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1.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469419

RESUMO

Women of African ancestry have lower incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) yet worse survival compared to women of European ancestry. We conducted a genome-wide association study in African ancestry women with 755 EOC cases, including 537 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOC) and 1,235 controls. We identified four novel loci with suggestive evidence of association with EOC (p < 1 × 10-6 ), including rs4525119 (intronic to AKR1C3), rs7643459 (intronic to LOC101927394), rs4286604 (12 kb 3' of UGT2A2) and rs142091544 (5 kb 5' of WWC1). For HGSOC, we identified six loci with suggestive evidence of association including rs37792 (132 kb 5' of follistatin [FST]), rs57403204 (81 kb 3' of MAGEC1), rs79079890 (LOC105376360 intronic), rs66459581 (5 kb 5' of PRPSAP1), rs116046250 (GABRG3 intronic) and rs192876988 (32 kb 3' of GK2). Among the identified variants, two are near genes known to regulate hormones and diseases of the ovary (AKR1C3 and FST), and two are linked to cancer (AKR1C3 and MAGEC1). In follow-up studies of the 10 identified variants, the GK2 region SNP, rs192876988, showed an inverse association with EOC in European ancestry women (p = 0.002), increased risk of ER positive breast cancer in African ancestry women (p = 0.027) and decreased expression of GK2 in HGSOC tissue from African ancestry women (p = 0.004). A European ancestry-derived polygenic risk score showed positive associations with EOC and HGSOC in women of African ancestry suggesting shared genetic architecture. Our investigation presents evidence of variants for EOC shared among European and African ancestry women and identifies novel EOC risk loci in women of African ancestry.

2.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 19(1): 141, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Usage of structured fields in Electronic Health Records (EHRs) to ascertain smoking history is important but fails in capturing the nuances of smoking behaviors. Knowledge of smoking behaviors, such as pack year history and most recent cessation date, allows care providers to select the best care plan for patients at risk of smoking attributable diseases. METHODS: We developed and evaluated a health informatics pipeline for identifying complete smoking history from clinical notes in EHRs. We utilized 758 patient-visit notes (from visits between 03/28/2016 and 04/04/2016) from our local EHR in addition to a public dataset of 502 clinical notes from the 2006 i2b2 Challenge to assess the performance of this pipeline. We used a machine-learning classifier to extract smoking status and a comprehensive set of text processing regular expressions to extract pack years and cessation date information from these clinical notes. RESULTS: We identified smoking status with an F1 score of 0.90 on both the i2b2 and local data sets. Regular expression identification of pack year history in the local test set was 91.7% sensitive and 95.2% specific, but due to variable context the pack year extraction was incomplete in 25% of cases, extracting packs per day or years smoked only. Regular expression identification of cessation date was 63.2% sensitive and 94.6% specific. CONCLUSIONS: Our work indicates that the development of an EHR-based Smokers' Registry containing information relating to smoking behaviors, not just status, from free-text clinical notes using an informatics pipeline is feasible. This pipeline is capable of functioning in external EHRs, reducing the amount of time and money needed at the institute-level to create a Smokers' Registry for improved identification of patient risk and eligibility for preventative and early detection services.

3.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 19(1): 143, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 20% of deaths in the US each year are attributable to smoking, yet current practices in the recording of this health risk in electronic health records (EHRs) have not led to discernable changes in health outcomes. Several groups have developed algorithms for extracting smoking behaviors from clinical notes, but none of these approaches were assessed with external data to report on anticipated clinical performance. METHODS: Previously, we developed an informatics pipeline that extracts smoking status, pack year history, and cessation date from clinical notes. Here we report on the clinical implementation performance of our pipeline using 1,504 clinical notes matched to an external questionnaire. RESULTS: We found that 73% of available notes contained no smoking behavior information. The weighted Cohen's kappa between the external questionnaire and EHR smoking status was 0.62 (95% CI 0.56-0.69) for the clinical notes we were able to extract information from. The correlation between pack years reported by our pipeline and the external questionnaire was 0.39 on the 81 notes for which this information was present in both. We also assessed for lung cancer screening eligibility using notes from individuals identified as never smokers or smokers with pack year history extracted by our pipeline (n = 196). We found a positive predictive value of 85.4%, a negative predictive value of 83.8%, sensitivity of 63.1%, and specificity of 94.7%. CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated that our pipeline can extract smoking behaviors from unannotated EHR notes when the information is present. This information is reliable enough to identify patients most likely to be eligible for smoking related services. Ensuring capture of smoking information during clinical encounters should continue to be a high priority.

4.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(3): 822-830, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder with an estimated prevalence of 4-21% in reproductive aged women. Recently, the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) reported a decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer among women with self-reported PCOS. However, given the limitations of self-reported PCOS, the validity of these observed associations remains uncertain. Therefore, we sought to use Mendelian randomization with genetic markers as a proxy for PCOS, to examine the association between PCOS and ovarian cancer. METHODS: Utilizing 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with PCOS we assessed the association between genetically predicted PCOS and ovarian cancer risk, overall and by histotype, using summary statistics from a previously conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ovarian cancer among European ancestry women within the OCAC (22 406 with invasive disease, 3103 with borderline disease and 40 941 controls). RESULTS: An inverse association was observed between genetically predicted PCOS and invasive ovarian cancer risk: odds ratio (OR)=0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.85-0.99; P = 0.03]. When results were examined by histotype, the strongest inverse association was observed between genetically predicted PCOS and endometrioid tumors (OR = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.65-0.92; P = 0.003). Adjustment for individual-level body mass index, oral contraceptive use and parity did not materially change the associations. CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence for a relationship between PCOS and reduced ovarian cancer risk, overall and among specific histotypes of invasive ovarian cancer. These results lend support to our previous observational study results. Future studies are needed to understand mechanisms underlying this association.

