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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(18): 2278-2291, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The assessment of coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) in left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) expands the risk stratification potential of stress echocardiography (SE) based on stress-induced regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and functional correlates of CFVR. METHODS: This prospective, observational, multicenter study initially screened 3,410 patients (2,061 [60%] male; age 63 ± 11 years; ejection fraction 61 ± 9%) with known or suspected coronary artery disease and/or heart failure. All patients underwent SE (exercise, n = 1,288; vasodilator, n = 1,860; dobutamine, n = 262) based on new or worsening RWMA in 20 accredited laboratories of 8 countries. CFVR was calculated as the stress/rest ratio of diastolic peak flow velocity pulsed-Doppler assessment of LAD flow. A subset of 1,867 patients was followed up. RESULTS: The success rate for CFVR on LAD was 3,002 of 3,410 (feasibility = 88%). Reduced (≤2.0) CFVR was found in 896 of 3,002 (30%) patients. At multivariable logistic regression analysis, inducible RWMA (odds ratio [OR]: 6.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.9 to 8.5; p < 0.01), abnormal left ventricular contractile reserve (OR: 3.4; 95% CI: 2.7 to 4.2; p < 0.01), and B-lines (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1 to 1.9; p = 0.01) were associated with reduced CFVR. During a median follow-up time of 16 months, 218 events occurred. RWMA (hazard ratio: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.3 to 6.3; p < 0.001) and reduced CFVR (hazard ratio: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1 to 2.2; p = 0.009) were independently associated with adverse outcome. CONCLUSIONS: CFVR is feasible with all SE protocols. Reduced CFVR is often accompanied by RWMA, abnormal LVCR, and pulmonary congestion during stress, and shows independent value over RWMA in predicting an adverse outcome.

2.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 32(1): 74-80, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30459120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The potential of angiography to evaluate the hemodynamic severity of a left main coronary artery (LM) stenosis is limited. Noninvasive transthoracic Doppler echocardiographic coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) evaluation of intermediate coronary stenosis has demonstrated remarkably high negative prognostic value. The aim of this study was to assess clinical outcomes in patients with angiographically intermediate LM stenosis and preserved CFVR (>2.0) as evaluated by transthoracic Doppler echocardiographic CFVR. METHODS: The initial study population included 102 patients with intermediate coronary stenosis of the LM referred for transthoracic Doppler echocardiographic CFVR assessment. Peak diastolic CFVR measurements were performed in the distal segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery after intravenous adenosine (140 µg/kg/min), and CFVR was calculated as the ratio between maximal hyperemic and baseline coronary flow velocity. Nineteen patients had impaired CFVR (≤2.0) and were excluded from further analysis, as well as two patients with poor acoustic windows. The final group consisted of 81 patients (mean age, 60 ± 9 years; 76 men) evaluated for adverse cardiac events including death, myocardial infarction, and revascularization. RESULTS: Mean follow-up duration was 62 ± 26 months. Mean CFVR was 2.4 ± 0.4. Total event-free survival was 75 of 81 (92.6%), as six patients were referred for revascularization (five patients with coronary artery bypass grafting, one patient with percutaneous coronary intervention). There were no documented myocardial infarctions or cardiovascular deaths in the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with angiographically intermediate and equivocal LM stenosis and preserved CFVR values of >2.0, revascularization can be safely deferred.

