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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775018

RESUMO

We describe the first case of MAN2B2 deficiency in a patient with immune dysregulation, developmental delay, and stroke. Altered mannosylation profile was restored in patient cells upon transduction of wild-type MAN2B2.

2.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1757, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396241

RESUMO

Alessandro Moretta was Professor of Histology at University of Brescia from 1994 to 1997. It was in that period that we met and started a collaboration that continued in the years to follow. He immediately involved us in the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that allowed the identification and fine characterization of novel receptor molecules that were able to activate or inhibit human Natural Killer cell function, including several antibodies specific for Natural Cytotoxicity Receptor (NCR) and Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) molecules. These reagents, generated in our laboratory in Brescia, contributed to complete the studies aimed to characterize innate lymphoid NK cells, that had been initiated by Alessandro and his brother Lorenzo in Genoa. Soon, we identified an anti-KIR3DL2 that was subsequently shown to be helpful for the diagnosis and treatment of various forms of cutaneous T cell lymphoma. While in Brescia, Alessandro established a partnership with those of us who were working in the Department of Pediatrics; together, in short time we tackled the goal of studying the role of NK cells in patients with primary immunodeficiencies. This collaboration led to novel discoveries that shed light on the critical role played by NK cells in the immune response against virus and tumors in humans, as best exemplified by our characterization of the molecular mechanisms of impaired control of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infection in patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) disease. After Alessandro left Brescia to return to Genoa, our collaboration continued with the same enthusiasm, and even from a distance he remained an extraordinary example of an inspirational and generous mentor. This review is a sign of our gratitude to a mentor and a friend whom we deeply miss.

3.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(495)2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167928

RESUMO

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), a monogenic disorder caused by AIRE mutations, presents with several autoimmune diseases. Among these, endocrine organ failure is widely recognized, but the prevalence, immunopathogenesis, and treatment of non-endocrine manifestations such as pneumonitis remain poorly characterized. We enrolled 50 patients with APECED in a prospective observational study and comprehensively examined their clinical and radiographic findings, performed pulmonary function tests, and analyzed immunological characteristics in blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and endobronchial and lung biopsies. Pneumonitis was found in >40% of our patients, presented early in life, was misdiagnosed despite chronic respiratory symptoms and accompanying radiographic and pulmonary function abnormalities, and caused hypoxemic respiratory failure and death. Autoantibodies against BPIFB1 and KCNRG and the homozygous c.967_979del13 AIRE mutation are associated with pneumonitis development. APECED pneumonitis features compartmentalized immunopathology, with accumulation of activated neutrophils in the airways and lymphocytic infiltration in intraepithelial, submucosal, peribronchiolar, and interstitial areas. Beyond APECED, we extend these observations to lung disease seen in other conditions with secondary AIRE deficiency (thymoma and RAG deficiency). Aire-deficient mice had similar compartmentalized cellular immune responses in the airways and lung tissue, which was ameliorated by deficiency of T and B lymphocytes. Accordingly, T and B lymphocyte-directed immunomodulation controlled symptoms and radiographic abnormalities and improved pulmonary function in patients with APECED pneumonitis. Collectively, our findings unveil lung autoimmunity as a common, early, and unrecognized manifestation of APECED and provide insights into the immunopathogenesis and treatment of pulmonary autoimmunity associated with impaired central immune tolerance.

4.
J Exp Med ; 216(9): 2038-2056, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217193

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive IRF7 and IRF9 deficiencies impair type I and III IFN immunity and underlie severe influenza pneumonitis. We report three unrelated children with influenza A virus (IAV) infection manifesting as acute respiratory distress syndrome (IAV-ARDS), heterozygous for rare TLR3 variants (P554S in two patients and P680L in the third) causing autosomal dominant (AD) TLR3 deficiency. AD TLR3 deficiency can underlie herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE) by impairing cortical neuron-intrinsic type I IFN immunity to HSV-1. TLR3-mutated leukocytes produce normal levels of IFNs in response to IAV. In contrast, TLR3-mutated fibroblasts produce lower levels of IFN-ß and -λ, and display enhanced viral susceptibility, upon IAV infection. Moreover, the patients' iPSC-derived pulmonary epithelial cells (PECs) are susceptible to IAV. Treatment with IFN-α2b or IFN-λ1 rescues this phenotype. AD TLR3 deficiency may thus underlie IAV-ARDS by impairing TLR3-dependent, type I and/or III IFN-mediated, PEC-intrinsic immunity. Its clinical penetrance is incomplete for both IAV-ARDS and HSE, consistent with their typically sporadic nature.

