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1.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 92(5): 055101, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243293

RESUMO

A new "solid-state" oxygen buffering reaction (WC-COW), WC + 1/2O2 ⇌ CO + W, is presented. At atmospheric pressure, the oxygen fugacity in equilibrium with this buffer is approximated in the range of 600-1200 °C by logfO2 =1.53-21008TK±0.13bar. A simple method for maintaining oxygen fugacity in standard muffle furnaces using this buffer in off-the-shelf ceramic crucibles is described. The utility of the experimental arrangement in controlling oxygen fugacity during solid-state synthesis of iron-bearing silicates is demonstrated by rapid synthesis of fayalite, Fe2SiO4, from oxide starting mixtures at 1050 °C.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(52): 26389-26393, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826951

RESUMO

The lowermost portion of Earth's mantle (D″) above the core-mantle boundary shows anomalous seismic features, such as strong seismic anisotropy, related to the properties of the main mineral MgSiO3 postperovskite. But, after over a decade of investigations, the seismic observations still cannot be explained simply by flow models which assume dislocation creep in postperovskite. We have investigated the chemical diffusivity of perovskite and postperovskite phases by experiment and ab initio simulation, and derive equations for the observed anisotropic diffusion creep. There is excellent agreement between experiments and simulations for both phases in all of the chemical systems studied. Single-crystal diffusivity in postperovskite displays at least 3 orders of magnitude of anisotropy by experiment and simulation (Da = 1,000 Db; Db ≈ Dc) in zinc fluoride, and an even more extreme anisotropy is predicted (Da = 10,000 Dc; Dc = 10,000 Db) in the natural MgSiO3 system. Anisotropic chemical diffusivity results in anisotropic diffusion creep, texture generation, and a strain-weakening rheology. The results for MgSiO3 postperovskite strongly imply that regions within the D″ region of Earth dominated by postperovskite will 1) be substantially weaker than regions dominated by perovskite and 2) develop a strain-induced crystallographic-preferred orientation with strain-weakening rheology. This leads to strain localization and the possibility to bring regions with significantly varying textures into close proximity by strain on narrow shear zones. Anisotropic diffusion creep therefore provides an attractive alternative explanation for the complexity in observed seismic anisotropy and the rapid lateral changes in seismic velocities in D″.

3.
J Appl Crystallogr ; 51(Pt 3): 685-691, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29896057

RESUMO

A low-temperature stage for X-ray powder diffraction in Bragg-Brentano reflection geometry is described. The temperature range covered is 40-315 K, with a temperature stability at the sample within ±0.1 K of the set point. The stage operates by means of a Gifford-McMahon (GM) closed-cycle He refrigerator; it requires no refrigerants and so can run for an extended period (in practice at least 5 d) without intervention by the user. The sample is cooled both by thermal conduction through the metal sample holder and by the presence of He exchange gas, at ambient pressure, within the sample chamber; the consumption of He gas is extremely low, being only 0.1 l min-1 during normal operation. A unique feature of this cold stage is that samples may be introduced into (and removed from) the stage at any temperature in the range 80-300 K, and thus materials which are not stable at room temperature, such as high-pressure phases that are recoverable to ambient pressure after quenching to liquid nitro-gen temperatures, can be readily examined. A further advantage of this arrangement is that, by enabling the use of pre-cooled samples, it greatly reduces the turnaround time when making measurements on a series of specimens at low temperature.