4.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 16(1): 20, 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30249305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness trial "Stress echo (SE) 2020" evaluates novel applications of SE in and beyond coronary artery disease. The core protocol also includes 4-site simplified scan of B-lines by lung ultrasound, useful to assess pulmonary congestion. PURPOSE: To provide web-based upstream quality control and harmonization of B-lines reading criteria. METHODS: 60 readers (all previously accredited for regional wall motion, 53 B-lines naive) from 52 centers of 16 countries of SE 2020 network read a set of 20 lung ultrasound video-clips selected by the Pisa lab serving as reference standard, after taking an obligatory web-based learning 2-h module ( http://se2020.altervista.org ). Each test clip was scored for B-lines from 0 (black lung, A-lines, no B-lines) to 10 (white lung, coalescing B-lines). The diagnostic gold standard was the concordant assessment of two experienced readers of the Pisa lab. The answer of the reader was considered correct if concordant with reference standard reading ±1 (for instance, reference standard reading of 5 B-lines; correct answer 4, 5, or 6). The a priori determined pass threshold was 18/20 (≥ 90%) with R value (intra-class correlation coefficient) between reference standard and recruiting center) > 0.90. Inter-observer agreement was assessed with intra-class correlation coefficient statistics. RESULTS: All 60 readers were successfully accredited: 26 (43%) on first, 24 (40%) on second, and 10 (17%) on third attempt. The average diagnostic accuracy of the 60 accredited readers was 95%, with R value of 0.95 compared to reference standard reading. The 53 B-lines naive scored similarly to the 7 B-lines expert on first attempt (90 versus 95%, p = NS). Compared to the step-1 of quality control for regional wall motion abnormalities, the mean reading time per attempt was shorter (17 ± 3 vs 29 ± 12 min, p < .01), the first attempt success rate was higher (43 vs 28%, p < 0.01), and the drop-out of readers smaller (0 vs 28%, p < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Web-based learning is highly effective for teaching and harmonizing B-lines reading. Echocardiographers without previous experience with B-lines learn quickly.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/normas , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Controle de Qualidade , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 31(8): 880-887, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29625885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of nonculprit coronary stenosis during primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction may be beneficial, but the mode and timing of the intervention are still controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the significance and prognostic value of preserved coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) in patients with nonculprit intermediate stenosis early after primary percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS: Two hundred thirty patients with remaining intermediate (50%-70%) stenosis of non-infarct-related arteries, in whom CFVR was performed within 7 days after primary percutaneous coronary intervention, were prospectively enrolled. Twenty patients with reduced CFVR and positive results on stress echocardiography or impaired fractional flow reserve underwent revascularization and were not included in further analysis. The final study population of 210 patients (mean age, 58 ± 10 years; 162 men) was divided into two groups on the basis of CFVR: group 1, CFVR > 2 (n = 174), and group 2, CFVR ≤ 2 (n = 36). Cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and revascularization of the evaluated vessel were considered adverse events. RESULTS: Mean follow-up duration was 47 ± 16 months. Mean CFVR for the whole group was 2.36 ± 0.40. There were six adverse events (3.4%) related to the nonculprit coronary artery in group 1, including one cardiac death, one ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, and four revascularizations. In group 2, there were 30 adverse events (83.3%, P < .001 vs group 1), including two cardiac deaths, two ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions, and 26 revascularizations. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with CFVR > 2 of the intermediate nonculprit coronary lesion, deferral of revascularization is safe and associated with excellent long-term clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/cirurgia , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Estenose Coronária/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida
6.
Int J Cardiol ; 249: 479-485, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28986062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The trial "Stress Echo (SE) 2020" evaluates novel applications of SE beyond coronary artery disease. The aim of the study was control quality and harmonize reading criteria. METHODS: One reader from 78 centers of the SE 2020 network asked for credentials to read a set of 20 SE video-clips selected by the core lab. All aspiring centers met the pre-requisite of high-volume and the years of experience in SE ranged from 5 to 31years (mean value 18years). The diagnostic gold standard was a reading by the core lab. The a priori determined pass threshold was 18/20 (≥90%). RESULTS: Of the initial 78 who started, 57 completed the first attempt: individual readers' score on first attempt ranged from 07/20 to 20/20 (accuracy from 35% to 100%, mean 78.7±13%) and 44 readers passed it. There was a very poor correlation between years of experience and the reader's score on first attempt (r=-0.161, p=0.231). Of the 13 readers who failed the first attempt, 12 took it again after the web-based session and their accuracy improved (74% vs. 96%, p<0.001). The kappa inter-observer agreement before and after web-based training was 0.59 on first attempt and rose to 0.91 on the last attempt. CONCLUSIONS: In SE reading, the volume of activity or years of experience is not synonymous with diagnostic quality. Qualitative analysis and operator-dependence can become a limiting weakness in clinical practice, in the absence of strict pathways of learning, credentialing and audit.


