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1.
Turk J Haematol ; 37(4): 271-281, 2020 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812413

RESUMO

Objective: Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked primary immune deficiency characterized by microthrombocytopenia, eczema, and recurrent infections. We aimed to evaluate the clinical features and outcomes of a WAS cohort. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the clinical courses, immunological features, treatments, and outcomes in a total of 23 WAS patients together with data related to 11 transplanted cases among them between 1982 and 2019. Results: Before admission, 11 patients (48%) were misdiagnosed with immune thrombocytopenia. WAS scores were mostly 4 or 5. Eleven patients were transplanted and they had an overall survival rate of 100% during a median follow-up period of 8.5 years (range: 8 months to 20 years). Five patients who were not transplanted died at a median of 7 years (range: 2-26 years). Nontransplanted patients had high morbidity due to organ damage, mostly caused by autoimmunity, bleeding, and infections. Two novel mutations were also defined. Conclusion: All male babies with microthrombocytopenia should be evaluated for WAS. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation should be performed at the earliest age with the best possible donors.

2.
Blood ; 136(23): 2638-2655, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603431

RESUMO

Biallelic mutations in the genes encoding CD27 or its ligand CD70 underlie inborn errors of immunity (IEIs) characterized predominantly by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated immune dysregulation, such as chronic viremia, severe infectious mononucleosis, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), lymphoproliferation, and malignancy. A comprehensive understanding of the natural history, immune characteristics, and transplant outcomes has remained elusive. Here, in a multi-institutional global collaboration, we collected the clinical information of 49 patients from 29 families (CD27, n = 33; CD70, n = 16), including 24 previously unreported individuals and identified a total of 16 distinct mutations in CD27, and 8 in CD70, respectively. The majority of patients (90%) were EBV+ at diagnosis, but only ∼30% presented with infectious mononucleosis. Lymphoproliferation and lymphoma were the main clinical manifestations (70% and 43%, respectively), and 9 of the CD27-deficient patients developed HLH. Twenty-one patients (43%) developed autoinflammatory features including uveitis, arthritis, and periodic fever. Detailed immunological characterization revealed aberrant generation of memory B and T cells, including a paucity of EBV-specific T cells, and impaired effector function of CD8+ T cells, thereby providing mechanistic insight into cellular defects underpinning the clinical features of disrupted CD27/CD70 signaling. Nineteen patients underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) prior to adulthood predominantly because of lymphoma, with 95% survival without disease recurrence. Our data highlight the marked predisposition to lymphoma of both CD27- and CD70-deficient patients. The excellent outcome after HSCT supports the timely implementation of this treatment modality particularly in patients presenting with malignant transformation to lymphoma.

4.
J Exp Med ; 217(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207811

RESUMO

Autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome (AD-HIES) is typically caused by dominant-negative (DN) STAT3 mutations. Patients suffer from cold staphylococcal lesions and mucocutaneous candidiasis, severe allergy, and skeletal abnormalities. We report 12 patients from 8 unrelated kindreds with AD-HIES due to DN IL6ST mutations. We identified seven different truncating mutations, one of which was recurrent. The mutant alleles encode GP130 receptors bearing the transmembrane domain but lacking both the recycling motif and all four STAT3-recruiting tyrosine residues. Upon overexpression, the mutant proteins accumulate at the cell surface and are loss of function and DN for cellular responses to IL-6, IL-11, LIF, and OSM. Moreover, the patients' heterozygous leukocytes and fibroblasts respond poorly to IL-6 and IL-11. Consistently, patients with STAT3 and IL6ST mutations display infectious and allergic manifestations of IL-6R deficiency, and some of the skeletal abnormalities of IL-11R deficiency. DN STAT3 and IL6ST mutations thus appear to underlie clinical phenocopies through impairment of the IL-6 and IL-11 response pathways.

