Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 64
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Health Commun ; : 1-11, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964316

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that despite high knowledge of family planning (FP), unwanted pregnancies and birth rates remain high among young Nigerians. There is a critical gap in understanding the nexus between exposure to FP information and contraception practices among this population. This study aimed to fill this gap and tested a pathway of the impact of media exposure to FP messages on modern contraceptive use. Data came from a 2018 cross-sectional baseline survey of young people aged 15-24 in three urban centers in Nigeria - Lagos, Kaduna, and Kano. This was part of an impact evaluation of a television-based drama designed to improve contraceptive use among young individuals. The study was limited to 777 young men and women who were sexually active. We found evidence of the mediation effect of media exposure to FP messages on partner discussion about FP, which in turn was associated with an increased likelihood of modern contraceptive use. Contraceptive self-efficacy also had positive associations with contraception. Our study elucidated a potential pathway through which media communication programs can significantly contribute to increased modern contraceptive use and underlined the importance of providing young people in Nigeria with opportunities to learn and practice obtaining and using contraception.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919658

RESUMO

Public stigma is one barrier to accessing behavioral health care among Vietnamese Americans. To explore and identify features of culture and acculturation that influence behavioral health-related stigma, six focus groups were conducted with Vietnamese American participants in three generational groups and eleven key informant interviews were conducted with Vietnamese community leaders, traditional healers, and behavioral health professionals. Data were analyzed using Link and Phelan's (Annu Rev Sociol 27(1):363-385, 2001) work on stigma as an organizing theoretical framework. Findings underline several key cultural and generational factors that intersect to affect perceptions, beliefs, and stigma about mental health treatment. In particular, participants in the youngest groups highlighted that while they recognized the value of mental health services, they felt culturally limited in their access. This appeared to be closely related to intergenerational communication about mental health. The findings suggest avenues for further research as well as interventions to increase mental health treatment access and adherence.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17274, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754156

RESUMO

Targeted delivery of lysosomal enzymes to the endocytic compartment of human cells represents a transformative technology for treating a large family of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs). Gaucher disease is one of the most common types of LSDs caused by mutations to the lysosomal ß-glucocerebrosidase (GBA). Here, we describe a genetic strategy to produce engineered exosomes loaded with GBA in two different spatial configurations for targeted delivery to the endocytic compartment of recipient cells. By fusing human GBA to an exosome-anchoring protein: vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSVG), we demonstrate that the chimeric proteins were successfully integrated into exosomes which were secreted as extracellular vesicles (EVs) by producer cells. Isolation and molecular characterization of EVs confirmed that the fusion proteins were loaded onto exosomes without altering their surface markers, particle size or distribution. Further, enzyme-loaded exosomes/EVs added to cultured medium were taken up by recipient cells. Further, the endocytosed exosomes/EVs targeted to endocytic compartments exhibited a significant increase in GBA activity. Together, we have developed a novel method for targeting and delivery of lysosomal enzymes to their natural location: the endocytic compartment of recipient cells. Since exosomes/EVs have an intrinsic ability to cross the blood-brain-barrier, our technology may provide a new approach to treat severe types of LSDs, including Gaucher disease with neurological complications.

4.
Nanoscale ; 11(37): 17262-17269, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246216

RESUMO

Perovskite nanoparticles have attracted the attention of research groups around the world for their impressive photophysical properties, facile synthesis and versatile surface chemistry. Here, we report a synthetic route that takes advantage of a suite of soluble precursors to generate CsPbBr3 perovskite nanoplatelets with fine control over size, thickness and optical properties. We demonstrate near unit cell precision, creating well characterized materials with sharp, narrow emission lines at 430, 460 and 490 nm corresponding to nanoplatelets that are 2, 4, and 6 unit cells thick, respectively. Nanoplatelets were characterized with optical spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to explicitly correlate growth conditions, thickness and resulting photophysical properties. Detailed in situ photoluminescence spectroscopic studies were carried out to understand and optimize particle growth by correlating light emission with nanoplatelet growth across a range of synthetic conditions. It was found that nanoplatelet thickness and emission wavelength increase as the ratio of oleic acid to oleyl amine or the reaction temperature is increased. Using this information, we control the lateral size, width and corresponding emission wavelength of the desired nanoplatelets by modulating the temperature and ratios of the ligand.

