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1.
Eur Respir J ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601713

RESUMO

Little is known about the characteristics and treatments of patients with severe asthma across Europe but both are likely to vary. This is the first study in the ERS Severe Heterogeneous Asthma Research collaboration, Patient-centred (SHARP) and it is designed to explore these variations. Therefore, we aimed to compare characteristics of patients in European severe asthma registries and treatments before starting biologicals. This was a cross-sectional retrospective analysis of aggregated data from 11 national severe asthma registries that joined SHARP with established patient databases. Analysis of data from 3233 patients showed many differences in characteristics and life style factors. Current smokers ranged from 0% (Poland, PL, Sweden, SE) to 9.5% (Belgium, BE), mean BMI ranged from 26.2 (Italy) to 30.6 kg·m-2 (UK) and the largest difference in mean pre-bronchodilator FEV1% pred. was 20.9% (Netherlands versus Hungary). Before starting biologicals patients were treated differently between countries: mean ICS dose ranged from 700 to 1335 µg·day-1 between those from Slovenia (SL) versus PL when starting anti-IL-5 antibody and from 772 to 1344 µg·day-1 in those starting anti-IgE (SL versus Spain). Maintenance OCS use ranged from 21.0% (BE) to 63.0% (SE) and from 9.1% (Denmark) to 56.1% (UK) in patients starting anti-IL-5 and anti-IgE, respectively. The severe asthmatic population in Europe is heterogeneous and differs in both clinical characteristics and treatment, often appearing not to comply with the current ERS/ATS guidelines definition of severe asthma. Treatment regimens before starting biologicals were different from inclusion criteria in clinical trials and varied between countries.

3.
Allergy ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether the clinical or pathophysiologic significance of the "treatable trait" high blood eosinophil count in COPD is the same as for asthma remains controversial. We sought to determine the relationship between the blood eosinophil count, clinical characteristics and gene expression from bronchial brushings in COPD and asthma. METHODS: Subjects were recruited into a COPD (emphysema versus airway disease [EvA]) or asthma cohort (Unbiased BIOmarkers in PREDiction of respiratory disease outcomes, U-BIOPRED). We determined gene expression using RNAseq in EvA (n = 283) and Affymetrix microarrays in U-BIOPRED (n = 85). We ran linear regression analysis of the bronchial brushings transcriptional signal versus blood eosinophil counts as well as differential expression using a blood eosinophil > 200 cells/µL as a cut-off. The false discovery rate was controlled at 1% (with continuous values) and 5% (with dichotomized values). RESULTS: There were no differences in age, gender, lung function, exercise capacity and quantitative computed tomography between eosinophilic versus noneosinophilic COPD cases. Total serum IgE was increased in eosinophilic asthma and COPD. In EvA, there were 12 genes with a statistically significant positive association with the linear blood eosinophil count, whereas in U-BIOPRED, 1197 genes showed significant associations (266 positive and 931 negative). The transcriptome showed little overlap between genes and pathways associated with blood eosinophil counts in asthma versus COPD. Only CST1 was common to eosinophilic asthma and COPD and was replicated in independent cohorts. CONCLUSION: Despite shared "treatable traits" between asthma and COPD, the molecular mechanisms underlying these clinical entities are predominately different.