5.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 31(5): 515-527, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108967

RESUMO

Biallelic mutations in the dedicator of cytokinesis 8 gene (DOCK8) cause a progressive combined immunodeficiency (CID) characterized by susceptibility to severe viral skin infections, atopic diseases, recurrent respiratory infections, and malignancy. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is only curative treatment for the disease. However, there is limited information about long-term outcome of HSCT and its effect to protect against cancer development in DOCK8-deficient patients. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated clinical and immunologic characteristics of 20 DOCK8-deficient patients and outcome of 11 patients who underwent HSCT. We aimed to report the experience of our center and the result of the largest transplantation series of DOCK8 deficiency in our country. Median follow-up time is 71 months (min-max: 16-172) in all patients and 48 months (min-max: 5-84) in transplanted patients. Atopic dermatitis (18/20), recurrent respiratory tract infections (17/20), and food allergy (14/20) were the most frequent clinical manifestations. Failure to thrive (13/20), liver problems (12/20), bronchiectasis (11/20), chronic diarrhea (10/21), and autism spectrum disorders (3/20) were remarkable findings in our series. Elevated IgE level (20/20) and eosinophilia (17/20), low IgM level (15/20), and decreased CD3+ T (10/20) and CD4+ T (11/20) cell count were prominent laboratory findings. HSCT was performed in 11 patients. All patients achieved adequate engraftment and showed improvement in their clinical and immunologic findings. Atopic dermatitis and food allergies improved in all patients, and their dietary restriction was stopped except one patient who was transplanted recently. The frequency of infections was decreased. The overall survival is 91% in HSCT-received patients and 80% in all. HSCT at the earliest possible period with most suitable donor- and patient-specific appropriate conditioning regimen and GvHD prophylaxis is lifesaving for DOCK8 deficiency cases.

6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 145(5): 1452-1463, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent findings strongly support hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with severe presentation of LPS-responsive beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) deficiency, but long-term follow-up and survival data beyond previous patient reports or meta-reviews are scarce for those patients who do not receive a transplant. OBJECTIVE: This international retrospective study was conducted to elucidate the longitudinal clinical course of patients with LRBA deficiency who do and do not receive a transplant. METHOD: We assessed disease burden and treatment responses with a specially developed immune deficiency and dysregulation activity score, reflecting the sum and severity of organ involvement and infections, days of hospitalization, supportive care requirements, and performance indices. RESULTS: Of 76 patients with LRBA deficiency from 29 centers (median follow-up, 10 years; range, 1-52), 24 underwent HSCT from 2005 to 2019. The overall survival rate after HSCT (median follow-up, 20 months) was 70.8% (17 of 24 patients); all deaths were due to nonspecific, early, transplant-related mortality. Currently, 82.7% of patients who did not receive a transplant (43 of 52; age range, 3-69 years) are alive. Of 17 HSCT survivors, 7 are in complete remission and 5 are in good partial remission without treatment (together, 12 of 17 [70.6%]). In contrast, only 5 of 43 patients who did not receive a transplant (11.6%) are without immunosuppression. Immune deficiency and dysregulation activity scores were significantly lower in patients who survived HSCT than in those receiving conventional treatment (P = .005) or in patients who received abatacept or sirolimus as compared with other therapies, and in patients with residual LRBA expression. Higher disease burden, longer duration before HSCT, and lung involvement were associated with poor outcome. CONCLUSION: The lifelong disease activity, implying a need for immunosuppression and risk of malignancy, must be weighed against the risks of HSCT.

7.
Pediatr Transplant ; 23(7): e13545, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297914

RESUMO

DOCK8 deficiency is a rare inherited combined immunodeficiency, caused by mutations in the DOCK8 gene. We describe a case with DOCK8 deficiency associated with severe CLD in whom orthotopic LT was performed successfully after allogeneic HSCT. A 5 year-old girl with DOCK8 deficiency presented with mild direct hyperbilirubinemia and abnormal GGT level and without a previous history of jaundice. She had severe growth retardation, hepatosplenomegaly and generalized eczema. Progressive worsening of CLD was observed within 4 months. Investigations for etiology of liver disease were negative. Liver biopsy showed bridging necrosis, cholestasis and, cirrhosis. Recurrent immune hemolytic crisis and several viral infections developed in follow-up. She underwent whole cadaveric LT for end-stage liver disease (ESLD) 1 year after allogenic HSCT from a full matched related donor. The postoperative course was uneventful. The patient is alive with normal liver function and moderate skin graft versus host disease for 36 months after LT. In conclusion DOCK8 deficiency can be associated with severe CLD. Successful LT following HSCT is possible in patients with ESLD in DOCK8 deficiency. The timing of LT is challenging in patients requiring both HSCT and LT since conditioning regimens for HSCT can be highly hepatotoxic and the patients with suboptimal liver function can become decompensated during HSCT.