5.
Bioresour Technol ; 289: 121683, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238291

RESUMO

This study examined the removal of varying concentrations of the antibiotic Ciprofloxacin (CIP) over the long-term (120 days) in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR). The results showed that 50-76% CIP was removed with 0.5-1.5 mg CIP/L in the feed, although at 4.7 mg/L its removal efficiency decreased to <20%. It was found that biological degradation was the main mechanism for removing CIP, while adsorption onto the sludge only contributed a small fraction, and an even smaller fraction was due to the waste sludge discharged. CIP was biodegraded to some degree in the AnMBR, with some intermediate compounds detected using LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. This work showed the effectiveness of an AnMBR in removing CIP at low concentrations of <1.5 mg/L, and hence may be an effective treatment for removing other antibiotics from wastewater.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Reatores Biológicos , Ciprofloxacino/isolamento & purificação , Adsorção , Anaerobiose , Biodegradação Ambiental , Esgotos
6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 3413-3425, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190800

RESUMO

Background: Exosomes are ubiquitous naturally secreted stable nanovesicles that can be engineered to target and deliver novel therapeutics to treat a host of human diseases. Methods: We engineered the surfaces of cell-derived nanovesicles to act as decoys in the treatment of inflammation by antagonizing the major proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). Results: Decoy exosomes were generated by displaying the TNFα binding domain of human TNF receptor-1 (hTNFR1) on the outer surface of exosomes using stably transfected HEK293 cells. We developed an efficient method to purify the engineered exosomes from conditioned medium based on sequential centrifugation, ultrafiltration, and precipitation. We characterized decoy exosomes using immune-quantification, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and confocal microscopy to confirm that they retain the correct orientation, size, and shape of naturally produced exosomes. We demonstrated the engineered decoy exosomes specifically antagonize activities of TNFα using an inflammatory reporter cell line. Conclusions: Decoy exosomes produced in human cells serve as a novel biologic reagent for antagonizing inflammatory signaling mediated by TNFα.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Nanopartículas , Domínios Proteicos , Receptores de Superfície Celular/química , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
7.
Scand J Prim Health Care ; 37(1): 30-40, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822254

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) affects 0.3-3% of pregnant women and is a leading cause of hospitalization in early pregnancy. The aim of the study was to investigate women's treatment and management of HG, as well as the consequences of HG on women's daily life. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional study based on a structured telephone interview and an online questionnaire. Participants were recruited by social media and by the Norwegian patient's organization for HG. SUBJECTS: Norwegian women that experienced HG. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Women's perspectives on management and consequences of HG. RESULTS: The study included 107 women. Maternal morbidity was profound; about 3/4 of participants were hospitalized due to HG, and the majority showed clinical signs of dehydration (79%), ketonuria (75%), and >5% weight loss (84%). Antiemetics were used by >90% and frequently prescribed "as needed". Metoclopramide (71%) and meclozine (51%) were most commonly used. Participants described HG as having severe psychosocial consequences and profound impact on daily activities. Almost two out of five reported thoughts of elective abortion, and 8 women had at least one elective pregnancy termination due to HG. Overall, 20 women (19%) changed GPs due to dissatisfaction with HG management. CONCLUSION: Despite the high psychosocial burden and major impact on daily activities, many women with HG reported a lack of support from healthcare professionals and suboptimal management. Greater awareness and knowledge among healthcare professionals is needed to improve care for women with HG. Key Points There is a paucity of studies on management and the consequences of HG on women's daily lives and psychosocial burden. We found that: • Many women described HG as one of their worst life experiences with profound morbidity. • Many women reported suboptimal management of HG and lack of support from healthcare professionals. • Greater understanding of patient perspectives among healthcare professionals is important to improve care and management for HG patients.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Atitude , Hiperêmese Gravídica , Náusea/terapia , Gestantes , Qualidade de Vida , Aborto Induzido , Adulto , Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Desidratação/complicações , Desidratação/epidemiologia , Emoções , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hiperêmese Gravídica/complicações , Hiperêmese Gravídica/psicologia , Hiperêmese Gravídica/terapia , Cetose/complicações , Cetose/epidemiologia , Meclizina/uso terapêutico , Metoclopramida/uso terapêutico , Náusea/complicações , Náusea/psicologia , Noruega/epidemiologia , Satisfação do Paciente , Gravidez , Gestantes/psicologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Perda de Peso
8.
Nano Lett ; 19(4): 2489-2496, 2019 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848600