4.
Eur Respir J ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558662

RESUMO

This document provides clinical recommendations for the management of severe asthma. Comprehensive evidence syntheses, including meta-analyses, were performed to summarise all available evidence relevant to the Task Force's questions. The evidence was appraised using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach and the results were summarised in evidence profiles. The evidence syntheses were discussed and recommendations formulated by a multidisciplinary Task Force of asthma experts, who made specific recommendations on 6 specific questions. After considering the balance of desirable and undesirable consequences, quality of evidence, feasibility, and acceptability of various interventions, the Task Force made the following recommendations: 1) Suggest using anti-IL5 and anti IL-5Rα for severe uncontrolled adult eosinophilic asthma phenotypes; 2) suggest using blood eosinophil cut-point of ≥150/µL to guide anti-IL5 initiation in adult patients with severe asthma; and 3) Suggest considering specific eosinophil (≥260/µL) and FeNO (≥19.5 ppb) cutoffs to identify adolescents or adults with the greatest likelihood or response to anti-IgE therapy; 4) Suggest using inhaled tiotropium for adolescents and adults with severe uncontrolled asthma despite GINA step 4-5 or NAEPP step 5 therapies; 5) Suggest a trial of chronic macrolide therapy to reduce asthma exacerbations in persistently symptomatic or uncontrolled patients on GINA step 5 or NAEPP step 5 therapies, irrespective of asthma phenotype; 6) Suggest using anti-IL4/13 for adult patients with severe eosinophilic asthma, and for those with severe corticosteroid-dependent asthma regardless of blood eosinophil levels. These recommendations should be reconsidered as new evidence becomes available.

5.
Eur Respir J ; 54(3)2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467120

RESUMO

Despite the use of effective medications to control asthma, severe exacerbations in asthma are still a major health risk and require urgent action on the part of the patient and physician to prevent serious outcomes such as hospitalisation or death. Moreover, severe exacerbations are associated with substantial healthcare costs and psychological burden, including anxiety and fear for patients and their families. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) set up a task force to search for a clear definition of severe exacerbations, and to also define research questions and priorities. The statement includes comments from patients who were members of the task force.

7.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 99, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is now widely recognised to be a heterogeneous disease. The last two decades have seen the identification of a number of biological targets and development of various novel therapies. Despite this, asthma still represents a significant health and economic burden worldwide. Why some individuals should continue to suffer remains unclear. METHODS: The Wessex Asthma Cohort of Difficult Asthma (WATCH) is an ongoing 'real-life', prospective study of patients in the University Hospital Southampton Foundation Trust (UHSFT) Difficult Asthma service. Research data capture is aligned with the extensive clinical characterisation required of a commissioned National Health Service (NHS) Specialist Centre for Severe Asthma. Data acquisition includes detailed clinical, health and disease-related questionnaires, anthropometry, allergy and lung function testing, radiological imaging (in a small subset) and collection of biological samples (blood, urine and sputum). Prospective data are captured in parallel to clinical follow up appointments, with data entered into a bespoke database. DISCUSSION: The pragmatic ongoing nature of the WATCH study allows comprehensive assessment of the real world clinical spectrum seen in a Specialist Asthma Centre and allows a longitudinal perspective of deeply phenotyped patients. It is anticipated that the WATCH cohort would act as a vehicle for potential collaborative asthma studies and will build upon our understanding of mechanisms underlying difficult asthma.

9.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(1): 70-82, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stratification by eosinophil and neutrophil counts increases our understanding of asthma and helps target therapy, but there is room for improvement in our accuracy in prediction of treatment responses and a need for better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify molecular subphenotypes of asthma defined by proteomic signatures for improved stratification. METHODS: Unbiased label-free quantitative mass spectrometry and topological data analysis were used to analyze the proteomes of sputum supernatants from 246 participants (206 asthmatic patients) as a novel means of asthma stratification. Microarray analysis of sputum cells provided transcriptomics data additionally to inform on underlying mechanisms. RESULTS: Analysis of the sputum proteome resulted in 10 clusters (ie, proteotypes) based on similarity in proteomic features, representing discrete molecular subphenotypes of asthma. Overlaying granulocyte counts onto the 10 clusters as metadata further defined 3 of these as highly eosinophilic, 3 as highly neutrophilic, and 2 as highly atopic with relatively low granulocytic inflammation. For each of these 3 phenotypes, logistic regression analysis identified candidate protein biomarkers, and matched transcriptomic data pointed to differentially activated underlying mechanisms. CONCLUSION: This study provides further stratification of asthma currently classified based on quantification of granulocytic inflammation and provided additional insight into their underlying mechanisms, which could become targets for novel therapies.