Assuntos
Cardiologistas/normas , Competência Clínica/normas , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/normas , Controle de Qualidade , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 33(11): 1731-1736, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28550586

RESUMO

The diffusion of smart-phones offers access to the best remote expertise in stress echo (SE). To evaluate the reliability of SE based on smart-phone filming and reading. A set of 20 SE video-clips were read in random sequence with a multiple choice six-answer test by ten readers from five different countries (Italy, Brazil, Serbia, Bulgaria, Russia) of the "SE2020" study network. The gold standard to assess accuracy was a core-lab expert reader in agreement with angiographic verification (0 = wrong, 1 = right). The same set of 20 SE studies were read, in random order and >2 months apart, on desktop Workstation and via smartphones by ten remote readers. Image quality was graded from 1 = poor but readable, to 3 = excellent. Kappa (k) statistics was used to assess intra- and inter-observer agreement. The image quality was comparable in desktop workstation vs. smartphone (2.0 ± 0.5 vs. 2.4 ± 0.7, p = NS). The average reading time per case was similar for desktop versus smartphone (90 ± 39 vs. 82 ± 54 s, p = NS). The overall diagnostic accuracy of the ten readers was similar for desktop workstation vs. smartphone (84 vs. 91%, p = NS). Intra-observer agreement (desktop vs. smartphone) was good (k = 0.81 ± 0.14). Inter-observer agreement was good and similar via desktop or smartphone (k = 0.69 vs. k = 0.72, p = NS). The diagnostic accuracy and consistency of SE reading among certified readers was high and similar via desktop workstation or via smartphone.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/instrumentação , Aplicativos Móveis , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Consulta Remota/instrumentação , Smartphone , Brasil , Angiografia Coronária , Europa (Continente) , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
J Cardiol ; 70(4): 323-328, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28336204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relations of elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) and cardiac ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients is uncertain. Therefore we designed the study with the following aims: (1) to analyze plasma concentrations of NT-pro-BNP in various subsets of HCM patients; (2) to reveal the correlations of NT-pro-BNP, myocardial ischemia, and diastolic dysfunction; (3) to assess predictors of the elevated plasma levels of NT-pro-BNP. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 61 patients (mean age 48.9±16.3 years; 26 male) with asymmetric HCM plasma levels of NT-pro-BNP were obtained. Standard transthoracic examination, tissue Doppler echocardiography with measurement of transthoracic coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) in left anterior descending artery (LAD) was done. Mean natural logarithm value of NT-pro-BNP was 7.11±0.95pg/ml [median value 1133 (interquartile range 561-2442)pg/ml]. NT-pro-BNP was significantly higher in patients with higher NYHA class, in obstructive HCM, more severe mitral regurgitation, increased left atrial volume index (LAVI), presence of calcified mitral annulus, elevated left ventricular (LV) filling pressure and in decreased CFVR. Levels of NT-pro-BNP significantly correlated with the ratio of E/e' (r=0.534, p<0.001), LV outflow tract gradient (r=0.503, p=0.024), LAVI (r=0.443, p<0.001), while inversely correlated with CFVR LAD (r=-0.569, p<0.001). When multivariate analysis was done only CFVR LAD and E/e' emerged as independent predictors of NT-pro-BNP. CONCLUSION: Plasma levels of NT-pro-BNP were significantly higher in HCM patients with more advanced disease. Elevated NT-pro-BNP not only reflects the diastolic impairment of the LV, but it might also be the result of cardiac ischemia in patients with HCM.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/sangue , Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/fisiopatologia , Circulação Coronária , Diástole , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Análise Multivariada , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda
9.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 15(1): 3, 2017 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28100277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stress echocardiography (SE) has an established role in evidence-based guidelines, but recently its breadth and variety of applications have extended well beyond coronary artery disease (CAD). We lack a prospective research study of SE applications, in and beyond CAD, also considering a variety of signs in addition to regional wall motion abnormalities. METHODS: In a prospective, multicenter, international, observational study design, > 100 certified high-volume SE labs (initially from Italy, Brazil, Hungary, and Serbia) will be networked with an organized system of clinical, laboratory and imaging data collection at the time of physical or pharmacological SE, with structured follow-up information. The study is endorsed by the Italian Society of Cardiovascular Echography and organized in 10 subprojects focusing on: contractile reserve for prediction of cardiac resynchronization or medical therapy response; stress B-lines in heart failure; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; mitral regurgitation after either transcatheter or surgical aortic valve replacement; outdoor SE in extreme physiology; right ventricular contractile reserve in repaired Tetralogy of Fallot; suspected or initial pulmonary arterial hypertension; coronary flow velocity, left ventricular elastance reserve and B-lines in known or suspected CAD; identification of subclinical familial disease in genotype-positive, phenotype- negative healthy relatives of inherited disease (such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy). RESULTS: We expect to recruit about 10,000 patients over a 5-year period (2016-2020), with sample sizes ranging from 5,000 for coronary flow velocity/ left ventricular elastance/ B-lines in CAD to around 250 for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or repaired Tetralogy of Fallot. This data-base will allow to investigate technical questions such as feasibility and reproducibility of various SE parameters and to assess their prognostic value in different clinical scenarios. CONCLUSIONS: The study will create the cultural, informatic and scientific infrastructure connecting high-volume, accredited SE labs, sharing common criteria of indication, execution, reporting and image storage of SE to obtain original safety, feasibility, and outcome data in evidence-poor diagnostic fields, also outside the established core application of SE in CAD based on regional wall motion abnormalities. The study will standardize procedures, validate emerging signs, and integrate the new information with established knowledge, helping to build a next-generation SE lab without inner walls.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Idoso , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Int J Cardiol ; 225: 37-45, 2016 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27710800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To consider hemodynamic assessment of myocardial bridging (MB) adequate, it is believed that inotropic stimulation with dobutamine should be estimated because its dynamic nature depends on the degree of extravascular coronary compression. This study evaluated comparative assessment of hemodynamic relevance of MB using coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) measurements by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTDE) with vasodilatative and inotropic challenges. METHODS: This prospective study included forty-four patients with angiographic evidence of isolated MB of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and systolic compression of ≥50% diameter stenosis. All patients were evaluated by exercise stress-echocardiography (ExSE) test for signs of myocardial ischemia, and CFVR of the distal segment of LAD during iv.infusion of adenosine (ADO:140µg/kg/min) and iv.infusion of dobutamine (DOB:10-40µg/kg/min), separately. RESULTS: Exercise-SE was positive for myocardial ischemia in 8/44 (18%) of patients. CFVR during ADO was significantly higher than CFVR during peak DOB (2.85±0.68 vs. 2.44±0.48, p=0.002). CFVR during peak DOB was significantly lower in SE-positive group in comparison to SE-negative group (2.01±0.16 vs. 2.54±0.47, p<0.001), but not for ADO (2.47±0.51 vs. 2.89±0.70, p=0.168), respectively. Multivariable logistic analysis showed that CFVR peak DOB was the most significant predictor of functional significant MB (OR 0.011, 95%CI: 0.001-0.507, p=0.021). Receiver-operating characteristic curves have shown that TTDE-CFVR obtained by high-dose of dobutamine infusion is better than those by adenosine regarding to functional status of MB (AUC 0.861, p=0.004; AUC 0.674, p=0.179, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Non-invasive CFVR measurement by TTDE during inotropic stimulation, in comparison to vasodilation, provides more reliable functional evaluation of MB.