RESUMO

Colloidal cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals exhibit unique photophysical properties including high quantum yields, tunable emission colors, and narrow photoluminescence spectra that have marked them as promising light emitters for applications in diverse photonic devices. Randomly oriented transition dipole moments have limited the light outcoupling efficiency of all isotropic light sources, including perovskites. In this report we design and synthesize deep blue emitting, quantum confined, perovskite nanoplates and analyze their optical properties by combining angular emission measurements with back focal plane imaging and correlating the results with physical characterization. By reducing the dimensions of the nanocrystals and depositing them face down onto a substrate by spin coating, we orient the average transition dipole moment of films into the plane of the substrate and improve the emission properties for light emitting applications. We then exploit the sensitivity of the perovskite electronic transitions to the dielectric environment at the interface between the crystal and their surroundings to reduce the angle between the average transition dipole moment and the surface to only 14° and maximize potential light emission efficiency. This tunability of the electronic transition that governs light emission in perovskites is unique and, coupled with their excellent photophysical properties, introduces a valuable method to extend the efficiencies and applications of perovskite based photonic devices beyond those based on current materials.

9.
J Glob Health ; 8(2): 020803, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410743

RESUMO

Background: Population-based measures of intervention coverage are used in low- and middle-income countries for program planning, prioritization, and evaluation. There is increased interest in effective coverage, which integrates information about service quality or health outcomes. Approaches proposed for quality-adjusted effective coverage include linking data on need and service contact from population-based surveys with data on service quality from health facility surveys. However, there is limited evidence about the validity of different linking methods for effective coverage estimation. Methods: We collaborated with the 2016 Côte d'Ivoire Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) to link data from a health provider assessment to care-seeking data collected by the MICS in the Savanes region of Côte d'Ivoire. The provider assessment was conducted in a census of public and non-public health facilities and pharmacies in Savanes in May-June 2016. We also included community health workers managing sick children who served the clusters sampled for the MICS. The provider assessment collected information on structural and process quality for antenatal care, delivery and immediate newborn care, postnatal care, and sick child care. We linked the MICS and provider data using exact-match and ecological linking methods, including aggregate linking and geolinking methods. We compared the results obtained from exact-match and ecological methods. Results: We linked 731 of 786 care-seeking episodes (93%) from the MICS to a structural quality score for the provider named by the respondent. Effective coverage estimates computed using exact-match methods were 13%-63% lower than the care-seeking estimates from the MICS. Absolute differences between exact match and ecological linking methods were ±7 percentage points for all ecological methods. Incorporating adjustments for provider category and weighting by service-specific utilization into the ecological methods generally resulted in better agreement between ecological and exact match estimates. Conclusions: Ecological linking may be a feasible and valid approach for estimating quality-adjusted effective coverage when a census of providers is used. Adjusting for provider type and caseload may improve agreement with exact match results. There remain methodological questions to be addressed to develop guidance on using linking methods for estimating quality-adjusted effective coverage, including the effect of facility sampling and time displacement.


Assuntos
Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , Registro Médico Coordenado , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Costa do Marfim , Ecologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 33(1): 202-211, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29575319

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess the availability and readiness of the primary health care (PHC) services of commune health centers (CHCs) in Quoc Oai, a rural district of Northern Vietnam based on the World Health Organization's Service Availability and Readiness Assessment (SARA) tool. The study was done in 2 steps. First, the heads of the 21 CHCs of Quoc Oai district were interviewed using SARA, a quantitative survey, and the responses were then validated by direct observations of each facility. The results showed that although the average number of health staffs in each CHC met the national standards (at least 5 staffs per CHC), its allocation within each CHC was not properly met because some CHCs had only 2 health staffs. Several health equipment and facilities were not fully available in many CHCs, and although the majority of the PHC services were available at the CHCs, their readiness remained limited. Several significant correlates between the availability of health care workers and the availability of the facilities and the PHC services were observed, suggesting that they depend upon and affect one another in the health system. Using the SARA-based inventory, the study helps health managers and policy makers to prioritize efforts and allocate resources more appropriately. To be effective, attention should be given to how to make facilities, services, and human resources for health ready for PHC activities-more investment and support from the system (from higher to lower level) and the government.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Serviços de Saúde Rural/normas , Serviços de Saúde Rural/provisão & distribução , Vietnã
11.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 24 Suppl 2: S74-S81, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29369260