4.
J Appl Crystallogr ; 51(Pt 3): 692-705, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29896058

RESUMO

An apparatus is described for the compression of samples to ∼2 GPa at temperatures from 80 to 300 K, rapid chilling to 80 K whilst under load and subsequent recovery into liquid nitro-gen after the load is released. In this way, a variety of quenchable high-pressure phases of many materials may be preserved for examination outside the high-pressure sample environment, with the principal benefit being the ability to obtain high-resolution powder diffraction data for phase identification and structure solution. The use of this apparatus, in combination with a newly developed cold-loadable low-temperature stage for X-ray powder diffraction (the PheniX-FL), is illustrated using ice VI (a high-pressure polymorph of ordinary water ice that is thermodynamically stable only above ∼0.6 GPa) as an example. A second example using synthetic epsomite (MgSO4·7H2O) reveals that, at ∼1.6 GPa and 293 K, it undergoes incongruent melting to form MgSO4·5H2O plus brine, contributing to a long-standing debate on the nature of the high-pressure behaviour of this and similar highly hydrated materials. The crystal structure of this new high-pressure polymorph of MgSO4·5H2O has been determined at 85 K in space group Pna21 from the X-ray powder diffraction pattern of a sample recovered into liquid nitro-gen and is found to differ from that of the known ambient-pressure phase of MgSO4·5H2O (pentahydrite, space group ), consisting of corner-sharing MgO6-SO4 ion pairs rather than infinite corner-sharing chains.

5.
J Appl Crystallogr ; 51(Pt 2): 470-480, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29657568

RESUMO

On the basis of ab initio computer simulations, pre-melting phenomena have been suggested to occur in the elastic properties of hexagonal close-packed iron under the conditions of the Earth's inner core just before melting. The extent to which these pre-melting effects might also occur in the physical properties of face-centred cubic metals has been investigated here under more experimentally accessible conditions for gold, allowing for comparison with future computer simulations of this material. The thermal expansion of gold has been determined by X-ray powder diffraction from 40 K up to the melting point (1337 K). For the entire temperature range investigated, the unit-cell volume can be represented in the following way: a second-order Grüneisen approximation to the zero-pressure volumetric equation of state, with the internal energy calculated via a Debye model, is used to represent the thermal expansion of the 'perfect crystal'. Gold shows a nonlinear increase in thermal expansion that departs from this Grüneisen-Debye model prior to melting, which is probably a result of the generation of point defects over a large range of temperatures, beginning at T/Tm > 0.75 (a similar homologous T to where softening has been observed in the elastic moduli of Au). Therefore, the thermodynamic theory of point defects was used to include the additional volume of the vacancies at high temperatures ('real crystal'), resulting in the following fitted parameters: Q = (V0K0)/γ = 4.04 (1) × 10-18 J, V0 = 67.1671 (3) Å3, b = (K0' - 1)/2 = 3.84 (9), θD = 182 (2) K, (vf/Ω)exp(sf/kB) = 1.8 (23) and hf = 0.9 (2) eV, where V0 is the unit-cell volume at 0 K, K0 and K0' are the isothermal incompressibility and its first derivative with respect to pressure (evaluated at zero pressure), γ is a Grüneisen parameter, θD is the Debye temperature, vf, hf and sf are the vacancy formation volume, enthalpy and entropy, respectively, Ω is the average volume per atom, and kB is Boltzmann's constant.

6.
Phys Chem Miner ; 45(4): 311-322, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258241

RESUMO

ABF3 compounds have been found to make valuable low-pressure analogues for high-pressure silicate phases that are present in the Earth's deep interior and that may also occur in the interiors of exoplanets. The phase diagrams of two of these materials, KCaF3 and NaMgF3, have been investigated in detail by static ab initio computer simulations based on density functional theory. Six ABF3 polymorphs were considered, as follows: the orthorhombic perovskite structure (GdFeO3-type; space group Pbnm); the orthorhombic CaIrO3 structure (Cmcm; commonly referred to as the "post-perovskite" structure); the orthorhombic Sb2S3 and La2S3 structures (both Pmcn); the hexagonal structure previously suggested in computer simulations of NaMgF3 (P63/mmc); the monoclinic structure found to be intermediate between the perovskite and CaIrO3 structures in CaRhO3 (P21/m). Volumetric and axial equations of state of all phases considered are presented. For KCaF3, as expected, the perovskite phase is shown to be the most thermodynamically stable at atmospheric pressure. With increasing pressure, the relative stability of the KCaF3 phases then follows the sequence: perovskite â†’ La2S3 structure â†’ Sb2S3 structure â†’ P63/mmc structure; the CaIrO3 structure is never the most stable form. Above about 2.6 GPa, however, none of the KCaF3 polymorphs are stable with respect to dissociation into KF and CaF2. The possibility that high-pressure KCaF3 polymorphs might exist metastably at 300 K, or might be stabilised by chemical substitution so as to occur within the standard operating range of a multi-anvil press, is briefly discussed. For NaMgF3, the transitions to the high-pressure phases occur at pressures outside the normal range of a multi-anvil press. Two different sequences of transitions had previously been suggested from computer simulations. With increasing pressure, we find that the relative stability of the NaMgF3 phases follows the sequence: perovskite â†’ CaIrO3 structure â†’ Sb2S3 structure â†’ P63/mmc structure. However, only the perovskite and CaIrO3 structures are stable with respect to dissociation into NaF and MgF2.