6.
Blood ; 132(22): 2362-2374, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30254128

RESUMO

ARPC1B is a key factor for the assembly and maintenance of the ARP2/3 complex that is involved in actin branching from an existing filament. Germline biallelic mutations in ARPC1B have been recently described in 6 patients with clinical features of combined immunodeficiency (CID), whose neutrophils and platelets but not T lymphocytes were studied. We hypothesized that ARPC1B deficiency may also lead to cytoskeleton and functional defects in T cells. We have identified biallelic mutations in ARPC1B in 6 unrelated patients with early onset disease characterized by severe infections, autoimmune manifestations, and thrombocytopenia. Immunological features included T-cell lymphopenia, low numbers of naïve T cells, and hyper-immunoglobulin E. Alteration in ARPC1B protein structure led to absent/low expression by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. This molecular defect was associated with the inability of patient-derived T cells to extend an actin-rich lamellipodia upon T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation and to assemble an immunological synapse. ARPC1B-deficient T cells additionally displayed impaired TCR-mediated proliferation and SDF1-α-directed migration. Gene transfer of ARPC1B in patients' T cells using a lentiviral vector restored both ARPC1B expression and T-cell proliferation in vitro. In 2 of the patients, in vivo somatic reversion restored ARPC1B expression in a fraction of lymphocytes and was associated with a skewed TCR repertoire. In 1 revertant patient, memory CD8+ T cells expressing normal levels of ARPC1B displayed improved T-cell migration. Inherited ARPC1B deficiency therefore alters T-cell cytoskeletal dynamics and functions, contributing to the clinical features of CID.

8.
Nat Immunol ; 19(9): 986-1000, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30127432

RESUMO

Gain-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase catalytic subunit p110δ (PI3Kδ) result in a human primary immunodeficiency characterized by lymphoproliferation, respiratory infections and inefficient responses to vaccines. However, what promotes these immunological disturbances at the cellular and molecular level remains unknown. We generated a mouse model that recapitulated major features of this disease and used this model and patient samples to probe how hyperactive PI3Kδ fosters aberrant humoral immunity. We found that mutant PI3Kδ led to co-stimulatory receptor ICOS-independent increases in the abundance of follicular helper T cells (TFH cells) and germinal-center (GC) B cells, disorganized GCs and poor class-switched antigen-specific responses to immunization, associated with altered regulation of the transcription factor FOXO1 and pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic members of the BCL-2 family. Notably, aberrant responses were accompanied by increased reactivity to gut bacteria and a broad increase in autoantibodies that were dependent on stimulation by commensal microbes. Our findings suggest that proper regulation of PI3Kδ is critical for ensuring optimal host-protective humoral immunity despite tonic stimulation from the commensal microbiome.

9.
Cell ; 172(5): 952-965.e18, 2018 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29474921

RESUMO

Viruses that are typically benign sometimes invade the brainstem in otherwise healthy children. We report bi-allelic DBR1 mutations in unrelated patients from different ethnicities, each of whom had brainstem infection due to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1), influenza virus, or norovirus. DBR1 encodes the only known RNA lariat debranching enzyme. We show that DBR1 expression is ubiquitous, but strongest in the spinal cord and brainstem. We also show that all DBR1 mutant alleles are severely hypomorphic, in terms of expression and function. The fibroblasts of DBR1-mutated patients contain higher RNA lariat levels than control cells, this difference becoming even more marked during HSV1 infection. Finally, we show that the patients' fibroblasts are highly susceptible to HSV1. RNA lariat accumulation and viral susceptibility are rescued by wild-type DBR1. Autosomal recessive, partial DBR1 deficiency underlies viral infection of the brainstem in humans through the disruption of tissue-specific and cell-intrinsic immunity to viruses.

