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1.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 28(Pt 2): 480-489, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650560

RESUMO

The germanium auto-diffusion effects on the inter-atomic distance between the nearest neighbors of the Ga atom in GaP epilayers are investigated using high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The GaP layers grown on Ge (111) are structurally coherent and relaxed but they show the presence of residual strain which is attributed to the auto-diffusion of Ge from the results of secondary ion mass spectrometry and electrochemical capacitance voltage measurements. Subsequently, the inter-atomic distances between the nearest neighbors of Ga atom in GaP are determined from X-ray absorption fine-structure spectra performed at the Ga K-edge. The estimated local bond lengths of Ga with its first and second nearest neighbors show asymmetric variation for the in-plane and out-of-plane direction of GaP/Ge(111). The magnitude and direction of in-plane and out-of-plane microscopic residual strain present in the GaP/Ge are calculated from the difference in bond lengths which explains the presence of macroscopic residual tensile strain estimated from HRXRD. Modified nearest neighbor configurations of Ga in the auto-diffused GaP epilayer are proposed for new possibilities within the GaP/Ge hetero-structure, such as the conversion from indirect to direct band structures and engineering the tensile strain quantum dot structures on (111) surfaces.

2.
Saudi J Gastroenterol ; 27(1): 54-59, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801256

RESUMO

Background: The aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR), a member of the growing superfamily, is a basic helix-loop-helix/PerAHR nuclear translocator (ARNT)-Sim (bHLH-PAS) protein. AHRR has been proposed to function as a putative new tumor suppressor gene based on studies in multiple types of human cancers. This current study aims to investigate AHHR expression and its prognostic significance in gallbladder cancer. Methods: The study includes 48 gallbladder cancer and 34 chronic cholecystitis cases as controls. The expression level of AHRR was analyzed by using semi-quantitative PCR and immunohistochemical staining. The results were correlated with different clinical parameters. Results: We demonstrate that the expression of AHRR is significantly down-regulated in gallbladder cancer tissue samples as compared to that in chronic cholecystitis tissue samples by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) (P = 0.017) and immunohistochemistry analysis (P = 0.002). Interestingly, our RT-PCR data revealed that AHRR mRNA expression is frequently down-regulated (45.8%; 22/48) in cases as compared to 14.7% (5/34) in controls. Similarly, immunohistochemical analysis data show significant down-regulation of AHRR expression in 77.1% (37/48) of gallbladder cancer cases than 44.1% (15/34) in controls (P < 0.017). Reduced mRNA and protein expression is significantly associated with advanced T-stage (P = 0.001), histological differentiation (P = 0.001), and tumors with nodal metastasis (P = 0.001). Decreased expression of AHRR is significantly associated with poor prognosis in gallbladder cancer patients. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study suggests that low AHRR expression may be critical in gallbladder cancer development. Our data suggests that AHRR may act as a tumor suppressor gene and its expression profile may be useful as a diagnostic marker in gallbladder cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/genética , Humanos , RNA Mensageiro , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética
3.
Indian J Surg Oncol ; 10(1): 65-71, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948875

RESUMO

Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is the most feared complication after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) that leads to intra-abdominal abscess, sepsis, or bleeding and remains the single most important source of morbidity and mortality after PD. To minimize this dreaded complication, various surgical techniques and modifications of pancreaticoenteric reconstruction have been proposed. However, still POPF does occur even in experienced hands. We herein describe the outcome of 150 post PD patients who underwent duct-to-mucosa (DM) pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ) using a special technique, Blumgart's "through & through" U transpancreatic sutures. The technique is described in detail. Postoperative octreotide and metoclopramide were used in all patients for 3 days. An enhanced recovery (ERAS) protocol was followed in a subset of patients. All patients were ASA grade 1 and had adenocarcinoma of the periampullary region/pancreatic head and underwent standard pylorus resecting PD after due optimization. Eighty-eight (58.7%) patients had pancreatic duct < 3 mm and pancreatic texture was soft to very soft in 112 (74.6%) patients. There was only one International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) grade C POPF with concomitant hemorrhage. Five patients developed ISGPS grade B and two grade C, delayed gastric emptying (DGE). There was no 30-day mortality. The average length of hospital stay was 7.3 ± 4.2 days with a median of 6 days in the ERAS subset of patients. Blumgart's "through & through" DMPJ technique is very helpful in reducing the POPF and other complications even in high-risk pancreas (i.e., soft with a small pancreatic duct) and is easy to learn and perform.