8.
World Allergy Organ J ; 12(3): 100018, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30937141

RESUMO

Background: X-linked agammaglobulinemia is an inherited immunodeficiency recognized since 1952. In spite of seven decades of experience, there is still a limited understanding of regional differences in presentation and complications. This study was designed by the Primary Immunodeficiencies Committee of the World Allergy Organization to better understand regional needs, challenges and unique patient features. Methods: A survey instrument was designed by the Primary Immunodeficiencies Committee of the World Allergy Organization to collect both structured and semi-structured data on X-linked agammaglobulinemia. The survey was sent to 54 centers around the world chosen on the basis of World Allergy Organization participation and/or registration in the European Society for Immunodeficiencies. There were 40 centers that responded, comprising 32 countries. Results: This study reports on 783 patients from 40 centers around the world. Problems with diagnosis are highlighted by the reported delays in diagnosis>24 months in 34% of patients and the lack of genetic studies in 39% of centers Two infections exhibited regional variation. Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis was seen only in countries with live polio vaccination and two centers reported mycobacteria. High rates of morbidity were reported. Acute and chronic lung diseases accounted for 41% of the deaths. Unusual complications such as inflammatory bowel disease and large granular lymphocyte disease, among others were specifically enumerated, and while individually uncommon, they were collectively seen in 20.3% of patients. These data suggest that a broad range of both inflammatory, infectious, and autoimmune conditions can occur in patients. The breadth of complications and lack of data on management subsequently appeared as a significant challenge reported by centers. Survival above 20 years of age was lowest in Africa (22%) and reached above 70% in Australia, Europe and the Americas. Centers were asked to report their challenges and responses (n = 116) emphasized the difficulties in access to immunoglobulin products (16%) and reflected the ongoing need for education of both patients and referring physicians. Conclusions: This is the largest study of patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and emphasizes the continued morbidity and mortality of XLA despite progress in diagnosis and treatment. It presents a world view of the successes and challenges for patients and physicians alike. A pivotal finding is the need for education of physicians regarding typical symptoms suggesting a possible diagnosis of X-linked agammaglobulinemia and sharing of best practices for the less common complications.

9.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(3): 316-323, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924026

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is the most serious PID, characterized by T cell lymphopenia and lack of antigen-specific T cell and B cell immune responses, inevitably leading to death within the first year of life if hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is not performed. PURPOSE AND METHODS: Since SCID is a common type of PID with an estimated incidence of 1/10.000 in Turkey, a retrospective analysis of HSCT characteristics, survival, immune recovery, and the major clinical features of SCID prior to HSCT is the aim of this multi-transplant center-based analysis. RESULTS: A total of 234 SCID patients transplanted between the years 1994 and 2014 were included in the study. Median age at diagnosis was 5 months, at transplantation, 7 months, B- phenotype and RAGs were the most common defects among others. Immune phenotype did not seem to have an effect on survival rate (p > 0.05), Immunoglobulin (Ig) requirement following HSCT did not differ between B+ and B- phenotypes (p > 0.05). Overall survival rate was 65.7% over a period of 20 years. It increased from 54% (1994-2004) to 69% (p = 0.052) during the last 10 years (2005-2014). Ten-year survival after HSCT has improved over time although the difference was not significant. Infection at the time of transplantation (p = 0.006), mismatched related donor (MMRD) (haploidentical parents), and matched unrelated donor (MUD) donor transplants p < 0.001 were the most important factors, significantly affecting the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first multicenter study with the largest data obtained from transplanted SCID patients in Turkey. Early diagnosis with newborn screening (NBS) together with emerging referrals, treatment by transplantation centers, and specialized teams are mandatory in countries with high parental consanguinity such as Turkey.

10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2238-2253, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CD40 ligand (CD40L) deficiency, an X-linked primary immunodeficiency, causes recurrent sinopulmonary, Pneumocystis and Cryptosporidium species infections. Long-term survival with supportive therapy is poor. Currently, the only curative treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). OBJECTIVE: We performed an international collaborative study to improve patients' management, aiming to individualize risk factors and determine optimal HSCT characteristics. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on 130 patients who underwent HSCT for CD40L deficiency between 1993-2015. We analyzed outcome and variables' relevance with respect to survival and cure. RESULTS: Overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were 78.2%, 58.1%, and 72.3% 5 years after HSCT. Results were better in transplantations performed in 2000 or later and in children less than 10 years old at the time of HSCT. Pre-existing organ damage negatively influenced outcome. Sclerosing cholangitis was the most important risk factor. After 2000, superior OS was achieved with matched donors. Use of myeloablative regimens and HSCT at 2 years or less from diagnosis associated with higher OS and DFS. EFS was best with matched sibling donors, myeloablative conditioning (MAC), and bone marrow-derived stem cells. Most rejections occurred after reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning, which associated with poor donor cell engraftment. Mortality occurred mainly early after HSCT, predominantly from infections. Among survivors who ceased immunoglobulin replacement, T-lymphocyte chimerism was 50% or greater donor in 85.2%. CONCLUSION: HSCT is curative in patients with CD40L deficiency, with improved outcome if performed before organ damage development. MAC is associated with better OS, EFS, and DFS. Prospective studies are required to compare the risks of HSCT with those of lifelong supportive therapy.