10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 142(3): 928-941.e8, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29241731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Omenn syndrome (OS) is a rare severe combined immunodeficiency associated with autoimmunity and caused by defects in lymphoid-specific V(D)J recombination. Most patients carry hypomorphic mutations in recombination-activating gene (RAG) 1 or 2. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the standard treatment; however, gene therapy (GT) might represent a valid alternative, especially for patients lacking a matched donor. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the efficacy of lentiviral vector (LV)-mediated GT in the murine model of OS (Rag2R229Q/R229Q) in correcting immunodeficiency and autoimmunity. METHODS: Lineage-negative cells from mice with OS were transduced with an LV encoding the human RAG2 gene and injected into irradiated recipients with OS. Control mice underwent transplantation with wild-type or OS-untransduced lineage-negative cells. Immunophenotyping, T-dependent and T-independent antigen challenge, immune spectratyping, autoantibody detection, and detailed tissue immunohistochemical analyses were performed. RESULTS: LV-mediated GT allowed immunologic reconstitution, although it was suboptimal compared with that seen in wild-type bone marrow (BM)-transplanted OS mice in peripheral blood and hematopoietic organs, such as the BM, thymus, and spleen. We observed in vivo variability in the efficacy of GT correlating with the levels of transduction achieved. Immunoglobulin levels and T-cell repertoire normalized, and gene-corrected mice responded properly to challenges in vivo. Autoimmune manifestations, such as skin infiltration and autoantibodies, dramatically improved in GT mice with a vector copy number/genome higher than 1 in the BM and 2 in the thymus. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that LV-mediated GT for patients with OS significantly ameliorates the immunodeficiency, even in an inflammatory environment.

11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(52): 13720-13725, 2017 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29229838

RESUMO

Plasma membrane (PM) phosphoinositides play essential roles in cell physiology, serving as both markers of membrane identity and signaling molecules central to the cell's interaction with its environment. The first step in PM phosphoinositide synthesis is the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PI) to PI4P, the precursor of PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3 This conversion is catalyzed by the PI4KIIIα complex, comprising a lipid kinase, PI4KIIIα, and two regulatory subunits, TTC7 and FAM126. We here report the structure of this complex at 3.6-Å resolution, determined by cryo-electron microscopy. The proteins form an obligate ∼700-kDa superassembly with a broad surface suitable for membrane interaction, toward which the kinase active sites are oriented. The structural complexity of the assembly highlights PI4P synthesis as a major regulatory junction in PM phosphoinositide homeostasis. Our studies provide a framework for further exploring the mechanisms underlying PM phosphoinositide regulation.


Assuntos
1-Fosfatidilinositol 4-Quinase/química , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/química , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Modelos Moleculares , Complexos Multiproteicos/química , Fosfatidilinositol 4,5-Difosfato/química , Fosfatos de Fosfatidilinositol/química , Proteínas/química , 1-Fosfatidilinositol 4-Quinase/metabolismo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 4,5-Difosfato/metabolismo , Fosfatos de Fosfatidilinositol/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo
13.
Front Immunol ; 8: 798, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28769923

RESUMO

Mutations of the recombinase-activating genes 1 and 2 (RAG1 and RAG2) in humans are associated with a broad range of phenotypes. For patients with severe clinical presentation, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) represents the only curative treatment; however, high rates of graft failure and incomplete immune reconstitution have been observed, especially after unconditioned haploidentical transplantation. Studies in mice have shown that Rag-/- natural killer (NK) cells have a mature phenotype, reduced fitness, and increased cytotoxicity. We aimed to analyze NK cell phenotype and function in patients with mutations in RAG and in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) genes. Here, we provide evidence that NK cells from these patients have an immature phenotype, with significant expansion of CD56bright CD16-/int CD57- cells, yet increased degranulation and high perforin content. Correlation was observed between in vitro recombinase activity of the mutant proteins, NK cell abnormalities, and in vivo clinical phenotype. Addition of serotherapy in the conditioning regimen, with the aim of depleting the autologous NK cell compartment, may be important to facilitate engraftment and immune reconstitution in patients with RAG and NHEJ defects treated by HSCT.