4.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 37(1): 44-49, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29399748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E is caused by infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV), which has four well-known genotypes. Genotypes 1 and 2 HEV have been reported from human cases in areas where the disease is highly endemic. By contrast, genotypes 3 and 4 HEV, which primarily infect several animal species worldwide, have been reported mainly from sporadic human cases in non-endemic areas such as Japan and high-income countries of Europe and North America. To determine whether genotype 3/4 HEV cause sporadic disease in India, a disease-endemic area, we determined HEV genotype in a group of patients with such disease. METHODS: A part of the HEV open reading frame (ORF) 1 was amplified and sequenced from sera of 74 patients with sporadic acute viral hepatitis E from four cities in India. The sequences were compared with prototype sequences for various HEV genotypes and subgenotypes and analyzed using phylogenetic tools to determine the genotype of the isolates. For 12 specimens, a part of HEV ORF2 was also similarly analyzed. RESULTS: Partial ORF1 sequences of all the 74 isolates belonged to genotype 1 HEV, with 88.2% to 100% nucleotide identity with the prototype genotype 1 isolates. Partial ORF2 sequences for all the 12 isolates also belonged to genotype 1 HEV. On phylogenetic analysis, 71 isolates clustered with prototype genotype 1a HEV; the remaining three isolates were located between subgenotypes 1a and 1c but were closer to the former. CONCLUSION: Human sporadic acute hepatitis E in India is caused almost exclusively by genotype 1 HEV.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/virologia , Doença Aguda , Hepatite E/genética , Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética
5.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 4905, 2017 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28687735

RESUMO

Effect of charge carrier confinement and ultra-low disorder acquainted in AlGaAs/GaAs multi-quantum well system is investigated via Magneto-photoluminescence spectroscopy. Significant increase of effective mass is observed for the confined exciton in narrow QWs. The foremost reason behind such an observation is due to the induced non-parabolicity in bands. Moreover, as the thickness of the QW are reduced, confined excitons in QW experience atomic irregularities at the hetero-junctions and their effects are prominent in the photoluminescence linewidth. Amount of photoluminescence line-broadening caused by the atomic irregularities at the hetero-junctions is correlated with average fluctuation (δ 1) in QW thickness. The estimated δ 1 for Al0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs QWs are found to be ±(0.14 - 1.6)× 'one monolayer thickness of GaAs layer'. Further, the strong perturbations due to magnetic field in a system helps in realizing optical properties of exciton in QWs, where magnetic field is used as a probe to detect ultralow defects in the QW. Additionally, the influence of magnetic field on the free and bound exciton luminescence is explained by a simple model. The proposed approach for measuring the interface and volume defects in an ultra-low disordered system by Magneto-PL spectroscopy technique will be highly beneficial in high mobility devices for advanced applications.

6.
Med Oncol ; 33(5): 40, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27034264

RESUMO

Cell cycle regulators cyclin D1 and cyclin E2 function in G1/S transition by activating downstream cyclin-dependent kinases. Deregulated expression of these cyclins has been reported in various cancers. However, little is known about their clinical significance in gastric carcinoma. We aimed to explore that whether there is differential expression of these cyclins in clinically distinct gastric cancer patients. In this study we recruited a total of 92 subjects including 20 controls and 72 cases of histopathologically proven gastric carcinoma. Expression profiling at transcript level was done by semiquantitative RT-PCR and of protein by immunohistochemistry. Receiver operator characteristics analysis was done for determining diagnostic utility of cyclin D1 and cyclin E2. We demonstrate that cyclins D1 and E2 are frequently overexpressed in early stages of gastric carcinoma. Interestingly, expression of cyclins D1 and E2 significantly correlates with different clinical parameters such as gender, histological type (intestinal and diffuse), tumor location (proximal, middle, and distal), tumor differentiation (differentiated and undifferentiated), tumor invasion (serosal, lymphatic, and venous) and tumor metastasis (lymph node, peritoneal, ascites, and liver). Cyclin D1 has significantly higher sensitivity and specificity as diagnostic biomarker than cyclin E2. Our results suggest that overexpression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E2 is an early event in gastric carcinogenesis. The differential expression of these cyclins may be useful as diagnostic biomarkers for early detection of gastric carcinoma.