10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(5): 1198-1213, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of IL-17 immunity is well established in patients with inflammatory diseases, such as psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease, but not in asthmatic patients, in whom further study is required. OBJECTIVE: We sought to undertake a deep phenotyping study of asthmatic patients with upregulated IL-17 immunity. METHODS: Whole-genome transcriptomic analysis was performed by using epithelial brushings, bronchial biopsy specimens (91 asthmatic patients and 46 healthy control subjects), and whole blood samples (n = 498) from the Unbiased Biomarkers for the Prediction of Respiratory Disease Outcomes (U-BIOPRED) cohort. Gene signatures induced in vitro by IL-17 and IL-13 in bronchial epithelial cells were used to identify patients with IL-17-high and IL-13-high asthma phenotypes. RESULTS: Twenty-two of 91 patients were identified with IL-17, and 9 patients were identified with IL-13 gene signatures. The patients with IL-17-high asthma were characterized by risk of frequent exacerbations, airway (sputum and mucosal) neutrophilia, decreased lung microbiota diversity, and urinary biomarker evidence of activation of the thromboxane B2 pathway. In pathway analysis the differentially expressed genes in patients with IL-17-high asthma were shared with those reported as altered in psoriasis lesions and included genes regulating epithelial barrier function and defense mechanisms, such as IL1B, IL6, IL8, and ß-defensin. CONCLUSION: The IL-17-high asthma phenotype, characterized by bronchial epithelial dysfunction and upregulated antimicrobial and inflammatory response, resembles the immunophenotype of psoriasis, including activation of the thromboxane B2 pathway, which should be considered a biomarker for this phenotype in further studies, including clinical trials targeting IL-17.

11.
Allergy ; 74(6): 1102-1112, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30667542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eosinophils play an important role in the pathophysiology of asthma being implicated in airway epithelial damage and airway wall remodeling. We determined the genes associated with airway remodeling and eosinophilic inflammation in patients with asthma. METHODS: We analyzed the transcriptomic data from bronchial biopsies of 81 patients with moderate-to-severe asthma of the U-BIOPRED cohort. Expression profiling was performed using Affymetrix arrays on total RNA. Transcription binding site analysis used the PRIMA algorithm. Localization of proteins was by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Using stringent false discovery rate analysis, MMP-10 and MET were significantly overexpressed in biopsies with high mucosal eosinophils (HE) compared to low mucosal eosinophil (LE) numbers. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed increased expression of MMP-10 and MET in bronchial epithelial cells and in subepithelial inflammatory and resident cells in asthmatic biopsies. Using less-stringent conditions (raw P-value < 0.05, log2 fold change > 0.5), we defined a 73-gene set characteristic of the HE compared to the LE group. Thirty-three of 73 genes drove the pathway annotation that included extracellular matrix (ECM) organization, mast cell activation, CC-chemokine receptor binding, circulating immunoglobulin complex, serine protease inhibitors, and microtubule bundle formation pathways. Genes including MET and MMP10 involved in ECM organization correlated positively with submucosal thickness. Transcription factor binding site analysis identified two transcription factors, ETS-1 and SOX family proteins, that showed positive correlation with MMP10 and MET expression. CONCLUSION: Pathways of airway remodeling and cellular inflammation are associated with submucosal eosinophilia. MET and MMP-10 likely play an important role in these processes.