15.
J Exp Med ; 214(3): 623-637, 2017 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28148688

RESUMO

We studied three patients with severe skeletal dysplasia, T cell immunodeficiency, and developmental delay. Whole-exome sequencing revealed homozygous missense mutations affecting exostosin-like 3 (EXTL3), a glycosyltransferase involved in heparan sulfate (HS) biosynthesis. Patient-derived fibroblasts showed abnormal HS composition and altered fibroblast growth factor 2 signaling, which was rescued by overexpression of wild-type EXTL3 cDNA. Interleukin-2-mediated STAT5 phosphorylation in patients' lymphocytes was markedly reduced. Interbreeding of the extl3-mutant zebrafish (box) with Tg(rag2:green fluorescent protein) transgenic zebrafish revealed defective thymopoiesis, which was rescued by injection of wild-type human EXTL3 RNA. Targeted differentiation of patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells showed a reduced expansion of lymphohematopoietic progenitor cells and defects of thymic epithelial progenitor cell differentiation. These data identify EXTL3 mutations as a novel cause of severe immune deficiency with skeletal dysplasia and developmental delay and underline a crucial role of HS in thymopoiesis and skeletal and brain development.


Assuntos
Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/etiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/etiologia , Mutação , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/genética , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Heparitina Sulfato/fisiologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Lactente , Linfócitos/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra
17.
J Clin Immunol ; 36(4): 341-53, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27063650

RESUMO

PURPOSE: DNA Ligase 4 (LIG4) is a key factor in the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA double-strand break repair pathway needed for V(D)J recombination and the generation of the T cell receptor and immunoglobulin molecules. Defects in LIG4 result in a variable syndrome of growth retardation, pancytopenia, combined immunodeficiency, cellular radiosensitivity, and developmental delay. METHODS: We diagnosed a patient with LIG4 syndrome by radiosensitivity testing on peripheral blood cells, and established that two of her four healthy siblings carried the same compound heterozygous LIG4 mutations. An extensive analysis of the immune phenotype, cellular radiosensitivity, telomere length, and T and B cell antigen receptor repertoire was performed in all siblings. RESULTS: In the three genotypically affected individuals, variable severities of radiosensitivity, alterations of T and B cell counts with an increased percentage of memory cells, and hypogammaglobulinemia, were noticed. Analysis of T and B cell antigen receptor repertoires demonstrated increased usage of alternative microhomology-mediated end-joining (MHMEJ) repair, leading to diminished N nucleotide addition and shorter CDR3 length. However, overall repertoire diversity was preserved. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that LIG4 syndrome presents with high clinical variability even within the same family, and that distinctive immunologic abnormalities may be observed also in yet asymptomatic individuals.


Assuntos
DNA Ligase Dependente de ATP/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência , Adolescente , Adulto , Agamaglobulinemia/genética , Agamaglobulinemia/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Feminino , Fibroblastos/efeitos da radiação , Granulócitos/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/citologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Masculino , Mutação , Radiação Ionizante , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sci Immunol ; 1(6)2016 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28783691

RESUMO

Recombination-activating genes 1 and 2 (RAG1 and RAG2) play a critical role in T and B cell development by initiating the recombination process that controls the expression of T cell receptor (TCR) and immunoglobulin genes. Mutations in the RAG1 and RAG2 genes in humans cause a broad spectrum of phenotypes, including severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) with lack of T and B cells, Omenn syndrome, leaky SCID, and combined immunodeficiency with granulomas or autoimmunity (CID-G/AI). Using next-generation sequencing, we analyzed the TCR and B cell receptor (BCR) repertoire in 12 patients with RAG mutations presenting with Omenn syndrome (n = 5), leaky SCID (n = 3), or CID-G/AI (n = 4). Restriction of repertoire diversity skewed usage of variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) segment genes, and abnormalities of CDR3 length distribution were progressively more prominent in patients with a more severe phenotype. Skewed usage of V, D, and J segment genes was present also within unique sequences, indicating a primary restriction of repertoire. Patients with Omenn syndrome had a high proportion of class-switched immunoglobulin heavy chain transcripts and increased somatic hypermutation rate, suggesting in vivo activation of these B cells. These data provide a framework to better understand the phenotypic heterogeneity of RAG deficiency.

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