7.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 29(33): 335701, 2017 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28632143

RESUMO

We have measured the thermal expansion of (Fe1-y Ni y )Si for y = 0, 0.1 and 0.2, between 40 and 1273 K. Above ~700 K the unit-cell volumes of the samples decrease approximately linearly with increasing Ni content. Below ~200 K the unit-cell volume of FeSi falls to a value between that of (Fe0.9Ni0.1)Si and (Fe0.8Ni0.2)Si. We attribute this extra contraction of the FeSi, which is a narrow band-gap semiconductor, to the depopulation of the conduction band at low temperatures; in the two alloys the additional electrons introduced by the substitution of Ni lead to the conduction band always being populated. We have fit the unit-cell volume data with a Debye internal energy model of thermal expansion and an additional volume term, above 800 K, to take account of the volumetric changes associated with changes in the composition of the sample. Using the thermophysical parameters of the fit we have estimated the band gap in FeSi to be 21(1) meV and the unit-cell volume change in FeSi associated with the depopulation of the conduction band to be 0.066(35) Å3/unit-cell.

8.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 88(12): 126106, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29289205

RESUMO

The Deformation T-Cup (DT-Cup) is a modified 6-8 multi-anvil apparatus capable of controlled strain-rate deformation experiments at pressures greater than 18 GPa. Controlled strain-rate deformation was enabled by replacing two of the eight cubic "second-stage" anvils with hexagonal cross section deformation anvils and modifying the "first-stage" wedges. However, with these modifications approximately two-thirds of experiments end with rupture of the hexagonal anvils. By replacing the hexagonal anvils with cubic anvils and, split, deformation wedge extensions, we restore the massive support to the deformation anvils that were inherent in the original multi-anvil design and prevent deformation anvil failure. With the modified parts, the DT-Cup has an experimental success rate that is similar to that of a standard hydrostatic 6-8 multi-anvil apparatus.

9.
J Appl Crystallogr ; 48(Pt 6): 1914-1920, 2015 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26664346

RESUMO

The equation of state of the orthorhombic phase of NiSi with Pmmn symmetry has been determined at room temperature from synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction measurements of its lattice parameters, made in a diamond anvil cell. Measurements were performed up to 44 GPa, using Ne as the pressure medium and Au as the pressure standard. The resulting pressure-volume (P-V) data have been fitted with a Birch-Murnaghan equation of state of third order to yield V0 = 11.650 (7) Å3 atom-1, K0 = 162 (3) GPa and K0' = 4.6 (2). In addition, P-V data have been collected on Ni53Si47 in the B20 structure using both Ne and He as the pressure media and Cu and Au as the pressure standards, also to 44 GPa. A fit using the same Birch-Murnaghan equation of state of third order yields V0 = 11.364 (6) Å3 atom-1, K0 = 171 (4) GPa and K0' = 5.5 (3).