Assuntos
Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Ciclinas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ciclina D1/genética , Ciclinas/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Curva ROC , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
7.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 23(1): 238-43, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26698069

RESUMO

Williamson-Hall (WH) analysis is a well established method for studying the microstructural properties of epilayers grown on foreign substrates. However, the method becomes inapplicable in specific cases where the structure factor considerations and the presence of anti-phase domains forbid the data acquisition for certain reflections in conventional high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) measurements. Here, this limitation is overcome by exploiting the large intensity (25 µW mm(-2)) and high photon energy (15.5 keV) of the X-ray beam obtained from a synchrotron radiation source. The lateral coherence length, vertical coherence length, tilt and micro-strain of GaAs epilayers grown on Si substrate have been successfully measured using the conventional WH analysis. The microstructure information obtained from the conventional WH analysis based on the data acquired at the synchrotron radiation source is in reasonable agreement with the results obtained from atomic force microscope and surface profiler measurements. Such information cannot be obtained on a laboratory-based HRXRD system where modification of the WH method by involving a set of parallel asymmetric crystallographic planes is found to be essential. However, the information obtained from the modified WH method is along a different crystallographic orientation.

8.
Trop Gastroenterol ; 36(4): 244-50, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27509702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a chronic, benign defecation disorder often related to excessive straining. SRUS is diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms, endoscopic and histological findings. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with SRUS by colonoscopy and confirmed by histopathology from October 2012 to August 2014 in the Department of Gastroenterology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, India, were included in the study. Out of 92 patients, thirty-four patients underwent anorectal manometry. Twenty age-matched healthy volunteers were also studied with anorectal manometry to serve as controls. RESULTS: Mean age of the group was 41 ± 19 years with age range of 10-82 years; males were 58 (63%) with male to female ratio of 1.7:1. Bleeding per rectum was present in 83%, constipation in 46.7%, abdominal pain in 27.2%, and diarrhea in 25% of the patients. On endoscopy, ulcerative lesions were seen in 83% patients of whom solitary and multiple lesions were present in 44% and 39%, respectively. Polypoidal lesions were reported in 17.4% whilst rectal polyps and erythematous mucosa were found in 5.4% and 2.2%, respectively. Histological examination revealed fibromuscular obliteration in 100% of patients, surface ulceration in 70.6% and crypt distortion in 20.65% of patients. Anal relaxation and balloon expulsion test was significantly abnormal in SRUS patients compared to healthy controls (53% vs. 20%, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Rectal bleeding was the most common symptom and ulcerative lesions the most common endoscopic finding. Fecal evaluation disorder was more prevalent inpatients with SRUS.


Assuntos
Canal Anal/patologia , Doenças Retais/patologia , Úlcera/patologia , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canal Anal/fisiopatologia , Criança , Colonoscopia , Constipação Intestinal/etiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Manometria , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Retais/complicações , Doenças Retais/fisiopatologia , Reto/patologia , Reto/fisiopatologia , Síndrome , Úlcera/complicações , Úlcera/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2014: 868062, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25215296

RESUMO

The use of plant or plant-based products to stimulate sexual desire and to enhance performance and enjoyment is almost as old as the human race itself. The present paper reviews the active, natural principles, and crude extracts of plants, which have been useful in sexual disorders, have potential for improving sexual behaviour and performance, and are helpful in spermatogenesis and reproduction. Review of refereed journals and scientific literature available in electronic databases and traditional literature available in India was extensively performed. The work reviews correlation of the evidence with traditional claims, elucidation, and evaluation of a plausible concept governing the usage of plants as aphrodisiac in total. Phytoconstituents with known structures have been classified in appropriate chemical groups and the active crude extracts have been tabulated. Data on their pharmacological activity, mechanism of action, and toxicity are reported. The present review provides an overview of the herbs and their active molecule with claims for improvement of sexual behaviour. A number of herbal drugs have been validated for their effect on sexual behavior and fertility and can therefore serve as basis for the identification of new chemical leads useful in sexual and erectile dysfunction.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Afrodisíacos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Índia , Masculino
10.
Trop Gastroenterol ; 35(3): 152-6, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26012318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between age and serum HBV DNA levels with histological activity in chronic hepatitis B inactive carriers is still unclear. We evaluated the correlation between age and hepatitis B viral DNA levels with Metavir score in inactive chronic HBV carriers. METHODS: 50 patients (30 males and 20 females) were enrolled in the study after informed consent. Their blood samples were taken for routine investigations and specific tests for the study. Serum HBV DNA levels were quantified by real-time PCR. Metavir score was used for histologic grading. RESULTS: A1F0, A1F1, A1F2, A2F2 and A2F3 metavir scores were found in 41 (82%), 4 (8%), 1 (2%), 3 (6%), and 1 (2%) patients, respectively. There was significant correlation between age > 40 years and Metavir scores (p < 0.001). However there was no significant correlation between HBV DNA level with Metavir score (p = 0.074). CONCLUSION: Inactive carriers of 40 years of age or more should undergo liver biopsy to look for presence of significant histological findings despite having low HBV DNA level and normal SGPT level.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/virologia , DNA Viral/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/patologia , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Portador Sadio/patologia , Feminino , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Andrologia ; 46(6): 592-601, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23710567