Assuntos
Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiotônicos/administração & dosagem , Circulação Coronária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecocardiografia Doppler/métodos , Ponte Miocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Idoso , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Circulação Coronária/fisiologia , Dobutamina/administração & dosagem , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ponte Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Ponte Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 13(3): 220-7, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26993497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Coronary flow reserve is impaired in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis and has a prognostic value. We investigated whether the type II diabetes mellitus additionally impairs microvascular circulation assessed by coronary flow reserve in patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis, normal left ventricular ejection fraction and nonobstructed coronary arteries. METHODS: A total of 128 patients, mean age of 66.35 ± 10.51 (58.6% males), with severe aortic stenosis and normal left ventricular ejection fraction were enrolled in this study. Patients with diabetes mellitus, those who were treated for diabetes mellitus or had documentation confirming the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, were considered. All patients underwent coronary angiography and had no obstructive coronary disease (defined as having no stenosis >50% in diameter), standard transthoracic Doppler-echocardiographic study and adenosine stress transthoracic echocardiography for coronary flow reserve measurement. RESULTS: Diabetes mellitus was present in 26 patients (20.31%). There was no significant difference in aortic stenosis severity between diabetic and non-diabetic patients [aortic valve area (0.81 ± 0.18 vs 0.85 ± 0.15 cm(2)) and Vmax (4.20 ± 0.57 vs 4.21 ± 0.48 m/s)]. Mean coronary flow reserve in diabetic patients was 1.98 ± 0.48, while mean coronary flow reserve in non-diabetic patients was 2.64 ± 0.54 (p < 0.01). Diabetes mellitus was independent predictor of coronary flow reserve [B = -0.636, 95% confidence interval (-0.916 to -0.368), p < 0.001]. CONCLUSION: Diabetes mellitus additionally impairs coronary microvascular function in asymptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis and nonobstructed coronary arteries.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Circulação Coronária , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Angiopatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Microcirculação , Microvasos/fisiopatologia , Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Doenças Assintomáticas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Angiopatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiopatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Microvasos/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Volume Sistólico , Fatores de Tempo , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Função Ventricular Esquerda
13.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 23(1): 71-7, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26358991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is commonly associated with hypertension (HTN). However, resting echocardiography (ECHO) can underestimate the severity of disease. Exercise stress echocardiography (ESE) and the cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) appeared to be useful tests in dynamic assessment of HFpEF. The value of combined exercise stress echocardiography cardiopulmonary testing (ESE-CPX) in the identification of masked HFpEF is still undetermined. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyse the value of the combined ESE-CPX in the identification of masked HFpEF in patients with HTN, dyspnoea and normal resting left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function. METHODOLOGY: We studied 87 patients with HTN, exertional dyspnoea and normal resting LV function. They all underwent ESE-CPX testing (supine bicycle, ramp protocol, 15 W/min). ECHO measurements were performed at rest, and at peak load. Achievement of peak E/e' ratio>15 was a marker for masked HFpEF. RESULTS: Increase of E/e'>15 occurred in 8/87 patients (9.2%) during ESE-CPX. Those patients had the lower peak VO2 (p = 0.012), the lower VO2 at anaerobic threshold (p = 0.025), the lower workload (p = 0.026), the lower peak partial pressure end tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO2) (p < 0.0001), and the higher VE/VCO2 slope (p < 0.0001) which was an independent multivariate predictor of HFpEF (p = 0.021), with the cut-off value of 32.95 according to the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve (sensitivity (Sn) 100%, specificity (Sp) 90%). CONCLUSION: The combined ESE-CPX test is feasible and reliable test that can unmask HFpEF and may become an important aid in the early diagnosis of HFpEF, excluding the other causes of exertional dyspnoea.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Doppler de Pulso , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/métodos , Teste de Esforço , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão/complicações , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Ciclismo , Dispneia/etiologia , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Tolerância ao Exercício , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
14.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 13: 41, 2015 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26340922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk stratification of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major objective for the clinicians, and it can be achieved by coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) or with coronary artery calcium score (CS). CS evaluates underlying coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden and CFVR estimates both presence of coronary artery stenosis and microvascular function. Consequently, CFVR may provide unique risk information beyond the extent of coronary atherosclerosis. AIM: Our aim is to assess joint prognostic value of CFVR and CS in asymptomatic DM patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively included 200 asymptomatic patients (45,5 % male, mean age 57,35 ± 11,25), out of which, there were 101 asymptomatic patients with DM and 99 asymptomatic patients without DM, but with one or more conventionally risk factors for coronary artery disease. We analyzed clinical, biochemical, metabolic, inflammatory parameters, CS by Agatston method, transthoracic Doppler echocardiography CFVR of left anterior descending artery and echocardiographic parameters. RESULTS: Total CS and CS LAD were significantly higher, while mean CFVR was lower in diabetics compared to the nondiabetics. During 1 year follow-up, 24 patients experienced cardio-vascular events (one cardiovascular death, two strokes, three myocardial infarctions, nine new onsets of unstable angina and nine myocardial revascularizations): 19 patients with DM and five non DM patients, (p = 0,003). Overall event free survival was significantly higher in non DM group, compared to the DM group (94,9 % vs. 81,2 %, p = 0,002 respectively), while the patients with CS ≥200 and CFVR <2 had the worst outcome during 1 year follow up in the whole study population as well as in the DM group. At multivariable analysis CFVR on LAD (HR 12.918, 95 % CI 3.865-43.177, p < 0.001) and total CS (HR 13.393, 95 % CI 1.675-107.119, p = 0.014) were independent prognostic predictors of adverse events in DM group of patients. CONCLUSION: Both CS and CFVR provide independent and complementary prognostic information in asymptomatic DM patients. When two parameters are analyzed together, the risk stratification ability improves, even when DM patients are analyzed together with non DM patients. As a result, DM patients with CS ≥200 and CFVR <2 had the worst outcome. Consequently, the use of two tests identified subset of patients who can derive the most benefit from the intensive prevention measures.