11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(1): 325-334.e2, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29906526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: V(D)J recombination ensures the diversity of the adaptive immune system. Although its complete defect causes severe combined immunodeficiency (ie, T-B- severe combined immunodeficiency), its suboptimal activity is associated with a broad spectrum of immune manifestations, such as late-onset combined immunodeficiency and autoimmunity. The earliest molecular diagnosis of these patients is required to adopt the best therapy strategy, particularly when it involves a myeloablative conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at developing biomarkers based on analysis of the T-cell receptor (TCR) α repertoire to assist in the diagnosis of patients with primary immunodeficiencies with V(D)J recombination and DNA repair deficiencies. METHODS: We used flow cytometric (fluorescence-activated cell sorting) analysis to quantify TCR-Vα7.2-expressing T lymphocytes in peripheral blood and developed PROMIDISα, a multiplex RT-PCR/next-generation sequencing assay, to evaluate a subset of the TCRα repertoire in T lymphocytes. RESULTS: The combined fluorescence-activated cell sorting and PROMIDISα analyses revealed specific signatures in patients with V(D)J recombination-defective primary immunodeficiencies or ataxia telangiectasia/Nijmegen breakage syndromes. CONCLUSION: Analysis of the TCRα repertoire is particularly appropriate in a prospective way to identify patients with partial immune defects caused by suboptimal V(D)J recombination activity, a DNA repair defect, or both. It also constitutes a valuable tool for the retrospective in vivo functional validation of variants identified through exome or panel sequencing. Its broader implementation might be of interest to assist early diagnosis of patients presenting with hypomorphic DNA repair defects inclined to experience acute toxicity during prehematopoietic stem cell transplantation conditioning.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta , Recombinação V(D)J/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/patologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
J Trop Pediatr ; 65(3): 224-230, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30011014

RESUMO

Pneumonia is a significant cause of death for children, particularly those in developing countries. The records of children who were hospitalized because of pneumonia between January 2003 and December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed, and patients who met the recurrent pneumonia criteria were included in this study. During this 13-year period, 1395 patients were hospitalized with pneumonia; of these, 129 (9.2%) met the criteria for recurrent pneumonia. Underlying diseases were detected in 95 (73.6%) patients, with aspiration syndrome (21.7%) being the most common. Rhinovirus (30.5%), adenovirus (17.2%) and respiratory syncytial virus (13.9%) were the most frequent infectious agents. These results demonstrate that underlying diseases can cause recurrent pneumonia in children. Viruses are also commonly seen in recurrent pneumonia. Appropriate treatments should be chosen based on an analysis of the underlying disease, the patient's clinical condition and the laboratory and radiological data.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia/etiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Adenoviridae/genética , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Recidiva , Sons Respiratórios/etiologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/genética , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rhinovirus/genética , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação , Turquia/epidemiologia
13.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(3): 848-855, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biallelic variations in the dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) gene cause a combined immunodeficiency with eczema, recurrent bacterial and viral infections, and malignancy. Natural disease outcome is dismal, but allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can cure the disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine outcome of HSCT for DOCK8 deficiency and define possible outcome variables. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of the results of HSCT in a large international cohort of DOCK8-deficient patients. RESULTS: We identified 81 patients from 22 centers transplanted at a median age of 9.7 years (range, 0.7-27.2 years) between 1995 and 2015. After median follow-up of 26 months (range, 3-135 months), 68 (84%) patients are alive. Severe acute (III-IV) or chronic graft versus host disease occurred in 11% and 10%, respectively. Causes of death were infections (n = 5), graft versus host disease (5), multiorgan failure (2), and preexistent lymphoma (1). Survival after matched related (n = 40) or unrelated (35) HSCT was 89% and 81%, respectively. Reduced-toxicity conditioning based on either treosulfan or reduced-dose busulfan resulted in superior survival compared with fully myeloablative busulfan-based regimens (97% vs 78%; P = .049). Ninety-six percent of patients younger than 8 years at HSCT survived, compared with 78% of those 8 years and older (P = .06). Of the 73 patients with chimerism data available, 65 (89%) had more than 90% donor T-cell chimerism at last follow-up. Not all disease manifestations responded equally well to HSCT: eczema, infections, and mollusca resolved quicker than food allergies or failure to thrive. CONCLUSIONS: HSCT is curative in most DOCK8-deficient patients, confirming this approach as the treatment of choice. HSCT using a reduced-toxicity regimen may offer the best chance for survival.