RESUMO

This study demonstrates 5α-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful in the management of androgenic disorders. Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst (GL), Urtica dioica Linn. (UD), Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming. (CB), Tribulus terrestris Linn. (TT), Pedalium murex Linn. (PM), Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (SI), Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (CR), Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (CC), Benincasa hispida Cogn. (BH), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (PN) and Echinops echinatus Linn. (EE) were included in the study. Petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of these herbs were tested for their 5α-reductase inhibitory activity against the standard 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. A biochemical method to determine the activity of 5α-reductase was used to evaluate the inhibition of different extracts to the enzyme. The optical density (OD) value of each sample was measured continuously with ultraviolet spectrophotometer for the reason that the substrate NADPH has a specific absorbance at 340 nm. As the enzyme 5α-reductase uses NADPH as a substrate, so in the presence of 5α-reductase inhibitor, the NADPH concentration will increase with the function of time. This method thus implicates the activity of 5α-reductase. The method proved to be extremely useful to screen the herbs for their 5α-reductase inhibitory potential. GL, UD, BH, SI and CR came out to be promising candidates for further exploring their antiandrogenic properties.


Assuntos
Inibidores de 5-alfa Redutase/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Androgênios/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais , 3-Oxo-5-alfa-Esteroide 4-Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Asteraceae , Cucurbitaceae , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , NADP/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Próstata/enzimologia , Reishi , Urtica dioica
12.
Indian J Pediatr ; 81(5): 429-33, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24113883

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the demographic features, etiology, clinical, radiology and laboratory findings in children with Extra hepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO) from the North Indian Gangetic Plain. METHODS: A prospective analysis of 53 patients of EHPVO (<14 y of age) was done. Data for clinical presentation, laboratory workup, endoscopic procedures, growth and development, management and outcome were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 53 patients (32 male, 21 female) with mean age of 8.66 ± 3.32 y at presentation were included. Growth retardation was present in 30 (56.60 %) patients at time of diagnosis. The most common presenting symptoms were upper gastrointestinal bleeding (86.80 %) and an incidental finding of splenomegaly (13.2 %). Hematological parameters of hypersplenism were present in 9 (17 %) patients. Protein C (PC), Protein S (PS), antithrombin III (AT) deficiency were found in 8 (20 %), 4 (10 %) and 6 (15 %) of the patients respectively in 40 patients tested. On first endoscopy, esophageal varices were present in all patients. Endoscopic sclerotherapy (EST)/band ligation (EBL) was performed in 46 bleeder patients and success rate was 83.3 % for sclerotherapy and 90 % for band ligation. CONCLUSIONS: The etiology of EHPVO in the majority of patients remains elusive. It results in impaired somatic growth. Sclerotherapy and endoscopic banding are effective means for treatment for bleeding varices. It is still not clear whether deficiency of anticoagulant proteins is a primary event or secondary to disease process.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva , Veia Porta , Criança , Feminino , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/diagnóstico , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/terapia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
HPB Surg ; 2013: 367581, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24204087

RESUMO

Background. Multifactorial scorings, radiological scores, and biochemical markers may help in early prediction of severity, pancreatic necrosis, and mortality in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). Methods. BISAP, APACHE-II, MOSS, and SIRS scores were calculated using data within 24 hrs of admission, whereas Ranson and Glasgow scores after 48 hrs of admission; CTSI was calculated on day 4 whereas IL-6 and CRP values at end of study. Predictive accuracy of scoring systems, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of various markers in prediction of severe acute pancreatitis, organ failure, pancreatic necrosis, admission to intensive care units and mortality were calculated. Results. Of 72 patients, 31 patients had organ failure and local complication classified as severe acute pancreatitis, 17 had pancreatic necrosis, and 9 died (12.5%). Area under curves for Ranson, Glasgow, MOSS, SIRS, APACHE-II, BISAP, CTSI, IL-6, and CRP in predicting SAP were 0.85, 0.75, 0.73, 0.73, 0.88, 0.80, 0.90, and 0.91, respectively, for pancreatic necrosis 0.70, 0.64, 0.61, 0.61, 0.68, 0.61, 0.75, 0.86, and 0.90, respectively, and for mortality 0.84, 0.83, 0.77, 0.76, 0.86, 0.83, 0.57, 0.80, and 0.75, respectively. Conclusion. CRP and IL-6 have shown a promising result in early detection of severity and pancreatic necrosis whereas APACHE-II and Ranson score in predicting AP related mortality in this study.

