 2018 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30151729

RESUMO

Recent advances indicate that biological aging is a potentially modifiable driver of late-life function and chronic disease and have led to the development of geroscience-guided therapeutic trials such as TAME (Targeting Aging with MEtformin). TAME is a proposed randomized clinical trial using metformin to affect molecular aging pathways to slow the incidence of age-related multi-morbidity and functional decline. In trials focusing on clinical end-points (e.g., disease diagnosis or death), biomarkers help show that the intervention is affecting the underlying aging biology before sufficient clinical events have accumulated to test the study hypothesis. Since there is no standard set of biomarkers of aging for clinical trials, an expert panel was convened and comprehensive literature reviews conducted to identify 258 initial candidate biomarkers of aging and age-related disease. Next selection criteria were derived and applied to refine this set emphasizing: (1) measurement reliability and feasibility; (2) relevance to aging; (3) robust and consistent ability to predict all-cause mortality, clinical and functional outcomes; and (4) responsiveness to intervention. Application of these selection criteria to the current literature resulted in a short list of blood-based biomarkers proposed for TAME: IL-6, TNFα-receptor I or II, CRP, GDF15, insulin, IGF1, cystatin C, NT-proBNP, and hemoglobin A1c. The present report provides a conceptual framework for the selection of blood-based biomarkers for use in geroscience-guided clinical trials. This work also revealed the scarcity of well-vetted biomarkers for human studies that reflect underlying biologic aging hallmarks, and the need to leverage proposed trials for future biomarker discovery and validation.

20.
J Diabetes Complications ; 32(10): 916-921, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30042057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relationships between cognitive function and brain structure remain poorly defined in African Americans with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Cognitive testing and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging in African Americans from the Diabetes Heart Study Memory IN Diabetes (n = 480) and Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes MIND (n = 104) studies were examined for associations. Cerebral gray matter volume (GMV), white matter volume (WMV) and white matter lesion volume (WMLV) and cognitive performance (Mini-mental State Exam [MMSE and 3MSE], Digit Symbol Coding (DSC), Stroop test, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test) were recorded. Multivariable models adjusted for age, sex, BMI, scanner, intracranial volume, education, diabetes duration, HbA1c, LDL-cholesterol, smoking, hypertension and cardiovascular disease assessed associations between cognitive tests and brain volumes by study and meta-analysis. RESULTS: Mean(SD) participant age was 60.1(7.9) years, diabetes duration 12.1(7.7) years, and HbA1c 8.3(1.7)%. In the fully-adjusted meta-analysis, lower GMV associated with poorer global performance on MMSE/3MSE (ß̂ = 7.1 × 10-3, SE 2.4 × 10-3, p = 3.6 × 10-3), higher WMLV associated with poorer performance on DSC (ß̂ = -3 × 10-2, SE 6.4 × 10-3, p = 5.2 × 10-5) and higher WMV associated with poorer MMSE/3MSE performance (ß̂ = -7.1 × 10-3, SE = 2.4 × 10-3, p = 3.6 × 10-3). CONCLUSIONS: In African Americans with diabetes, smaller GMV and increased WMLV associated with poorer performance on tests of global cognitive and executive function. These data suggest that WML burden and gray matter atrophy associate with cognitive performance independent of diabetes-related factors in this population.

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