Assuntos
Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Complicações do Diabetes/mortalidade , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Doenças Assintomáticas/mortalidade , Calcinose/complicações , Calcinose/fisiopatologia , Causalidade , Comorbidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Complicações do Diabetes/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações do Diabetes/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sérvia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida
15.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 13: 26, 2015 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26012474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nicorandil, as a selective potassium channel opener, has dual action including coronary and peripheral vasodilatation and cardioprotective effect through ischemic preconditioning. Considering those characteristics, nicorandil was suggested to reduce the degree of microvascular dysfunction. METHODS: Thirty-two patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) were included in the study. Index of microvascular resistance (IMR) was measured in all patients immediatelly after pPCI before the after administration of Nicorandil. ST segment resolution was monitored before intervention and 60 min after terminating the procedure. Echocardiographic evaluation of myocardial function and transthoracic Doppler derived Coronary flow reserve (CFR) of infarct related artery (IRA) was performed during hospitalization and 3 months later. RESULTS: IMR was significantly lower after administration of Nicorandil (9.9 ± 3.7 vs. 14.1 ± 5.1, p < 0.001). There was significant difference in ST segment elevation before and after primary PCI with administration of Nicorandil (6.9 ± 3.7 mm vs. 1.6 ± 1.6 mm, p < 0.001). Transthoracic Doppler CFR measurement improved after 3 months (2.69 ± 0.38 vs. 2.92 ± 0.54, p = 0.021), as well as WMSI (1.14 ± 0.17 vs. 1.07 ± 0.09, p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Intracoronary Nicorandil administration after primary PCI significantly decreases IMR, resulting in improved CFR and ventricular function in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Microcirculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Nicorandil/uso terapêutico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia
16.
Clin Chim Acta ; 438: 107-11, 2015 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25139494