14.
Antiviral Res ; 100(2): 300-5, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24012998

RESUMO

Decompensated cirrhosis has low survival rate compared to compensated state. Effective viral suppression due to antiviral therapy (tenofovir) has been shown to slow disease progression and may delay the burden of liver transplantation. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of various prognostic indicators in predicting the 24-months survival in HBV related decompensated cirrhosis after tenofovir therapy and to evaluate the post-treatment outcome. Ninety-six HBV related decompensated patients on antiviral (tenofovir) therapy were prospectively studied for 24months survival and mortality. Cutoff levels for several prognostic indicators were generated by ROC. Prediction of overall probability of mortality was also calculated. The overall probability of survival observed at 12months was 0.947 whereas at 24months it was found to be 0.833. According to Cox proportional hazards model, the univariate analysis revealed cutoff of >7.4logcopies/ml for HBV DNA, >1.2mg/dl for serum creatinine, >3.7mg/dl for total bilirubin, ⩽0.75 for platelets count, >10 for CTP and >20 for MELD as predictors of poor survival. Multivariate analysis showed MELD score of >20 was the most robust predictor of mortality, with 58 times higher risk (HR: 58.73, p<0.001). Post-treatment response with tenofovir for 24months significantly improved the hepatic functions and reverses decompensation and showed incredible efficacy in improvement of hepatic functional status with reduced viremia in a great majority of decompensated cirrhosis subjects having high MELD and HBV DNA level.


Assuntos
Adenina/análogos & derivados , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B Crônica/mortalidade , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Organofosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Adenina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Bilirrubina/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , DNA Viral/sangue , Feminino , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Humanos , Índia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contagem de Plaquetas , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Tenofovir , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral
15.
Trop Gastroenterol ; 34(4): 235-9, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25046885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite its functional nature, hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is associated with a poor prognosis and the only effective treatment is liver transplantation. It is very important to diagnose renal impairment in cirrhosis patients at an early stage before overt HRS develops. In patients with cirrhosis the early renal impairment or renovascular vasoconstriction can be predicted by renal arterial resistance index (RI). Our study aimed to compare RI in healthy controls versus patients with liver cirrhosis with and without ascites and assess its value for predicting subsequent renal status. METHODS: Patients were divided into 2 groups with 50 patients in each group. Group 1 contained patients with cirrhosis without ascites and group 2 contained cirrhosis patients with ascites. All patients were subjected to detailed clinical examination, laboratory investigations and abdominal doppler ultrasound with renal RI measurements. Patients were followed for 6 months. RESULTS: RI was significantly higher in cirrhotic patients as compared to healthy controls (0.62 vs. 0.52, p< 0.01). In patients with cirrhosis, RI was significantly greater in patients with ascites than those without ascites (0.70 vs. 0.62, p < 0.01). RI >0.70 was significant independent predictor of subsequent HRS development (p = 0.006) CONCLUSIONS: Intrarenal RI measurement can be used as a predictor of HRS and may be further validated for regular monitoring of cirrhotic patients at risk of developing renal impairment.


Assuntos
Ascite/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Hepatorrenal/fisiopatologia , Cirrose Hepática/fisiopatologia , Resistência Vascular/fisiologia , Ascite/complicações , Ascite/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Síndrome Hepatorrenal/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome Hepatorrenal/etiologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Ultrassonografia Doppler Dupla
16.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2013: 780659, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24489512

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanolic extract of Pueraria tuberosa (PT) on sexual behaviour and androgenic activity. Male albino rats were divided into four groups of six animals each: control group 1 (2% acacia solution), PT-treated group 2 (50 mg/Kg), PT-treated group 3 (100 mg/Kg), and PT-treated group 4 (150 mg/Kg). Sexual behavior of male rats in the presence of a female rat was recorded. The treated groups were evaluated for sexual parameters. The extract was characterized using LC-MS. The effect of treatment on anabolic and weight of secondary sexual organs was determined. The histological changes in section of testis and epididymis after treatment were observed. Sperm count in epididymis and fructose content in seminal vesicles were also measured. Levels of hormones like FSH, LH, and T were determined. A dose-dependent increase in sexual behaviors was evidenced in the animals of extract treated groups. Increase in testis weight was recorded in PT. At the highest dose PT also affects the hormones level. The four compounds namely puerarin, daidzein, biochanin-A and formononetin were identified in ethanolic extract using LC-MS. It concluded that PT extract possesses androgenic effect and it significantly increased the sexual behaviour and hormones level.


Assuntos
Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/metabolismo , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pueraria/química , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Epididimo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Frutose/metabolismo , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Tamanho do Órgão , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/sangue , Testosterona/metabolismo
17.
J Indian Med Assoc ; 111(12): 850-1, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25154161

RESUMO

The porphyrias are a group of rare metabolic disorders, each arising from a predominantly hereditary catalytic dysfunction of one of the eight enzymes in the porphyrin-haem biosynthetic pathway. Acute intermittent porphyria is the commonest type of porphyria worldwide. The disease is more common in women than men. It is therefore important for the obstetricians to know about this entity as many women present with abdominal pain during pregnancy. This case shows that if acute intermittent porphyria is properly treated in a mother there is normal maternal and foetal outcome. A case of acute intermittent porphyria known before pregnancy has been reported in a patient who had three spontaneous abortions in the past, she was delivered by elective caesarean section. The pathogenesis of the disease, its' symptoms, diagnosis, therapeutic approach both during and out of pregnancy have been also discussed.


Assuntos
Porfiria Aguda Intermitente/terapia , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Cesárea , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
18.
Phytother Res ; 27(1): 99-106, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22473789

RESUMO

Anacyclus pyrethrum (A. pyrethrum) has been used as Vajikaran Rasayana (aphrodisiac) in traditional Indian ayurvedic medicine to treat male sexual dysfunction, including infertility. Aphrodisiac activity may be due to an increase in the production or effect of androgens, so this study sought to evaluate the androgenic and spermatogenic potential of the alkylamide-rich ethanol solution extract. Male Wistar strain rats weighing between 150 and 180 g were completely randomized divided into five groups. The ethanol solution extract of A. pyrethrum was administered to groups of rats in 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg doses for a period of 28 days, and the action was compared with control and testosterone-treated rats. Thirteen N-alkylamides were detected in the extract by using HPLC/UV/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method. Extract administration at all the doses produced significant increase in body weight, sperm count, motility, and viability along with serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations. Histoarchitecture of testis revealed increased spermatogenic activities. Seminal fructose content was also significantly increased after 28 days of treatment. Our results suggest that the ethanol solution extract of the roots of A. pyrethrum has androgenic potential and may improve male fertility by enhancing spermatogenesis.


Assuntos
Amidas/farmacologia , Androgênios/farmacologia , Asteraceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso Corporal , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Medicina Ayurvédica , Tamanho do Órgão , Raízes de Plantas/química , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Glândulas Seminais/efeitos dos fármacos , Motilidade Espermática , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/sangue
20.
Pharm Dev Technol ; 17(4): 421-8, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22697430

RESUMO

The instability of protein and antigen(s) during encapsulation in biodegradable polymers by water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) encapsulation is well established. The aim of present study is to screen various additives to prevent the inactivation and loss of immunogenicity of HBsAg upon its exposure to the water/CH(2)Cl(2) (methylene chloride) interface by simulating the formulation steps involved in the preparation of microspheres. The secondary structure of HBsAg, recovered under different conditions after primary emulsification, was investigated by FTIR spectroscopy and Circular Dichorism. Subsequently, PLGA microspheres were formulated and characterized for their size, shape, incorporation efficiency, antigen integrity, and immunogenicity. The immunogenicity and the HBsAg recovery under different conditions were tested in BALB/c mice. Inulin and trehalose were found to be better stabilizing agents to prevent the aggregation, the structural perturbations and immunogenicity of HBsAg. This study substantiated that inulin could overcome the aggregation and denaturing effects of the water/CH(2)Cl(2) interface upon HBsAg during emulsification step and upon encapsulation.


Assuntos
Excipientes/química , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/química , Cloreto de Metileno/química , Desnaturação Proteica , Animais , Cápsulas , Composição de Medicamentos , Feminino , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Ácido Láctico/química , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico , Estabilidade Proteica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Água/química
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