10.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 85(8): 085103, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25173308

RESUMO

A new multi-anvil deformation apparatus, based on the widely used 6-8 split-cylinder, geometry, has been developed which is capable of deformation experiments at pressures in excess of 18 GPa at room temperature. In 6-8 (Kawai-type) devices eight cubic anvils are used to compress the sample assembly. In our new apparatus two of the eight cubes which sit along the split-cylinder axis have been replaced by hexagonal cross section anvils. Combining these anvils hexagonal-anvils with secondary differential actuators incorporated into the load frame, for the first time, enables the 6-8 multi-anvil apparatus to be used for controlled strain-rate deformation experiments to high strains. Testing of the design, both with and without synchrotron-X-rays, has demonstrated the Deformation T-Cup (DT-Cup) is capable of deforming 1-2 mm long samples to over 55% strain at high temperatures and pressures. To date the apparatus has been calibrated to, and deformed at, 18.8 GPa and deformation experiments performed in conjunction with synchrotron X-rays at confining pressures up to 10 GPa at 800 °C .

11.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 366(1885): 4543-57, 2008 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18818149

RESUMO

The boundary between the rocky mantle and iron core, almost 2900 km below the surface, is physically the most significant in the Earth's interior. It may be the terminus for subducted surface material, the source of mantle plumes and a control on the Earth's magnetic field. Its properties also have profound significance for the thermochemical and dynamic evolution of the solid Earth. Evidence from seismology shows that D'' (the lowermost few hundred kilometres of the mantle) has a variety of anomalous features. Understanding the origin of these observations requires an understanding of the elastic and deformation properties of the deep Earth minerals. Core-mantle boundary pressures and temperatures are achievable in the laboratory using diamond anvil cell (DAC) apparatus. Such experiments have led to the recent discovery of a new phase, 'post-perovskite', which may explain many hitherto poorly understood properties of D''. Experimental work is also done using analogue minerals at lower pressures and temperatures; these circumvent some of the limits imposed by the small sample size allowed by the DAC. A considerable contribution also comes from theoretical methods that provide a wealth of otherwise unavailable information, as well as verification and refinement of experimental results. The future of the study of the lowermost mantle will involve the linking of the ever-improving seismic observations with predictions of material properties from theoretical and experimental mineral physics in a quantitative fashion, including simulations of the dynamics of the deep Earth. This has the potential to dispel much of the mystery that still surrounds this remote but important region.


Assuntos
Planeta Terra , Modelos Teóricos , Campos Magnéticos , Temperatura
12.
Nature ; 434(7031): 371-4, 2005 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15772658

RESUMO

Ultralow-velocity zones (ULVZs) are regions of the Earth's core-mantle boundary about 1-10 kilometres thick exhibiting seismic velocities that are lower than radial-Earth reference models by about 10-20 per cent for compressional waves and 10-30 per cent for shear waves. It is also thought that such regions have an increased density of about 0-20 per cent (ref. 1). A number of origins for ULVZs have been proposed, such as ponding of dense silicate melt, core-mantle reaction zones or underside sedimentation from the core. Here we suggest that ULVZs might instead be relics of banded iron formations subducted to the core-mantle boundary between 2.8 and 1.8 billion years ago. Consisting mainly of interbedded iron oxides and silica, such banded iron formations were deposited in the world's oceans during the late Archaean and early Proterozoic eras. We argue that these layers, as part of the ocean floor, would be recycled into the Earth's interior by subduction, sink to the bottom of the mantle and may explain all of the observed features of ULVZs.

13.
Science ; 298(5597): 1407-10, 2002 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12434056

RESUMO

We measured acoustic emission energy during antigorite dehydration in a multianvil press from 1.5 to 8.5 gigapascals and 300 degrees to 900 degrees C. There was a strong acoustic emission signal on dehydration, and analysis of recovered samples revealed brittle deformation features associated with high pore-fluid pressures. These results demonstrate that intermediate depth (50 to 200 kilometers) seismicity can be generated by dehydration reactions in the subducting slab.

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