RESUMO

Health sector decentralization has created an urgent need to strengthen public health management capacity in many countries throughout the developing world. This article describes the establishment of a national management training network in Vietnam that used Project-Based Learning to strengthen management competencies of HIV program workers and linked training to measurable improvement in HIV/AIDS public health program outcomes. Skills were taught using a combination of classroom learning and mentored fieldwork. From 2005 to 2015, 827 HIV/AIDS program managers were trained with this method throughout Vietnam by trainers in 3 regional training centers. A total of 218 applied learning projects were carried out by trainees during this period; 132 resulted in measurable improvements in HIV/AIDS program outputs, and 86 produced well-organized plans for implementing, monitoring, and evaluating HIV/AIDS intervention strategies. Vietnam's management training network represents an important advancement in public health workforce development that helps prepare workers for new roles and responsibilities in a decentralized health system.


Assuntos
Fortalecimento Institucional/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Saúde Pública/normas , Fortalecimento Institucional/organização & administração , Fortalecimento Institucional/tendências , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , Política , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Melhoria de Qualidade/tendências , Vietnã
12.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0191079, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29370227

RESUMO

Malaria remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children under five years old in many low- and middle-income countries. In this study, we examined how malaria-related ideational factors may influence care-seeking behavior among female caregivers of children under five with fever. Data came from population-based surveys conducted in 2014-2015 by U.S. Agency for International Development-funded surveys in Madagascar, Mali, and Nigeria. The outcome of interest was whether a child under five with fever within two weeks prior to the survey was brought to a formal health facility for care. Results show a wide variation in care-seeking practices for children under five with fever across countries. Seeking care for febrile children under five in the formal health sector is far from a norm in the study countries. Important ideational factors associated with care-seeking behavior included caregivers' perceived social norms regarding treatment of fever among children under five in Nigeria and Madagascar, and caregiver's knowledge of the cause of malaria in Mali. Findings indicate that messages aimed to increase malaria-related knowledge should be tailored to the specific country, and that interventions designed to influence social norms about care-seeking are likely to result in increased care-seeking behavior for fever in children under five.


Assuntos
Febre/terapia , Malária/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto , Cuidadores , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Madagáscar/epidemiologia , Malária/complicações , Masculino , Mali/epidemiologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia
13.
Health Care Women Int ; 39(4): 429-441, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29068776

RESUMO

Early linkage to HIV care is associated significantly with improved patient outcomes and reduced the risk of HIV transmission. However, delays between HIV diagnosis and registering for care have prevailed in Vietnam. The aim of researchers in this study is to examine linkages to care for individuals newly diagnosed with HIV in 2014, especially to highlight the impact of gender upon these linkages in a Northern Province of Ninh Binh. We collected secondary data of all 125 eligible HIV positive people diagnosed in 2014 and conducted a gender-based descriptive analysis of their registration to care within 6 months. Nineteen in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions were completed. We found that women accounted for one-third of newly diagnosed cases (42/125), but initiated HIV treatment at an earlier stage of HIV disease than men (65% women at stage 1, 2 versus 31% in men). Stigma and discrimination was greater among women while inadequate awareness of treatment was greater for men. Dissatisfaction with HIV testing and counseling and no or passive referral to treatment were other barriers for both the genders for enrolling in care services after diagnosis.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Estigma Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Aconselhamento , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Adulto Jovem
14.
Stem Cells ; 35(7): 1815-1834, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28480592

RESUMO

Recently, we found that resident myogenic stem satellite cells upregulate a multi-functional secreted protein, semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), exclusively at the early-differentiation phase in response to muscle injury; however, its physiological significance is still unknown. Here we show that Sema3A impacts slow-twitch fiber generation through a signaling pathway, cell-membrane receptor (neuropilin2-plexinA3) → myogenin-myocyte enhancer factor 2D → slow myosin heavy chain. This novel axis was found by small interfering RNA-transfection experiments in myoblast cultures, which also revealed an additional element that Sema3A-neuropilin1/plexinA1, A2 may enhance slow-fiber formation by activating signals that inhibit fast-myosin expression. Importantly, satellite cell-specific Sema3A conditional-knockout adult mice (Pax7CreERT2 -Sema3Afl °x activated by tamoxifen-i.p. injection) provided direct in vivo evidence for the Sema3A-driven program, by showing that slow-fiber generation and muscle endurance were diminished after repair from cardiotoxin-injury of gastrocnemius muscle. Overall, the findings highlight an active role for satellite cell-secreted Sema3A ligand as a key "commitment factor" for the slow-fiber population during muscle regeneration. Results extend our understanding of the myogenic stem-cell strategy that regulates fiber-type differentiation and is responsible for skeletal muscle contractility, energy metabolism, fatigue resistance, and its susceptibility to aging and disease. Stem Cells 2017;35:1815-1834.