14.
Sci Immunol ; 3(30)2018 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578351

RESUMO

Hundreds of patients with autosomal recessive, complete IL-12p40 or IL-12Rß1 deficiency have been diagnosed over the last 20 years. They typically suffer from invasive mycobacteriosis and, occasionally, from mucocutaneous candidiasis. Susceptibility to these infections is thought to be due to impairments of IL-12-dependent IFN-γ immunity and IL-23-dependent IL-17A/IL-17F immunity, respectively. We report here patients with autosomal recessive, complete IL-12Rß2 or IL-23R deficiency, lacking responses to IL-12 or IL-23 only, all of whom, unexpectedly, display mycobacteriosis without candidiasis. We show that αß T, γδ T, B, NK, ILC1, and ILC2 cells from healthy donors preferentially produce IFN-γ in response to IL-12, whereas NKT cells and MAIT cells preferentially produce IFN-γ in response to IL-23. We also show that the development of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells, including, in particular, mycobacterium-specific TH1* cells (CD45RA-CCR6+), is dependent on both IL-12 and IL-23. Last, we show that IL12RB1, IL12RB2, and IL23R have similar frequencies of deleterious variants in the general population. The comparative rarity of symptomatic patients with IL-12Rß2 or IL-23R deficiency, relative to IL-12Rß1 deficiency, is, therefore, due to lower clinical penetrance. There are fewer symptomatic IL-23R- and IL-12Rß2-deficient than IL-12Rß1-deficient patients, not because these genetic disorders are rarer, but because the isolated absence of IL-12 or IL-23 is, in part, compensated by the other cytokine for the production of IFN-γ, thereby providing some protection against mycobacteria. These experiments of nature show that human IL-12 and IL-23 are both required for optimal IFN-γ-dependent immunity to mycobacteria, both individually and much more so cooperatively.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-12/imunologia , Interleucina-23/imunologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/imunologia , Mycobacterium/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-12/deficiência , Interleucina-12/genética , Interleucina-23/deficiência , Interleucina-23/genética , Linhagem
15.
Nat Immunol ; 19(9): 973-985, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30127434

RESUMO

Human inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlie mycobacterial diseases. We describe patients with Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) disease who are homozygous for loss-of-function mutations of SPPL2A. This gene encodes a transmembrane protease that degrades the N-terminal fragment (NTF) of CD74 (HLA invariant chain) in antigen-presenting cells. The CD74 NTF therefore accumulates in the HLA class II+ myeloid and lymphoid cells of SPPL2a-deficient patients. This toxic fragment selectively depletes IL-12- and IL-23-producing CD1c+ conventional dendritic cells (cDC2s) and their circulating progenitors. Moreover, SPPL2a-deficient memory TH1* cells selectively fail to produce IFN-γ when stimulated with mycobacterial antigens in vitro. Finally, Sppl2a-/- mice lack cDC2s, have CD4+ T cells that produce small amounts of IFN-γ after BCG infection, and are highly susceptible to infection with BCG or Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These findings suggest that inherited SPPL2a deficiency in humans underlies mycobacterial disease by decreasing the numbers of cDC2s and impairing IFN-γ production by mycobacterium-specific memory TH1* cells.