RESUMO

Early experimental and clinical reports on glycogen phosphorylase BB (GPBB) kinetics following myocardial ischemic injury suggested that it could be a useful diagnostic marker for early detection of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). After more than two decades of investigation, there is now overwhelming body of evidence that do not support the use of GPBB measurement in diagnosis of acute AMI in patients presenting with acute chest pain. Currently, GPBB cannot be recommended as a diagnostic marker of AMI either as a stand-alone test or as an addition to (high-sensitive) troponin testing. It should be noted that these considerations apply to the early diagnosis of AMI, not to the prognostic stratification, which is also suggested but it warrants further investigation. The aim of this review is to summarize available evidence of GPBB measurement in early diagnosis of myocardial infarction.


Assuntos
Glicogênio Fosforilase/metabolismo , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/enzimologia , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico
17.
J Cardiol ; 65(3): 208-15, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25012060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To analyze plasma adiponectin kinetics in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) and its association with coronary flow reserve (CFR), an index of coronary microcirculatory function. METHODS: A total of 96 consecutive patients with the first anterior STEMI treated by pPCI without heart failure were included. CFR was assessed on the 7th day after pPCI. Plasma adiponectin was measured on admission before pPCI, and on the 2nd and 7th day after pPCI. RESULTS: Adiponectin concentration was the highest on admission, declined to the lowest level on the 2nd day, and rose on the 7th day remaining below admission values. Impaired coronary microcirculatory function (CFR<2) was observed in 41% of the patients. Adiponectin concentrations significantly positively correlated with CFR, and the strongest correlation was with the 2nd day adiponectin (r=0.489, p<0.001). In multivariate models, adiponectin concentrations were independent predictors of impaired CFR [on admission: odds ratio (OR) 0.175, confidence interval (CI): 0.047-0.654, p=0.010; 2nd day: OR 0.146, 95% CI: 0.044-0.485, p=0.002; 7th day: OR 0.198, CI: 0.064-0.611, p=0.005]. The best power to predict impaired CFR was the 2nd day adiponectin. Delta values of adiponectin (differences between adiponectin concentrations) did not correlate with CFR. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with the first anterior STEMI treated by pPCI plasma adiponectin concentrations before and after pPCI are strongly associated with CFR. Our results support the hypothesis that low adiponectin, especially during the early post-pPCI period, carries the risk for impaired coronary microcirculatory function in STEMI patients.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Circulação Coronária , Microcirculação , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 30(8): 1509-18, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25108390

RESUMO

Coronary microcirculatory function after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) in patients with acute myocardial infarction is important determinant of infarct size (IS). Our aim was to investigate the utility of coronary flow reserve (CFR) and diastolic deceleration time (DDT) of the infarct artery (IRA) assessed by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography after pPCI for final IS prediction. In 59 patients, on the 2nd day after pPCI for acute anterior myocardial infarction, transthoracic Doppler analysis of IRA blood flow was done including measurements of CFR, baseline DDT and DDT during adenosine infusion (DDT adeno). Killip class, myocardial blush grade, resolution of ST segment elevation, peak creatine kinase-myocardial band and conventional echocardiographic parameters were determined. Single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging was done 6 weeks later to define final IS (percentage of myocardium with fixed perfusion abnormality). IS significantly correlated with CFR (r = -0.686, p < 0.01), DDT (r = -0.727, p < 0.01), and DDT adeno (r = -0.780, p < 0.01). CFR and DDT adeno in multivariate analysis remained independent IS predictors after adjustment for other covariates and offered incremental prognostic value in models based on conventional clinical, angiographic, electrocardiographic and enzymatic variables. In predicting large infarction (IS > 20 %), the best cut-off for CFR was <1.73 (sensitivity 65 %, specificity 96 %) and for DDT adeno ≤720 ms (sensitivity 81 %, specificity 96 %). CFR and DDT during adenosine are independent and powerful early predictors of final IS offering incremental prognostic information over conventional parameters of myocardial and microvascular damage and tissue reperfusion.


