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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557243

RESUMO

Increasing contamination of the environment by toxic compounds such as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is one of the major causes of reproductive defects in both sexes. Estrogen/androgen pathways are of utmost importance in gonadal development, determination of secondary sex characteristics and gametogenesis. Most of the EDCs mediate their action through respective receptors and/or downstream signaling. The purpose of this review is to highlight the mechanism by which EDCs can trigger antagonistic or agonistic response, acting through estrogen/androgen receptors causing reproductive defects that lead to infertility. In vitro, in vivo and in silico studies focusing on the impact of EDCs on estrogen/androgen pathways and related proteins published in the last decade were considered for the review. PUBMED and PUBCHEM were used for literature search. EDCs can bind to estrogen receptors (ERα and ERß) and androgen receptors or activate alternative receptors such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), GPR30, estrogen-related receptor (ERRγ) to activate estrogen signaling via downstream kinases. Bisphenol A, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, polychlorinated biphenyls and phthalates are major toxicants that interfere with the normal estrogen/androgen pathways leading to infertility in both sexes through many ways, including DNA damage in spermatozoids, altered methylation pattern, histone modifications and miRNA expression.

2.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res ; : 1-18, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435749

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) causing COVID-19 disease pandemic has infected millions of people and caused more than thousands of deaths in many countries across the world. The number of infected cases is increasing day by day. Unfortunately, we do not have a vaccine and specific treatment for it. Along with the protective measures, respiratory and/or circulatory supports and some antiviral and retroviral drugs have been used against SARS-CoV-2, but there are no more extensive studies proving their efficacy. In this study, the latest publications in the field have been reviewed, focusing on the modulatory effects on the immunity of some natural antiviral dietary supplements, vitamins and minerals. Findings suggest that several dietary supplements, including black seeds, garlic, ginger, cranberry, orange, omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins (e.g., A, B vitamins, C, D, E), and minerals (e.g., Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Se, Zn) have anti-viral effects. Many of them act against various species of respiratory viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronaviruses. Therefore, dietary supplements, including vitamins and minerals, probiotics as well as individual nutritional behaviour can be used as adjuvant therapy together with antiviral medicines in the management of COVID-19 disease.

3.
Int J Mol Med ; 47(1): 92-100, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416113

RESUMO

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) continues to spread worldwide, it has become evident that the morbidity and mortality rates clearly vary across nations. Although several factors may account for this disparity, striking differences within and between populations indicate that ethnicity might impact COVID­19 clinical outcomes, reflecting the 'color of disease'. Therefore, the role of key biological variables that could interplay with viral spreading and severity indices has attracted increasing attention, particularly among non­Caucasian populations. Although the links between vitamin D status and the incidence and severity of COVID-19 remain elusive, several lines of emerging evidence suggest that vitamin D signaling, targeting several immune­mediated pathways, may offer potential benefits at different stages of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Given that the vitamin D status is modulated by several intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including skin type (pigmentation), melanin polymers may also play a role in variable COVID­19 outcomes among diverse population settings. Moreover, apart from the well­known limiting effects of melanin on the endogenous production of vitamin D, the potential crosstalk between the pigmentary and immune system may also require special attention concerning the current pandemic. The present review article aimed to shed light on a range of mostly overlooked host factors, such as vitamin D status and melanin pigments, that may influence the course and outcome of COVID­19.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Melaninas/imunologia , Pandemias , Deficiência de Vitamina D/imunologia , Vitamina D/imunologia , Vitaminas/imunologia , /imunologia , /virologia , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitaminas/sangue
4.
Toxicol Rep ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33294384

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic mitigation strategies are mainly based on social distancing measures and healthcare system reinforcement. However, many countries in Europe and elsewhere implemented strict, horizontal lockdowns because of extensive viral spread in the community which challenges the capacity of the healthcare systems. However, strict lockdowns have various untintended adverse social, economic and health effects, which have yet to be fully elucidated, and have not been considered in models examining the effects of various mitigation measures. Unlike commonly suggested, the dilemma is not about health vs wealth because the economic devastation of long-lasting lockdowns will definitely have adverse health effects in the population. Furthermore, they cannot provide a lasting solution in pandemic containment, potentially resulting in a vicious cycle of consecutive lockdowns with in-between breaks. Hospital preparedness has been the main strategy used by governments. However, a major characteristic of the COVID-19 pandemic is the rapid viral transmission in populations with no immunity. Thus, even the best hospital system could not cope with the demand. Primary, community and home care are the only viable strategies that could achieve the goal of pandemic mitigation. We present the case example of Greece, a country which followed a strategy focused on hospital preparedness but failed to reinforce primary and community care. This, along with strategic mistakes in epidemiological surveillance, resulted in Greece implementing a second strict, horizontal lockdown and having one of the highest COVID-19 death rates in Europe during the second wave. We provide recommendations for measures that will reinstate primary and community care at the forefront in managing the current public health crisis by protecting hospitals from unnecessary admissions, providing primary and secondary prevention services in relation to COVID-19 and maintaining population health through treatment of non-COVID-19 conditions. This, together with more selective social distancing measures (instead of horizontal lockdowns), represents the only viable and realistic long-term strategy for COVID-19 pandemic mitigation.

5.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 146: 111844, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152470

RESUMO

Cattle milk's health benefits can be compromised by the presence of contaminants. The levels of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc, and residues of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) were determined in soil, milk and cheese samples collected from cow farms from 3 Romanian areas with industrial and agriculture tradition. A new methodology was applied for the determination of the corrected estimated daily intake (cEDI) corresponding to the aggregate dietary exposure. For the risk assessment, we calculated the source hazard quotient (HQs) for each contaminant and the adversity specific hazard index (HIA). Cadmium, copper, lead and zinc, and the sum of DDT levels in soil samples were below maximum residue levels (MRLs). The MRLs of lead and DDD were exceeded in milk and cheese samples from all the 3 areas. The MRLs of copper and zinc were exceeded in cheese samples from area 2 and 3. HQs >10 for lead indicates increased risk, while HQ > 1 for copper and sum of DDT indicates moderate risk for both milk and cheese. By calculating the HIA, we identified a moderate and increase risk for nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, hematotoxicity, cardiotoxicity and reproduction toxicity after consumption of the dairy products from the 3 areas.

6.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 571459, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33192514

RESUMO

Analysis of the most relevant studies on the pharmacological properties and molecular mechanisms of psoralidin, a bioactive compound from the seeds of Cullen corylifolium (L.) Medik. confirmed its complex therapeutic potential. In the last years, the interest of the scientific community regarding psoralidin increased, especially after the discovery of its benefits in estrogen-related diseases and as a chemopreventive agent. Growing preclinical pieces of evidence indicate that psoralidin has anticancer, antiosteoporotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-vitiligo, antibacterial, antiviral, and antidepressant-like effects. Here, we provide a comprehensive and critical review of psoralidin on its bioavailability, pharmacological activities with focus on molecular mechanisms and cell signaling pathways. In this review, we conducted literature research on the PubMed database using the following keywords: "Psoralidin" or "therapeutic effects" or "biological activity" or "Cullen corylifolium" in order to identify relevant studies regarding PSO bioavailability and mechanisms of therapeutic effects in different diseases based on preclinical, experimental studies. In the light of psoralidin beneficial actions for human health, this paper gathers complete information on its pharmacotherapeutic effects and opens new natural therapeutic perspectives in chronic diseases.

7.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 572870, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041814

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic represents an unprecedented challenge for the researchers to offer safe, tolerable, and effective treatment strategies for its causative agent known as SARS-CoV-2. With the rapid evolution of the pandemic, even the off-label use of existing drugs has been restricted by limited availability. Several old antivirals, antimalarial, and biological drugs are being reconsidered as possible therapies. The effectiveness of the controversial treatment options for COVID-19 such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, angiotensin 2 conversion enzyme inhibitors and selective angiotensin receptor blockers was also discussed. A systemic search in the PubMed, Science Direct, LitCovid, Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, and ClinicalTrials.gov data bases was conducted using the keywords "coronavirus drug therapy," passive immunotherapy for COVID-19', "convalescent plasma therapy," (CPT) "drugs for COVID-19 treatment," "SARS-CoV-2," "COVID-19," "2019-nCoV," "coronavirus immunology," "microbiology," "virology," and individual drug names. Systematic reviews, case presentations and very recent clinical guidelines were included. This narrative review summarizes the available information on possible therapies for COVID-19, providing recent data to health professionals.

8.
Immunol Res ; 68(6): 315-324, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006053

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic in a modern era, there is a global consensus on the need for the rapid development of a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 for effective and sustainable control. Developing these vaccines is fundamental to public health. This urgent need is supported by the scientific explosion in structural and genomic biology that facilitates the urgent development of an ideal COVID-19 vaccine, using new pathways to facilitate its large-scale development, testing, and manufacture. Here, we summarize the types of COVID-19 candidate vaccines, their current stage in early testing in human clinical trials, and the challenges for their implementation.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
9.
Phytother Res ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025667

RESUMO

Ficus genus is typically tropical plants and is among the earliest fruit trees cultivated by humans. Ficus carica L. is the common fig, Ficus benjamina L. is the weeping fig, and Ficus pumila L. is the creeping fig. These species are commonly used in traditional medicine for a wide range of diseases and contain rich secondary metabolites that have shown diverse applications. This comprehensive review describes for Ficus genus the phytochemical compounds, traditional uses and contemporary pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, cytotoxic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antiulcer, and anticonvulsant. An extended survey of the current literature (Science Direct, Scopus, PubMed) has been carried out as part of the current work. The trends in the phytochemistry, pharmacological mechanisms and activities of Ficus genus are overviewed in this manuscript: antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity, antiseizure and anti-Parkinson's diseases, cytotoxic and antioxidant. Health-promoting effects, recent human clinical studies, safety and adverse effects of Ficus plants also are covered. The medical potential and long-term pharmacotherapeutic use of the genus Ficus along with no serious reported adverse events, suggests that it can be considered as being safe.

10.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(9)2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867260

RESUMO

The positive impact of probiotic strains on human health has become more evident than ever before. Often delivered through food, dietary products, supplements, and drugs, different legislations for safety and efficacy issues have been prepared. Furthermore, regulatory agencies have addressed various approaches toward these products, whether they authorize claims mentioning a disease's diagnosis, prevention, or treatment. Due to the diversity of bacteria and yeast strains, strict approaches have been designed to assess for side effects and post-market surveillance. One of the most essential delivery systems of probiotics is within food, due to the great beneficial health effects of this system compared to pharmaceutical products and also due to the increasing importance of food and nutrition. Modern lifestyle or various diseases lead to an imbalance of the intestinal flora. Nonetheless, as the amount of probiotic use needs accurate calculations, different factors should also be taken into consideration. One of the novelties of this review is the presentation of the beneficial effects of the administration of probiotics as a potential adjuvant therapy in COVID-19. Thus, this paper provides an integrative overview of different aspects of probiotics, from human health care applications to safety, quality, and control.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Hepatopatias/terapia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Doença Celíaca/terapia , Infecções por Clostridium/terapia , Constipação Intestinal/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Doenças Diverticulares/terapia , Disenteria/terapia , Enterocolite Necrosante/terapia , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Infecções por Helicobacter/terapia , Encefalopatia Hepática/terapia , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Probióticos/efeitos adversos , Probióticos/normas , Controle de Qualidade
11.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 1300, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32982731

RESUMO

Anthocyanins are natural phenolic pigments with biological activity. They are well-known to have potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity, which explains the various biological effects reported for these substances suggesting their antidiabetic and anticancer activities, and their role in cardiovascular and neuroprotective prevention. This review aims to comprehensively analyze different studies performed on this class of compounds, their bioavailability and their therapeutic potential. An in-depth look in preclinical, in vitro and in vivo, and clinical studies indicates the preventive effects of anthocyanins on cardioprotection, neuroprotection, antiobesity as well as their antidiabetes and anticancer effects.

12.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 146: 111769, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979398

RESUMO

Common manifestations of COVID-19 are respiratory and can extend from mild symptoms to severe acute respiratory distress. The severity of the illness can also extend from mild disease to life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). SARS-CoV-2 infection can also affect the gastrointestinal tract, liver and pancreatic functions, leading to gastrointestinal symptoms. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 can cause central and peripheral neurological manifestations, affect the cardiovascular system and promote renal dysfunction. Epidemiological data have indicated that cancer patients are at a higher risk of contracting the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Considering the multitude of clinical symptoms of COVID-19, the objective of the present review was to summarize their pathophysiology in previously healthy patients, as well as in those with comorbidities. The present review summarizes the current, though admittedly fluid knowledge on the pathophysiology and symptoms of COVID-19 infection. Although unclear issues still remain, the present study contributes to a more complete understanding of the disease, and may drive the direction of new research. The recognition of the severity of the clinical symptoms of COVID-19 is crucial for the specific therapeutic management of affected patients.

13.
Front Public Health ; 8: 281, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733837

RESUMO

Coronaviruses are enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses with an unusual large RNA genome and a unique replication mechanism, which are characterized by club-like spikes that protrude from their surface. An outbreak of a novel coronavirus 2019 infection has posed significant threat to the health and economies in the whole world. This article reviewed the viral replication, pathogenicity, prevention and treatment strategies. With a lack of approved treatment options for this virus, alternative approaches to control the spread of disease is in urgent need. This article also covers some management strategies which may be applied to this virus outbreak. Ongoing clinical studies related to possible treatments for COVID-19, potential vaccines, and alternative medication such as natural compounds are also discussed.

14.
Daru ; 28(2): 807-812, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pandemic associated with the new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus continues to spread worldwide. The most favorable epidemic control scenario, which provides long-term protection against COVID-19 outbreak, is the development and distribution of an effective and safe vaccine. The need to develop a new COVID-19 vaccine is pressing; however, it is likely to take a long time, possibly several years. This is due to the time required to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the proposed vaccine. and the time required to manufacture and distribute millions of doses. OBJECTIVES: To accelerate this development and associated safety testing, the deliberate infection of healthy volunteers has been suggested. The purpose of this short communication is to describe the ethical aspects of this type of testing, RESULTS: Deliberate infection of volunteers with a dangerous virus such as SARS-CoV-2 was initially considered unethical by researchers; but the current pandemic is so different from previous ones that these studies are considered ethical if certain criteria are met. Participants in human challenge studies must be relatively young, in good health and must receive the highest quality medical care, with frequent monitoring. Tests should also be performed with great caution and specialized medical supervision. Besides, the fact that obtaining vaccines faster through deliberate infection studies of healthy people has greater benefits than risks, has been demonstrated by obtaining other vaccines in other historical pandemics such as: smallpox, influenza, malaria, typhoid fever, Dengue fever and Zika. CONCLUSIONS: One possibility to shorten the time required for the development of COVID-19 vaccines is to reduce clinical phases II and III by using human challenge studies through eliberate infection of healthy volunteers with SARS-CoV-2 after administration of the candidate vaccine. Accelerating the development of a COVID-19 vaccine even for a few weeks or months would have a great beneficial impact on public health by saving many lives.

15.
Front Physiol ; 11: 694, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714204

RESUMO

Oxidative stress plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Long term exposure to increased levels of pro-oxidant factors can cause structural defects at a mitochondrial DNA level, as well as functional alteration of several enzymes and cellular structures leading to aberrations in gene expression. The modern lifestyle associated with processed food, exposure to a wide range of chemicals and lack of exercise plays an important role in oxidative stress induction. However, the use of medicinal plants with antioxidant properties has been exploited for their ability to treat or prevent several human pathologies in which oxidative stress seems to be one of the causes. In this review we discuss the diseases in which oxidative stress is one of the triggers and the plant-derived antioxidant compounds with their mechanisms of antioxidant defenses that can help in the prevention of these diseases. Finally, both the beneficial and detrimental effects of antioxidant molecules that are used to reduce oxidative stress in several human conditions are discussed.

16.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 143: 111535, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622850

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to investigate the potential of sildenafil and tadalafil to ameliorate structural kidney damage in contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). A rat model of CIN was developed by dehydration, administration of a nitric oxide inhibitor and a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor (L-NAME/indomethacin) and contrast media exposure to iopromide. The effect of pre-treatment with sildenafil, tadalafil or N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) for 7 days prior to CIN induction was investigated. All animals were sacrificed at 24 h after CIN induction and both kidneys were collected. Histopathological examination was performed under light microscopy in serial tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. CIN group showed hydropic changes of the renal tubules (proximal and distal convoluted tubules and Henle's loop), an increased Bowman space with lobulated glomerulus and alteration of macula densa region of distal convolute tubules. The groups pretreated with sildenafil and tadalafil showed nearly normal histological aspects of renal tissue. The group pretreated with NAC showed similar but less intense histopathologic changes compared to CIN group. Sildenafil and tadalafil pre-treatment ameliorates CIN-related structural kidney damage and the protective potential of these agents is superior to NAC.

17.
J Clin Med ; 9(8)2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726998

RESUMO

Neurological disorders such as neurodegenerative diseases or traumatic brain injury are associated with cognitive, motor and behavioural changes that influence the quality of life of the patients. Although different therapeutic strategies have been developed and tried until now to decrease the neurological decline, no treatment has been found to cure these pathologies. In the last decades, the implication of the endocannabinoid system in the neurological function has been extensively studied, and the cannabinoids have been tried as a new promising potential treatment. In this study, we aimed to overview the recent available literature regarding in vivo potential of natural and synthetic cannabinoids with underlying mechanisms of action for protecting against cognitive decline and motor impairments. The results of studies on animal models showed that cannabinoids in traumatic brain injury increase neurobehavioral function, working memory performance, and decrease the neurological deficit and ameliorate motor deficit through down-regulation of pro-inflammatory markers, oedema formation and blood-brain barrier permeability, preventing neuronal cell loss and up-regulating the levels of adherence junction proteins. In neurodegenerative diseases, the cannabinoids showed beneficial effects in decreasing the motor disability and disease progression by a complex mechanism targeting more signalling pathways further than classical receptors of the endocannabinoid system. In light of these results, the use of cannabinoids could be beneficial in traumatic brain injuries and multiple sclerosis treatment, especially in those patients who display resistance to conventional treatment.

18.
J Clin Med ; 9(5)2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365529

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with increased morbidity, prolonged hospitalization, and mortality, especially in high risk patients. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is), currently available as first-line therapy of erectile dysfunction in humans, have shown a beneficial potential of reno-protection through various reno-protective mechanisms. The aim of this work is to provide a comprehensive overview of the available literature on the reno-protective properties of PDE5Is in the various forms of AKI. Medline was systematically searched from 1946 to November 2019 to detect all relevant animal and human studies in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. In total, 83 studies were included for qualitative synthesis. Sildenafil is the most widely investigated compound (42 studies), followed by tadalafil (20 studies), icariin (10 studies), vardenafil (7 studies), zaprinast (4 studies), and udenafil (2 studies). Even though data are limited, especially in humans with inconclusive or negative results of only two clinically relevant studies available at present, the results of animal studies are promising. The reno-protective action of PDE5Is was evident in the vast majority of studies, independently of the AKI type and the agent applied. PDE5Is appear to improve the renal functional/histopathological alternations of AKI through various mechanisms, mainly by affecting regional hemodynamics, cell expression, and mitochondrial response to oxidative stress and inflammation.

19.
Int J Mol Med ; 46(1): 3-16, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377694

RESUMO

In the current context of the pandemic triggered by SARS-COV-2, the immunization of the population through vaccination is recognized as a public health priority. In the case of SARS­COV­2, the genetic sequencing was done quickly, in one month. Since then, worldwide research has focused on obtaining a vaccine. This has a major economic impact because new technological platforms and advanced genetic engineering procedures are required to obtain a COVID­19 vaccine. The most difficult scientific challenge for this future vaccine obtained in the laboratory is the proof of clinical safety and efficacy. The biggest challenge of manufacturing is the construction and validation of production platforms capable of making the vaccine on a large scale.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais , Infecções por Coronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Composição de Medicamentos/normas , Composição de Medicamentos/tendências , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/normas , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/tendências , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Potência de Vacina , Vacinas Virais/classificação , Vacinas Virais/normas , Vacinas Virais/provisão & distribução , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico
20.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 141: 111418, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437891

RESUMO

Occupational, residential, dietary and environmental exposures to mixtures of synthetic anthropogenic chemicals after World War II have a strong relationship with the increase of chronic diseases, health cost and environmental pollution. The link between environment and immunity is particularly intriguing as it is known that chemicals and drugs can cause immunotoxicity (e.g., allergies and autoimmune diseases). In this review, we emphasize the relationship between long-term exposure to xenobiotic mixtures and immune deficiency inherent to chronic diseases and epidemics/pandemics. We also address the immunotoxicologic risk of vulnerable groups, taking into account biochemical and biophysical properties of SARS-CoV-2 and its immunopathological implications. We particularly underline the common mechanisms by which xenobiotics and SARS-CoV-2 act at the cellular and molecular level. We discuss how long-term exposure to thousand chemicals in mixtures, mostly fossil fuel derivatives, exposure toparticle matters, metals, ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation, ionizing radiation and lifestyle contribute to immunodeficiency observed in the contemporary pandemic, such as COVID-19, and thus threaten global public health, human prosperity and achievements, and global economy. Finally, we propose metrics which are needed to address the diverse health effects of anthropogenic COVID-19 crisis at present and those required to prevent similar future pandemics.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Xenobióticos/toxicidade , Animais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Dieta , Epidemias , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tempo
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