Assuntos
Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/genética , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Infecções por Mycobacterium/imunologia , Mycobacterium bovis/fisiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Antígenos HLA/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade , Memória Imunológica , Lactente , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Linfadenopatia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação/genética , Infecções por Mycobacterium/genética , Vacinação
17.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; 126(10): 612-618, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29183106

RESUMO

Monogenic diabetes represents a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting from a single gene defect leading to disruption of insulin secretion or a reduction in the number of beta cells. Despite the classification of monogenic diabetes into neonatal diabetes or maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) according to age of onset, not every case can be classified into those 2 groups. We evaluated patients with monogenic diabetes diagnosed during the last 10 year period. Type 1 DM, MODY, and patients with negative autoantibodies and no mutation in a known gene were excluded from the study. Thirteen patients were diagnosed with monogenic diabetes in Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey. Five of them were diagnosed after 6 months of age. Five had a KATP channel defect. Mutations in genes resulting in destruction of beta cells were detected in 7 patients, with 4 cases having a WFS, 2 an LRBA, and one a IL2RA mutation. Additional systemic findings were seen in 6/13 patients, with 5/6 having severe immune system dysfunction. Treatment with sulphonylurea was successful in two patients.. The other patients were given insulin in differing doses. Four patients died during follow-up, three of which had immune system dysfunction. Monogenic diabetes can be diagnosed after 6 months of age, even with positive autoantibodies. Immune dysfunction was a common feature in our cohort and should be investigated in all patients with early-onset monogenic diabetes. Mortality of patients with monogenic diabetes and additional autoimmunity was high in our cohort and is likely to reflect the multisystem nature of these diseases.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Canais de Potássio/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/imunologia , Idade de Início , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/imunologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Canais de Potássio/imunologia
18.
J Clin Immunol ; 37(8): 790-800, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28956255

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: LPS-responsive beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) deficiency is a primary immunodeficiency categorized as common variable immunodeficiency associated with autoimmune manifestations and inflammatory bowel diseases; however, the clinical spectrum has been extended. Here, we present our cohort of Turkish LRBA-deficient patients from a single center, demonstrating a diversity of clinical manifestations. METHOD: Seven affected individuals from five families were assessed retrospectively in this study. RESULTS: Of the seven patients with LRBA deficiency, four had homozygous, and two had compound heterozygous mutations. One patient remained disease free until the last follow-up (age 17 years). The most common clinical manifestations of the six symptomatic patients were organomegaly (6/6), autoimmunity (6/6), and chronic diarrhea (5/6). Recurrent infectious episodes were observed in three patients. None of the patients had hypogammaglobulinemia at presentation. B cell subpopulation analysis revealed low numbers of switched-memory B cell numbers in two of the four tested patients. During the disease course, three of the patients died, two of them underwent successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from matched sibling donors, and one is under abatacept therapy. CONCLUSION: LRBA defects should always be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis for patients with autoimmune disease affecting multiple organs, chronic diarrhea, and organomegalies. In our experience, early HSCT is a life-saving therapeutic strategy.


Assuntos
Abatacepte/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/genética , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Mutação/genética , Adolescente , Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/diagnóstico , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/tratamento farmacológico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Sepse , Turquia
20.
J Exp Med ; 214(1): 91-106, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28011864

RESUMO

In this study, we describe four patients from two unrelated families of different ethnicities with a primary immunodeficiency, predominantly manifesting as susceptibility to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related diseases. Three patients presented with EBV-associated Hodgkin's lymphoma and hypogammaglobulinemia; one also had severe varicella infection. The fourth had viral encephalitis during infancy. Homozygous frameshift or in-frame deletions in CD70 in these patients abolished either CD70 surface expression or binding to its cognate receptor CD27. Blood lymphocyte numbers were normal, but the proportions of memory B cells and EBV-specific effector memory CD8+ T cells were reduced. Furthermore, although T cell proliferation was normal, in vitro-generated EBV-specific cytotoxic T cell activity was reduced because of CD70 deficiency. This reflected impaired activation by, rather than effects during killing of, EBV-transformed B cells. Notably, expression of 2B4 and NKG2D, receptors implicated in controlling EBV infection, on memory CD8+ T cells from CD70-deficient individuals was reduced, consistent with their impaired killing of EBV-infected cells. Thus, autosomal recessive CD70 deficiency is a novel cause of combined immunodeficiency and EBV-associated diseases, reminiscent of inherited CD27 deficiency. Overall, human CD70-CD27 interactions therefore play a nonredundant role in T and B cell-mediated immunity, especially for protection against EBV and humoral immunity.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Ligante CD27/deficiência , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Doença de Hodgkin/etiologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Ligante CD27/genética , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Criança , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Masculino , Mutação , Membro 7 da Superfamília de Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/fisiologia
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