Assuntos
Fibras Musculares de Contração Lenta/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Regeneração/genética , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Semaforina-3A/genética , Animais , Cardiotoxinas/administração & dosagem , Diferenciação Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Fatores de Transcrição MEF2/genética , Fatores de Transcrição MEF2/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fibras Musculares de Contração Lenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Mioblastos/citologia , Mioblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miogenina/genética , Miogenina/metabolismo , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neuropilina-2/genética , Neuropilina-2/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/citologia , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Semaforina-3A/antagonistas & inibidores , Semaforina-3A/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia
15.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 29(2): 183-193, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28453821

RESUMO

Objective: Despite much progress in maternal health service coverage, the quality of care has not seen parallel improvement. This study assessed the quality of antenatal care (ANC), an entry point to the health system for many women. Design: The study used data from recent Service Provision Assessment (SPA) surveys of nationally representative health facilities in Kenya and Namibia. Setting: Kenya and Namibia represent the situation in much of sub-Saharan Africa, where ANC is relatively common but maternal mortality remains high. Participants: The SPA comprised an inventory of health facilities that provided ANC, interviews with ANC providers and clients, and observations of service delivery. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: Quality was measured in terms of structure and process of service provision, and client satisfaction as the outcome of service provision. Results: Wide variations in structural and process attributes of quality of care existed in both Kenya and Namibia; however, better structural quality did not translate to better service delivery process or greater client satisfaction. Long waiting time was a common problem and was generally more serious in hospitals and health centers than in clinics and smaller facilities; it was consistently associated with lower client satisfaction. The study also indicates that the provider's technical preparedness may not be sufficient to provide good-quality services and to ensure client satisfaction. Conclusions: Findings highlight important program implications, including improving ANC services and promoting their use at health clinics and lower-level facilities, and ensuring that available supplies and equipment are used for service provision.


Assuntos
Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/organização & administração , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Quênia , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Namíbia , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Recursos Humanos
16.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 52(6): 430-433, 2017 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28281880

RESUMO

The residual levels of antibiotics in Vietnamese eggs were monitored from 2014 to 2015. A total of 111 egg packages, distributed by 11 different companies, were collected from supermarkets in Ho Chi Minh City and the levels of 28 antibiotics were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) screening method. Sixteen samples tested positive for antibiotics; a total of eight compounds (enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethazine, sulfamonomethoxine, tilmicosin and trimethoprim) were detected. Enrofloxacin was detected in eight samples, with two samples exhibiting concentrations exceeding 1,000 µg kg-1. Tilmicosin was detected in three samples at a range of 49-568 µg kg-1. We observed that two of the 11 companies frequently sold antibiotic-contaminated eggs (detection rates of 56 and 60%), suggesting that a number of companies do not regulate the use of antibiotics in egg-laying hens. Our findings indicate that livestock farmers require instruction regarding antibiotic use and that continual antibiotic monitoring is essential in Vietnam.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Ovos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Ciprofloxacino/análise , Cidades , Enrofloxacina , Fluoroquinolonas/análise , Norfloxacino/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Vietnã
17.
Anim Sci J ; 88(3): 489-499, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27417667