Assuntos
Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Adenosina , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Creatina Quinase Forma MB/sangue , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microcirculação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Sérvia , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Resultado do Tratamento , Vasodilatadores
19.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 15(12): 1344-9, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25053732

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of the study was to assess the value of coronary flow reserve (CFR) for predicting improvement of left ventricular function after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). METHODS AND RESULTS: Study population included 40 patients (mean age 58 ± 9 years) with heart failure (ejection fraction 25, 7 ± 5, 4%) and QRS duration of 158 ± 22 ms, planned for CRT. Before and after CRT implantation, CFR was measured non-invasively during hyperaemia induced with adenosine. Responders were defined by decrease in end-systolic volume ≥15%. Follow-up echocardiography and CFR measurements were obtained after 6 months. At baseline there was no significant difference in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), QRS duration, 6 min walk test distance and coronary flow velocity at rest between responder (n = 26) vs. non-responder group (n = 14, P = ns). Before CRT implantation, responders compared with non-responders, showed a greater increase in coronary flow velocity during hyperaemia, and consequently higher CFR: 2.41 ± 0.60 vs. 1.61 ± 0.45 (P = 0.001). There was significant correlation between CFR before CRT implantation and LVEF after 6 months (r = 0.545, P = 0.001). End-diastolic, end-systolic left ventricular diameter, and CFR before CRT were predictors of LV functional improvement. By multivariate analysis, only CFR before CRT was independent predictor of left ventricular recovery in the follow-up period (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that preserved CFR in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy is predictive of left ventricular improvement after CRT implantation.


Assuntos
Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Ventrículos do Coração , Idoso , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/métodos , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/terapia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 13: 73, 2014 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24708817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) assessed by the Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA) index in the acute phase of myocardial infarction in non-diabetic patients was recently established as an independent predictor of intrahospital mortality. In this study we postulated that acute IR is a dynamic phenomenon associated with the development of myocardial and microvascular injury and larger final infarct size in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). METHODS: In 104 consecutive patients with the first anterior STEMI without diabetes, the HOMA index was determined on the 2nd and 7th day after pPCI. Worst-lead residual ST-segment elevation (ST-E) on postprocedural ECG, coronary flow reserve (CFR) determined by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography on the 2nd day after pPCI and fixed perfusion defect on single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI) determined six weeks after pPCI were analyzed according to HOMA indices. RESULTS: IR was present in 55 % and 58 % of patients on day 2 and day 7, respectively. Incomplete post-procedural ST-E resolution was more frequent in patients with IR compared to patients without IR, both on day 2 (p = 0.001) and day 7 (p < 0.001). The HOMA index on day 7 correlated with SPECT-MPI perfusion defect (r = 0.331), whereas both HOMA indices correlated well with CFR (r = -0.331 to -0.386) (p < 0.01 for all). In multivariable backward logistic regression analysis adjusted for significant univariate predictors and potential confounding variables, IR on day 2 was an independent predictor of residual ST-E ≥ 2 mm (OR 11.70, 95% CI 2.46-55.51, p = 0.002) and CFR < 2 (OR = 5.98, 95% CI 1.88-19.03, p = 0.002), whereas IR on day 7 was an independent predictor of SPECT-MPI perfusion defect > 20% (OR 11.37, 95% CI 1.34-96.21, p = 0.026). CONCLUSION: IR assessed by the HOMA index during the acute phase of the first anterior STEMI in patients without diabetes treated by pPCI is independently associated with poorer myocardial reperfusion, impaired coronary microcirculatory function and potentially with larger final infarct size.


Assuntos
Circulação Coronária/fisiologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Microcirculação/fisiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos
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