12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(5): 1811-1820.e7, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe asthma is a heterogeneous condition, as shown by independent cluster analyses based on demographic, clinical, and inflammatory characteristics. A next step is to identify molecularly driven phenotypes using "omics" technologies. Molecular fingerprints of exhaled breath are associated with inflammation and can qualify as noninvasive assessment of severe asthma phenotypes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed (1) to identify severe asthma phenotypes using exhaled metabolomic fingerprints obtained from a composite of electronic noses (eNoses) and (2) to assess the stability of eNose-derived phenotypes in relation to within-patient clinical and inflammatory changes. METHODS: In this longitudinal multicenter study exhaled breath samples were taken from an unselected subset of adults with severe asthma from the U-BIOPRED cohort. Exhaled metabolites were analyzed centrally by using an assembly of eNoses. Unsupervised Ward clustering enhanced by similarity profile analysis together with K-means clustering was performed. For internal validation, partitioning around medoids and topological data analysis were applied. Samples at 12 to 18 months of prospective follow-up were used to assess longitudinal within-patient stability. RESULTS: Data were available for 78 subjects (age, 55 years [interquartile range, 45-64 years]; 41% male). Three eNose-driven clusters (n = 26/33/19) were revealed, showing differences in circulating eosinophil (P = .045) and neutrophil (P = .017) percentages and ratios of patients using oral corticosteroids (P = .035). Longitudinal within-patient cluster stability was associated with changes in sputum eosinophil percentages (P = .045). CONCLUSIONS: We have identified and followed up exhaled molecular phenotypes of severe asthma, which were associated with changing inflammatory profile and oral steroid use. This suggests that breath analysis can contribute to the management of severe asthma.

13.
Eur Respir J ; 53(1)2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578390

RESUMO

Type-2 (T2) immune responses in airway epithelial cells (AECs) classifies mild-moderate asthma into a T2-high phenotype. We examined whether currently available clinical biomarkers can predict AEC-defined T2-high phenotype within the U-BIOPRED cohort.The transcriptomic profile of AECs obtained from brushings of 103 patients with asthma and 44 healthy controls was obtained and gene set variation analysis used to determine the relative expression score of T2 asthma using a signature from interleukin (IL)-13-exposed AECs.37% of asthmatics (45% nonsmoking severe asthma, n=49; 33% of smoking or ex-smoking severe asthma, n=18; and 28% mild-moderate asthma, n=36) were T2-high using AEC gene expression. They were more symptomatic with higher exhaled nitric oxide fraction (F eNO) and blood and sputum eosinophils, but not serum IgE or periostin. Sputum eosinophilia correlated best with the T2-high signature. F eNO (≥30 ppb) and blood eosinophils (≥300 cells·µL-1) gave a moderate prediction of T2-high asthma. Sputum IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 protein levels did not correlate with gene expression.T2-high severe asthma can be predicted to some extent from raised levels of F eNO, blood and sputum eosinophil counts, but serum IgE or serum periostin were poor predictors. Better bedside biomarkers are needed to detect T2-high.

14.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(1): 20-34, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few genetic studies that focus on moderate-to-severe asthma exist. We aimed to identity novel genetic variants associated with moderate-to-severe asthma, see whether previously identified genetic variants for all types of asthma contribute to moderate-to-severe asthma, and provide novel mechanistic insights using expression analyses in patients with asthma. METHODS: In this genome-wide association study, we used a two-stage case-control design. In stage 1, we genotyped patient-level data from two UK cohorts (the Genetics of Asthma Severity and Phenotypes [GASP] initiative and the Unbiased BIOmarkers in PREDiction of respiratory disease outcomes [U-BIOPRED] project) and used data from the UK Biobank to collect patient-level genomic data for cases and controls of European ancestry in a 1:5 ratio. Cases were defined as having moderate-to-severe asthma if they were taking appropriate medication or had been diagnosed by a doctor. Controls were defined as not having asthma, rhinitis, eczema, allergy, emphysema, or chronic bronchitis as diagnosed by a doctor. For stage 2, an independent cohort of cases and controls (1:5) was selected from the UK Biobank only, with no overlap with stage 1 samples. In stage 1 we undertook a genome-wide association study of moderate-to-severe asthma, and in stage 2 we followed up independent variants that reached the significance threshold of p less than 1 × 10-6 in stage 1. We set genome-wide significance at p less than 5 × 10-8. For novel signals, we investigated their effect on all types of asthma (mild, moderate, and severe). For all signals meeting genome-wide significance, we investigated their effect on gene expression in patients with asthma and controls. FINDINGS: We included 5135 cases and 25 675 controls for stage 1, and 5414 cases and 21 471 controls for stage 2. We identified 24 genome-wide significant signals of association with moderate-to-severe asthma, including several signals in innate or adaptive immune-response genes. Three novel signals were identified: rs10905284 in GATA3 (coded allele A, odds ratio [OR] 0·90, 95% CI 0·88-0·93; p=1·76 × 10-10), rs11603634 in the MUC5AC region (coded allele G, OR 1·09, 1·06-1·12; p=2·32 × 10-8), and rs560026225 near KIAA1109 (coded allele GATT, OR 1·12, 1·08-1·16; p=3·06 × 10-9). The MUC5AC signal was not associated with asthma when analyses included mild asthma. The rs11603634 G allele was associated with increased expression of MUC5AC mRNA in bronchial epithelial brush samples via proxy SNP rs11602802; (p=2·50 × 10-5) and MUC5AC mRNA was increased in bronchial epithelial samples from patients with severe asthma (in two independent analyses, p=0·039 and p=0·022). INTERPRETATION: We found substantial shared genetic architecture between mild and moderate-to-severe asthma. We also report for the first time genetic variants associated with the risk of developing moderate-to-severe asthma that regulate mucin production. Finally, we identify candidate causal genes in these loci and provide increased insight into this difficult to treat population. FUNDING: Asthma UK, AirPROM, U-BIOPRED, UK Medical Research Council, and Rosetrees Trust.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mucina-5AC , Proteínas , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
Anal Chem ; 90(22): 13400-13408, 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335973

RESUMO

Integration of multiomics data remains a key challenge in fulfilling the potential of comprehensive systems biology. Multiple-block orthogonal projections to latent structures (OnPLS) is a projection method that simultaneously models multiple data matrices, reducing feature space without relying on a priori biological knowledge. In order to improve the interpretability of OnPLS models, the associated multi-block variable influence on orthogonal projections (MB-VIOP) method is used to identify variables with the highest contribution to the model. This study combined OnPLS and MB-VIOP with interactive visualization methods to interrogate an exemplar multiomics study, using a subset of 22 individuals from an asthma cohort. Joint data structure in six data blocks was assessed: transcriptomics; metabolomics; targeted assays for sphingolipids, oxylipins, and fatty acids; and a clinical block including lung function, immune cell differentials, and cytokines. The model identified seven components, two of which had contributions from all blocks (globally joint structure) and five that had contributions from two to five blocks (locally joint structure). Components 1 and 2 were the most informative, identifying differences between healthy controls and asthmatics and a disease-sex interaction, respectively. The interactions between features selected by MB-VIOP were visualized using chord plots, yielding putative novel insights into asthma disease pathogenesis, the effects of asthma treatment, and biological roles of uncharacterized genes. For example, the gene ATP6 V1G1, which has been implicated in osteoporosis, correlated with metabolites that are dysregulated by inhaled corticoid steroids (ICS), providing insight into the mechanisms underlying bone density loss in asthma patients taking ICS. These results show the potential for OnPLS, combined with MB-VIOP variable selection and interaction visualization techniques, to generate hypotheses from multiomics studies and inform biology.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30346831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reslizumab is a humanized anti-interleukin-5 monoclonal antibody used as add-on maintenance treatment for patients with uncontrolled eosinophilic asthma. Using data from pivotal clinical trials, we developed an algorithm based on clinical indicators, aiming to predict response and non-response with intravenous reslizumab at 52 weeks. METHODS: Patients aged ≥18 years who met Global Initiative for Asthma 4 or 5 criteria and received intravenous reslizumab (n=321) in two trials (NCT01287039; NCT01285323) were selected as the data source. A mathematical model was constructed based on: change from baseline to 16 weeks in Asthma Control Questionnaire and Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire scores and forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and numbers of clinical asthma exacerbations during the year before enrolment and the first 16 weeks of treatment and evaluated for their ability to predict the outcome at 52 weeks; responder, non-responder, or indeterminate. RESULTS: The algorithm predicted that 276 patients would be classified as responders; in 248 (89.9%) the prediction was correct. In comparison, 26 patients were predicted to be non-responders: 50.0% of these predictions were correct. Nineteen patients were indeterminate. The algorithm had 95.4-95.5% sensitivity and 40.6-54.1% specificity. Jackknife and cross-study validation confirmed robustness of the algorithm. CONCLUSION: Our algorithm enabled prediction at 16 weeks of treatment of the response to intravenous reslizumab treatment at 52 weeks, but was not suitable for predicting non-response. A positive score at 16 weeks should encourage continued treatment, and a negative score prompt close monitoring to determine whether discontinuation is warranted.