RESUMO

Our previous studies demonstrated that an 8-week intake of 5% (w/w) apple polyphenol (APP) in the diet improves muscle endurance of young-adult rats. In order to identify a lower limit of the dietary contribution of APP to the effect, the experiments were designed for lower-dose supplementation (8-week feeding of 0.5% APP in AIN-93G diet) to 12-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. Results clearly showed that the 0.5% APP diet significantly up-regulates slower myosin-heavy-chain (MyHC) isoform ratios (IIx and IIa relative to total MyHC) and myoglobin expression in lower hind-limb muscles examined (P < 0.05). There was a trend to increased fatigue resistance detected from measurements of relative isometric plantar-flexion force torque generated by a stimulus train delivered to the tibial nerve (F(98, 1372) = 1.246, P = 0.0574). Importantly, there was no significant difference in the animal body-phenotypes or locomotor activity shown as total moving distance in light and dark periods. Therefore, the present study encourages the notion that even low APP-intake may increase the proportions of fatigue-resistant myofibers, and has promise as a strategy for modifying performance in human sports and improving function in age-related muscle atrophy.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Malus , Fibras Musculares de Contração Rápida/metabolismo , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Masculino , Fadiga Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Mioglobina/metabolismo , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc ; 92(3): 1389-1405, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27296513

RESUMO

Current research on skeletal muscle injury and regeneration highlights the crucial role of nerve-muscle interaction in the restoration of innervation during that process. Activities of muscle satellite or stem cells, recognized as the 'currency' of myogenic repair, have a pivotal role in these events, as shown by ongoing research. More recent investigation of myogenic signalling events reveals intriguing roles for semaphorin3A (Sema3A), secreted by activated satellite cells, in the muscle environment during development and regeneration. For example, Sema3A makes important contributions to regulating the formation of blood vessels, balancing bone formation and bone remodelling, and inflammation, and was recently implicated in the establishment of fibre-type distribution through effects on myosin heavy chain gene expression. This review highlights the active or potential contributions of satellite-cell-derived Sema3A to regulation of the processes of motor neurite ingrowth into a regenerating muscle bed. Successful restoration of functional innervation during muscle repair is essential; this review emphasizes the integrative role of satellite-cell biology in the progressive coordination of adaptive cellular and tissue responses during the injury-repair process in voluntary muscle.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Junção Neuromuscular/fisiologia , Regeneração/fisiologia , Semaforina-3A/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/citologia , Neuritos/fisiologia
19.
J Glob Health ; 6(2): 020501, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27606060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently many measures of intervention coverage obtained from household surveys do not measure actual health intervention/service delivery, resulting in a need for linking reports of care-seeking with assessments of the service environment in order to improve measurements. This systematic review aims to identify evidence of different methods used to link household surveys and service provision assessments, with a focus on reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health care, in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: Using pre-defined search terms, articles published in peer-reviewed journals and the grey literature after 1990 were identified, their reference lists scanned and linking methods synthesized. FINDINGS: A total of 59 articles and conference presentations were carefully reviewed and categorized into two groups based on the linking method used: 1) indirect/ecological linking that included studies in which health care-seeking behavior was linked to all or the nearest facilities or providers of certain types within a geographical area, and 2) direct linking/exact matching where individuals were linked with the exact provider or facility where they sought care. The former approach was employed in 51 of 59 included studies, and was particularly common among studies that were based on independent sources of household and facility data that were nationally representative. Only eight of the 59 reviewed studies employed direct linking methods, which were typically done at the sub-national level (eg, district level) and often in rural areas, where the number of providers was more limited compared to urban areas. CONCLUSIONS: Different linking methods have been reported in the literature, each category has its own set of advantages and limitations, in terms of both methodology and practicality for scale-up. Future studies that link household and provider/facility data should also take into account factors such as sources of data, the timing of surveys, the temporality of data points, the type of services and interventions, and the scale of the study in order to produce valid and reliable results.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Características da Família , Instalações de Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Serviços de Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 64(31): 6133-8, 2016 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27160655

RESUMO

Antibiotic residues in aquatic products in Vietnam were investigated. A total of 511 fish and shrimp samples were collected from markets in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Thai Binh (TB), and Nha Trang (NT) from July 2013 to October 2015. The samples were extracted with 2% formic acid in acetonitrile and washed with dispersive C18 sorbent. Thirty-two antibiotics were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Of the 362 samples from HCMC, antibiotic residues were found in 53 samples. Enrofloxacin was commonly detected, at a rate of 10.8%. In contrast, samples from TB and NT were less contaminated: only 1 of 118 analyzed samples showed residues in TB and only 1 of 31 showed residues in NT. These differences were attributed to the local manufacturing/distribution systems. To understand the current status of antibiotic use and prevent adverse effects that may be caused by their overuse, continual monitoring is required.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Palaemonidae/química , Frutos do Mar/análise , Animais , Saúde da População Rural , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Vietnã , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA