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2.
Eur Heart J ; 2020 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221582

RESUMO

AIMS: In the DAPA-HF trial, the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin reduced the risk of worsening heart failure (HF) and death in patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction. We examined whether this benefit was consistent in relation to background HF therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this post hoc analysis, we examined the effect of study treatment in the following yes/no subgroups: diuretic, digoxin, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA), sacubitril/valsartan, ivabradine, implanted cardioverter-defibrillating (ICD) device, and cardiac resynchronization therapy. We also examined the effect of study drug according to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker dose, beta-blocker (BB) dose, and MRA (≥50% and <50% of target dose). We analysed the primary composite endpoint of cardiovascular death or a worsening HF event. Most randomized patients (n = 4744) were treated with a diuretic (84%), renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blocker (94%), and BB (96%); 52% of those taking a BB and 38% taking a RAS blocker were treated with ≥50% of the recommended dose. Overall, the dapagliflozin vs. placebo hazard ratio (HR) was 0.74 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65-0.85] for the primary composite endpoint (P < 0.0001). The effect of dapagliflozin was consistent across all subgroups examined: the HR ranged from 0.57 to 0.86 for primary endpoint, with no significant randomized treatment-by-subgroup interaction. For example, the HR in patients taking a RAS blocker, BB, and MRA at baseline was 0.72 (95% CI 0.61-0.86) compared with 0.77 (95% CI 0.63-0.94) in those not on all three of these treatments (P-interaction 0.64). CONCLUSION: The benefit of dapagliflozin was consistent regardless of background therapy for HF.

3.
JAMA ; 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219386

RESUMO

Importance: Additional treatments are needed for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors may be an effective treatment for patients with HFrEF, even those without diabetes. Objective: To evaluate the effects of dapagliflozin in patients with HFrEF with and without diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Exploratory analysis of a phase 3 randomized trial conducted at 410 sites in 20 countries. Patients with New York Heart Association classification II to IV with an ejection fraction less than or equal to 40% and elevated plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide were enrolled between February 15, 2017, and August 17, 2018, with final follow-up on June 6, 2019. Interventions: Addition of once-daily 10 mg of dapagliflozin or placebo to recommended therapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the composite of an episode of worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death. This outcome was analyzed by baseline diabetes status and, in patients without diabetes, by glycated hemoglobin level less than 5.7% vs greater than or equal to 5.7%. Results: Among 4744 patients randomized (mean age, 66 years; 1109 [23%] women; 2605 [55%] without diabetes), 4742 completed the trial. Among participants without diabetes, the primary outcome occurred in 171 of 1298 (13.2%) in the dapagliflozin group and 231 of 1307 (17.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.60-0.88]). In patients with diabetes, the primary outcome occurred in 215 of 1075 (20.0%) in the dapagliflozin group and 271 of 1064 (25.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.63-0.90]) (P value for interaction = .80). Among patients without diabetes and a glycated hemoglobin level less than 5.7%, the primary outcome occurred in 53 of 438 patients (12.1%) in the dapagliflozin group and 71 of 419 (16.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.47-0.96]). In patients with a glycated hemoglobin of at least 5.7%, the primary outcome occurred in 118 of 860 patients (13.7%) in the dapagliflozin group and 160 of 888 (18.0%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.59-0.94]) (P value for interaction = .72). Volume depletion was reported as an adverse event in 7.3% of patients in the dapagliflozin group and 6.1% in the placebo group among patients without diabetes and in 7.8% of patients in the dapagliflozin group and 7.8% in the placebo group among patients with diabetes. A kidney adverse event was reported in 4.8% of patients in the dapagliflozin group and 6.0% in the placebo group among patients without diabetes and in 8.5% of patients in the dapagliflozin group and 8.7% in the placebo group among patients with diabetes. Conclusions and Relevance: In this exploratory analysis of a randomized trial of patients with HFrEF, dapagliflozin compared with placebo, when added to recommended therapy, significantly reduced the risk of worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death independently of diabetes status. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03036124.

4.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(5): 848-855, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944496

RESUMO

AIMS: To develop a risk model for sudden cardiac death (SCD) in high-risk acute myocardial infarction (AMI) survivors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from the Effect of Carvedilol on Outcome After Myocardial Infarction in Patients With Left Ventricular Dysfunction trial (CAPRICORN) and the Valsartan in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial (VALIANT) were used to create a SCD risk model (with non-SCD as a competing risk) in 13 202 patients. The risk model was validated in the Eplerenone Post-AMI Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study (EPHESUS). The rate of SCD was 3.3 (95% confidence interval 3.0-3.5) per 100 person-years over a median follow-up of 2.0 years. Independent predictors of SCD included age > 70 years; heart rate ≥ 70 bpm; smoking; Killip class III/IV; left ventricular ejection fraction ≤30%; atrial fibrillation; history of prior myocardial infarction, heart failure or diabetes; estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 ; and no coronary reperfusion or revascularisation therapy for index AMI. The model was well calibrated and showed good discrimination (C-statistic = 0.72), including in the early period after AMI. The observed 2-year event rates increased steeply with each quintile of risk score (1.9%, 3.6%, 6.2%, 9.0%, 13.4%, respectively). CONCLUSION: An easy to use SCD risk score developed from routinely collected clinical variables in patients with heart failure, left ventricular systolic dysfunction or both, early after AMI was superior to left ventricular ejection fraction. This score might be useful in identifying patients for future trials testing treatments to prevent SCD early after AMI.

6.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 95(2): 232-241, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264314

RESUMO

AIM: Evaluate sex differences in procedural net adverse clinical events and long-term outcomes following rotational atherectomy (RA). METHODS AND RESULTS: From August 2010 to 2016, 765 consecutive patients undergoing RA PCI were followed up for a median of 4.7 years. 285 (37%) of subjects were female. Women were older (mean 76 years vs. 72 years; p < .001) and had more urgent procedures (64.6 vs. 47.3%; p < .001). Females received fewer radial procedures (75.1 vs. 85.1%; p < .001) and less intravascular imaging guidance (16.8 vs. 25.0%; p = .008). After propensity score adjustment, the primary endpoint of net adverse cardiac events (net adverse clinical events: all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke, target vessel revascularization plus any procedural complication) occurred more often in female patients (15.1 vs. 9.0%; adjusted OR 1.81 95% CI 1.04-3.13; p = .037). This was driven by an increased risk of procedural complications rather than procedural major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Specifically, women were more likely to experience coronary dissection (4.6 vs. 1.3%; p = .008), cardiac tamponade (2.1 vs. 0.4%; p = .046) and significant bleeding (BARC ≥2: 5.3 vs. 2.3). Despite this, overall MACE-free survival was similar between males and females (adjusted HR 1.03; 95% CI 0.80-1.34; p = .81). Procedural complications during RA were associated with almost double the incidence of MACE at long-term follow-up (HR 1.92; 95% CI 1.34-2.77; p < .001). CONCLUSION: Women may be at greater risk of procedural complications following rotational atherectomy. These include periprocedural bleeding episodes and coronary perforation leading to cardiac tamponade. Despite this, the adjusted overall long-term survival free of major adverse cardiac events was similar between males and females.

7.
Circulation ; 141(2): 90-99, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Goals of management in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction include reducing death and hospitalizations, and improving health status (symptoms, physical function, and quality of life). In the DAPA-HF trial (Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse-Outcomes in Heart Failure), sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, dapagliflozin, reduced death and hospitalizations, and improved symptoms in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. In this analysis, we examine the effects of dapagliflozin on a broad range of health status outcomes, using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ). METHODS: KCCQ was evaluated at randomization, 4 and 8 months. Patients were divided by baseline KCCQ total symptom score (TSS); Cox proportional hazards models examined the effects of dapagliflozin on clinical events across these subgroups. We also evaluated the effects of dapagliflozin on KCCQ-TSS, clinical summary score, and overall summary score. Responder analyses were performed to compare proportions of dapagliflozin versus placebo-treated patients with clinically meaningful changes in KCCQ at 8 months. RESULTS: A total of 4443 patients had available KCCQ at baseline (median KCCQ-TSS, 77.1 [interquartile range, 58.3-91.7]). The effects of dapagliflozin vs placebo on reducing cardiovascular death or worsening heart failure were consistent across the range of KCCQ-TSS (lowest to highest tertile: hazard ratio, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.57-0.86]; hazard ratio, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.61-0.98]; hazard ratio, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.46-0.83]; P for heterogeneity=0.52). Patients treated with dapagliflozin had greater improvement in mean KCCQ-TSS, clinical summary score, and overall summary score at 8 months (2.8, 2.5 and 2.3 points higher versus placebo; P<0.0001 for all). Fewer patients treated with dapagliflozin had a deterioration in KCCQ-TSS (odds ratio, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.78-0.90]; P<0.0001); and more patients had at least small, moderate, and large improvements (odds ratio, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.08-1.23]; odds ratio, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.08-1.22]; odds ratio, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.07-1.22]; number needed to treat=14, 15, and 18, respectively; P<0.0001 for all; results consistent for KCCQ clinical summary score and overall summary score). CONCLUSIONS: Dapagliflozin reduced cardiovascular death and worsening heart failure across the range of baseline KCCQ, and improved symptoms, physical function, and quality of life in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. Furthermore, dapagliflozin increased the proportion of patients experiencing at least small, moderate, and large improvements in health status; these effects were clinically important. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03036124.

8.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(3): 528-538, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849164

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the relationship between heart rate and outcomes in heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) patients in sinus rhythm (SR) and atrial fibrillation (AF) adjusting for natriuretic peptide concentration, a powerful prognosticator. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 13 562 patients from two large HFrEF trials, 10 113 (74.6%) were in SR and 3449 (25.4%) in AF. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization. Heart rate was analysed as a categorical (tertiles, T1-3) and continuous variable (per 10 bpm), separately in patients in SR and AF. Outcomes were adjusted for prognostic variables, including N-terminal prohormone of B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and also examined using change from baseline heart rate to 1 year (≤ -10 bpm, ≥ +10 bpm, < ±10 bpm). SR patients with a higher heart rate had worse symptoms and quality of life, more often had diabetes and higher NT-proBNP concentrations. They had higher risk of the primary endpoint [T3 vs. T1 adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35-1.66; P < 0.001; per 10 bpm: 1.12, 95% CI 1.09-1.16; P < 0.001]. In SR, heart rate was associated with a relatively higher risk of pump failure than sudden death (adjusted HR per 10 bpm 1.17, 95% CI 1.09-1.26; P < 0.001 vs. 1.07, 95% CI 1.02-1.13; P = 0.011). Heart rate was not predictive of any outcome in AF. CONCLUSIONS: In HFrEF, an elevated heart rate was an independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients in SR, even after adjustment for NT-proBNP. There was no relationship between heart rate and outcomes in AF. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers NCT01035255 and NCT00853658.

9.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(10): 849-858, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582107

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the prevalence, changes in, and prognostic importance of B-lines, a pulmonary congestion measure by using a simplified lung ultrasonography (LUS) method in acute heart failure (AHF). BACKGROUND: Pulmonary congestion is an important finding in AHF, but conventional methods for its detection are insensitive. METHODS: In a 2-site, prospective, observational study, 4-zone LUS was performed early during hospitalization for AHF (LUS1) and at discharge (LUS2). B-lines were quantified off-line, blinded to clinical findings and outcomes, by a core laboratory. RESULTS: Among 349 patients (median, 75 years of age; 59% men; mean ejection fraction 39%), the sum of B-lines in 4 zones ranged from 0 to 18 (LUS1). The risk of an adverse in-hospital event increased with rising number of B-lines on LUS1: the odds ratio for each B-line tertile was 1.82 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14 to 2.88; p = 0.011). B-line count decreased from a median of 6 (LUS1) to 4 (LUS2; p < 0.001) over 6 days (median). In 132 patients with LUS2 images, the risk of HF hospitalization or all-cause death was greater in patients with a higher number of B-lines at discharge. This relationship was stronger closer to discharge: unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) at 60 days was 3.30 (95% CI: 1.52 to 7.17; p = 0.002); 2.94 at 90 days (95% CI: 1.46 to 5.93; p = 0.003); and 2.01 at 180 days (95% CI: 1.11 to 3.64; p = 0.021). The association between number of B-lines and short- and long-term outcomes persisted after adjusting for important clinical variables, including N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary congestion using a simplified 4-zone LUS method was common in patients with AHF and improved with therapy. A higher number of B-lines at baseline and discharge identified patients at increased risk for adverse events.

11.
N Engl J Med ; 381(21): 1995-2008, 2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with type 2 diabetes, inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) reduce the risk of a first hospitalization for heart failure, possibly through glucose-independent mechanisms. More data are needed regarding the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with established heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, regardless of the presence or absence of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this phase 3, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 4744 patients with New York Heart Association class II, III, or IV heart failure and an ejection fraction of 40% or less to receive either dapagliflozin (at a dose of 10 mg once daily) or placebo, in addition to recommended therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of worsening heart failure (hospitalization or an urgent visit resulting in intravenous therapy for heart failure) or cardiovascular death. RESULTS: Over a median of 18.2 months, the primary outcome occurred in 386 of 2373 patients (16.3%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 502 of 2371 patients (21.2%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.85; P<0.001). A first worsening heart failure event occurred in 237 patients (10.0%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 326 patients (13.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.83). Death from cardiovascular causes occurred in 227 patients (9.6%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 273 patients (11.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.98); 276 patients (11.6%) and 329 patients (13.9%), respectively, died from any cause (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.97). Findings in patients with diabetes were similar to those in patients without diabetes. The frequency of adverse events related to volume depletion, renal dysfunction, and hypoglycemia did not differ between treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, the risk of worsening heart failure or death from cardiovascular causes was lower among those who received dapagliflozin than among those who received placebo, regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. (Funded by AstraZeneca; DAPA-HF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03036124.).


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Terapia Combinada , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/complicações , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(10): 776-785, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists differ in their structure and duration of action and have been studied in trials of varying sizes and with different patient populations, with inconsistent effects on cardiovascular outcomes reported. We aimed to synthesise the available evidence by doing a systematic review and meta-analysis of cardiovascular outcome trials of these drugs. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE (via PubMed) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for eligible placebo-controlled trials reporting major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; ie, cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction) up to June 15, 2019. We did a meta-analysis using a random-effects model to estimate overall hazard ratios (HRs) for MACE, its components, death from any cause, hospital admission for heart failure, kidney outcomes, and key safety outcomes (severe hypoglycaemia, pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer). We also examined MACE in several subgroups based on patient characteristics (history of cardiovascular disease, BMI, age, baseline HbA1c, and baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate), trial duration, treatment dosing interval, and structural homology. FINDINGS: Of 27 publications screened, seven trials, with a combined total of 56 004 participants, were included: ELIXA (lixisenatide), LEADER (liraglutide), SUSTAIN-6 (semaglutide), EXSCEL (exenatide), Harmony Outcomes (albiglutide), REWIND (dulaglutide), and PIONEER 6 (oral semaglutide). Overall, GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment reduced MACE by 12% (HR 0·88, 95% CI 0·82-0·94; p<0·0001). There was no statistically significant heterogeneity across the subgroups examined. HRs were 0·88 (95% CI 0·81-0·96; p=0·003) for death from cardiovascular causes, 0·84 (0·76-0·93; p<0·0001) for fatal or non-fatal stroke, and 0·91 (0·84-1·00; p=0·043) for fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction. GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment reduced all-cause mortality by 12% (0·88, 0·83-0·95; p=0·001), hospital admission for heart failure by 9% (0·91, 0·83-0·99; p=0·028), and a broad composite kidney outcome (development of new-onset macroalbuminuria, decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate [or increase in creatinine], progression to end-stage kidney disease, or death attributable to kidney causes) by 17% (0·83, 0·78-0·89; p<0·0001), mainly due to a reduction in urinary albumin excretion. There was no increase in risk of severe hypoglycaemia, pancreatitis, or pancreatic cancer. INTERPRETATION: Treatment with GLP-1 receptor agonists has beneficial effects on cardiovascular, mortality, and kidney outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. FUNDING: None.

14.
Korean Circ J ; 49(6): 469-484, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172710

RESUMO

The Prospective comparison of Angiotensin Receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) with Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure (HF) trial (PARADIGM-HF) showed that adding a neprilysin inhibitor (sacubitril) to a renin-angiotensin system blocker (and other standard therapy) reduced morbidity and mortality in ambulatory patients with chronic HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). In PARADIGM-HF, valsartan combined with sacubitril (a so-called ARNI) was superior to the current gold standard of an ACEI, specifically enalapril, reducing the risk of the primary composite outcome of cardiovascular (CV) death or first HF hospitalization by 20% and all-cause death by 16%. Following the results of PARADIGM-HF, sacubitril/valsartan was approved by American and European regulatory authorities for the treatment of HFrEF. The burden of HF in Asia is substantial, both due to the huge population of the region and as a result of increasing CV risk factors and disease. Both the prevalence and mortality associated with HF are high in Asia. In the following review, we discuss the development of sacubitril/valsartan, the prototype ARNI, and the available evidence for its efficacy and safety in Asian patients with HFrEF.

15.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(5): 418-427, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981744

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between prior pacemaker implantation and clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). BACKGROUND: Conventional right ventricular pacing causes electrical and mechanical left ventricular dyssynchrony and may worsen left ventricular systolic dysfunction and HF. Whether conventional pacing is also associated with worse outcomes in HFpEF is unknown. METHODS: Patient data were pooled from the CHARM-Preserved (Candesartan in Heart failure: Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity), I-PRESERVE (Irbesartan in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction), and TOPCAT (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist trial) studies and were examined for the association between having a pacemaker and the risk of the primary composite of cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization, the individual components of the composite, the 2 main modes of cardiovascular death (i.e., sudden death and pump failure death), and all-cause death in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. RESULTS: Of the 8,466 patients included, 682 patients (8%) had a pacemaker. Pacemaker patients were older and more often men and had lower body mass indexes, estimated glomerular filtration rates, and blood pressures but higher concentrations of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide than those without a pacemaker. The rate of the primary composite outcome in pacemaker patients was almost twice that in patients without a pacemaker (13.6 vs. 7.6 per 100 patient-years of follow up, respectively), with a similar finding for HF hospitalizations (10.8 vs. 5.1 per 100 patient-years, respectively). This risk rate persisted after adjusting for other prognostic variables (hazard ratio [HR] for the composite outcome: 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02 to 1.33; p = 0.026), driven mainly by HF hospitalization (HR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.60; p < 0.001). The risk of death was not significantly higher in pacemaker patients in the adjusted analyses. CONCLUSIONS: These findings raise the possibility that right ventricular pacing-induced left ventricular dyssynchrony may be detrimental in HFpEF patients.

16.
Acta Cardiol ; : 1-7, 2019 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30650050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with chest pain are risk-stratified using serial high-sensitivity troponin (T) assays (hsTnT). Those with change in (Δ)hsTnT <20% are often categorised as low-risk and are less likely to be managed as acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We sought to characterise such a population of 'low-risk' chest pain presenters. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of sequential patients admitted to our centre over a 1-year period with chest pain, absence of ST-elevation, with elevated hsTnT concentrations, and compared demographic, clinical and outcome data according to ΔhsTnT. RESULTS: Three hundred and eleven patients were subdivided by ΔhsTnT [<20% (n = 80), 20-100% (n = 78), >100% (n = 153)]. Baseline demographic data were well-matched across the three subgroups; atrial fibrillation was more common in the two lower magnitude ΔhsTnT groups. Obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) - while less common in those with ΔhsTnT <20% (66.2%) compared to the 20-100% (73.1%) and >100% (75.9%) groups (p = 0.03) - remained high in this lower risk group, and indeed revascularisation occurred in >60% of patients, equally frequently in all three groups. Using absolute ΔhsTnT ≥9ng/L within the ΔhsTnT <20% group provided incremental value in ruling in ACS, with a positive predictive value of 74.1%. ΔhsTnT was a univariate but not a multivariate predictor of obstructive CAD. CONCLUSIONS: Obstructive CAD and need for revascularisation are frequent in chest pain presenters with ΔhsTnT <20%. The increasing focus on hsTnT algorithms to exclude ACS and promote early discharge without adequate clinical risk stratification modelling risks misdiagnosis of patients presenting with acute myocardial ischaemia with a low-level hsTnT rise.

17.
Int J Cardiol ; 281: 179-185, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29891240

RESUMO

Despite significant advances in the last 30 years in reducing morbidity and mortality from heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) with pharmacological and device-based therapies, patients remain at a high risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Sacubitril/valsartan, a first-in-class angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors (ARNI), has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalisation and improve symptoms in patients with chronic, ambulatory, symptomatic HFrEF in a large, phase 3, multicentre, international, randomised controlled trial, PARADIGM-HF, when compared to the gold-standard angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, enalapril. This article will review the development of sacubitril/valsartan, the evidence for its use and its current and future role in the management of HFrEF.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Neprilisina/antagonistas & inibidores , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Animais , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Humanos , Neprilisina/metabolismo , Receptores de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia
20.
Eur Heart J ; 38(5): 338-345, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27742808

RESUMO

Aims: Guidelines for the management of chronic heart failure (CHF) cite the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to support treatment recommendations. The significance of an observed treatment-effect relies on the use of a boundary P-value, most commonly P < 0.05. There is concern about relying on arbitrary threshold P-values to report results as 'statistically significant'. The 'fragility index' (FI) has been proposed as an additional measure of the robustness of trial findings. FI is the minimum number of events needing to change from a non-event to an event in order to render a significant result non-significant. We calculated the FI to examine the robustness of statistically significant RCTs in CHF. Methods and results: Two reviewers extracted data from RCTs supporting treatment recommendations in CHF guidelines. Twenty-five eligible trials were identified with a median sample size of 2331 patients (range 129-8399) and a median number of primary endpoints of 688.5 (range 88-2031). For the primary endpoint (analysed for 20 trials), the median FI was 26 (range 0-118). The FI was ≤10 in 7 (35%) of these 20 trials, and in 4 (20%) trials the number of patients lost to follow-up in the treatment group exceeded the FI. Conclusion: The results of some large RCTs in CHF hinge on a small number of events. The FI offers an additional, easy to understand metric, which augments the standard reporting of boundary P-values for statistical significance. The FI helps in the interpretation of the robustness of the results of RCTs.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/mortalidade , Doença Crônica , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos
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