20.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203874, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30240401

RESUMO

Oxidative stress is believed to be a major driver of inflammation in smoking asthmatics. The U-BIOPRED project recruited a cohort of Severe Asthma smokers/ex-smokers (SAs/ex) and non-smokers (SAn) with extensive clinical and biomarker information enabling characterization of these subjects. We investigated oxidative stress in severe asthma subjects by analysing urinary 8-iso-PGF2α and the mRNA-expression of the main pro-oxidant (NOX2; NOSs) and anti-oxidant (SODs; CAT; GPX1) enzymes in the airways of SAs/ex and SAn. All the severe asthma U-BIOPRED subjects were further divided into current smokers with severe asthma (CSA), ex-smokers with severe asthma (ESA) and non-smokers with severe asthma (NSA) to deepen the effect of active smoking. Clinical data, urine and sputum were obtained from severe asthma subjects. A bronchoscopy to obtain bronchial biopsy and brushing was performed in a subset of subjects. The main clinical data were analysed for each subset of subjects (urine-8-iso-PGF2α; IS-transcriptomics; BB-transcriptomics; BBr-transcriptomics). Urinary 8-iso-PGF2α was quantified using mass spectrometry. Sputum, bronchial biopsy and bronchial brushing were processed for mRNA expression microarray analysis. Urinary 8-iso-PGF2α was increased in SAs/ex, median (IQR) = 31.7 (24.5-44.7) ng/mmol creatinine, compared to SAn, median (IQR) = 26.6 (19.6-36.6) ng/mmol creatinine (p< 0.001), and in CSA, median (IQR) = 34.25 (24.4-47.7), vs. ESA, median (IQR) = 29.4 (22.3-40.5), and NSA, median (IQR) = 26.5 (19.6-16.6) ng/mmol creatinine (p = 0.004). Sputum mRNA expression of NOX2 was increased in SAs/ex compared to SAn (probe sets 203922_PM_s_at fold-change = 1.05 p = 0.006; 203923_PM_s_at fold-change = 1.06, p = 0.003; 233538_PM_s_at fold-change = 1.06, p = 0.014). The mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes were similar between the two severe asthma cohorts in all airway samples. NOS2 mRNA expression was decreased in bronchial brushing of SAs/ex compared to SAn (fold-change = -1.10; p = 0.029). NOS2 mRNA expression in bronchial brushing correlated with FeNO (Kendal's Tau = 0.535; p< 0.001). From clinical and inflammatory analysis, FeNO was lower in CSA than in ESA in all the analysed subject subsets (p< 0.01) indicating an effect of active smoking. Results about FeNO suggest its clinical limitation, as inflammation biomarker, in severe asthma active smokers. These data provide evidence of greater systemic oxidative stress in severe asthma smokers as reflected by a significant changes of NOX2 mRNA expression in the airways, together with elevated urinary 8-iso-PGF2α in the smokers/ex-smokers group. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov-Identifier: NCT01976767.

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