5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(19): 5937-5946, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142506

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease that can be divided into multiple subtypes with variable etiology, pathogenesis, and prognosis. We analyzed DNA methylation profiling data to identify biologic subgroups of ovarian cancer and study their relationship with histologic subtypes, copy number variation, RNA expression data, and outcomes. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A total of 162 paraffin-embedded ovarian epithelial tumor tissues, including the five major epithelial ovarian tumor subtypes (high- and low-grade serous, endometrioid, mucinous, and clear cell) and tumors of low malignant potential were selected from two different sources: The Polish Ovarian Cancer study, and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Residual Tissue Repository (SEER RTR). Analyses were restricted to Caucasian women. Methylation profiling was conducted using the Illumina 450K methylation array. For 45 tumors array copy number data were available. NanoString gene expression data for 39 genes were available for 61 high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSC). RESULTS: Consensus nonnegative matrix factorization clustering of the 1,000 most variable CpG sites showed four major clusters among all epithelial ovarian cancers. We observed statistically significant differences in survival (log-rank test, P = 9.1 × 10-7) and genomic instability across these clusters. Within HGSC, clustering showed three subgroups with survival differences (log-rank test, P = 0.002). Comparing models with and without methylation subgroups in addition to previously identified gene expression subtypes suggested that the methylation subgroups added significant survival information (P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: DNA methylation profiling of ovarian cancer identified novel molecular subgroups that had significant survival difference and provided insights into the molecular underpinnings of ovarian cancer.See related commentary by Ishak et al., p. 5729.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Metilação
6.
Cancer Med ; 8(5): 2503-2513, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001917

RESUMO

An association between genetic variants in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) was previously reported in women of African ancestry (AA). We sought to examine associations between genetic variants in VDR and additional genes from vitamin D biosynthesis and pathway targets (EGFR, UGT1A, UGT2A1/2, UGT2B, CYP3A4/5, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP11A1, and GC). Genotyping was performed using the custom-designed 533,631 SNP Illumina OncoArray with imputation to the 1,000 Genomes Phase 3 v5 reference set in 755 EOC cases, including 537 high-grade serous (HGSOC), and 1,235 controls. All subjects are of African ancestry (AA). Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We further evaluated statistical significance of selected SNPs using the Bayesian False Discovery Probability (BFDP). A significant association with EOC was identified in the UGT2A1/2 region for the SNP rs10017134 (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7, P = 1.2 × 10-6 , BFDP = 0.02); and an association with HGSOC was identified in the EGFR region for the SNP rs114972508 (per allele OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6-3.4, P = 1.6 × 10-5 , BFDP = 0.29) and in the UGT2A1/2 region again for rs1017134 (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7, P = 2.3 × 10-5 , BFDP = 0.23). Genetic variants in the EGFR and UGT2A1/2 may increase susceptibility of EOC in AA women. Future studies to validate these findings are warranted. Alterations in EGFR and UGT2A1/2 could perturb enzyme efficacy, proliferation in ovaries, impact and mark susceptibility to EOC.

7.
Gynecol Oncol ; 153(2): 343-355, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898391

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) have focused largely on populations of European ancestry. We aimed to identify common germline variants associated with EOC risk in Asian women. METHODS: Genotyping was performed as part of the OncoArray project. Samples with >60% Asian ancestry were included in the analysis. Genotyping was performed on 533,631 SNPs in 3238 Asian subjects diagnosed with invasive or borderline EOC and 4083 unaffected controls. After imputation, genotypes were available for 11,595,112 SNPs to identify associations. RESULTS: At chromosome 6p25.2, SNP rs7748275 was associated with risk of serous EOC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34, P = 8.7 × 10-9) and high-grade serous EOC (HGSOC) (OR = 1.34, P = 4.3 × 10-9). SNP rs6902488 at 6p25.2 (r2 = 0.97 with rs7748275) lies in an active enhancer and is predicted to impact binding of STAT3, P300 and ELF1. We identified additional risk loci with low Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP) scores, indicating they are likely to be true risk associations (BFDP <10%). At chromosome 20q11.22, rs74272064 was associated with HGSOC risk (OR = 1.27, P = 9.0 × 10-8). Overall EOC risk was associated with rs10260419 at chromosome 7p21.3 (OR = 1.33, P = 1.2 × 10-7) and rs74917072 at chromosome 2q37.3 (OR = 1.25, P = 4.7 × 10-7). At 2q37.3, expression quantitative trait locus analysis in 404 HGSOC tissues identified ESPNL as a putative candidate susceptibility gene (P = 1.2 × 10-7). CONCLUSION: While some risk loci were shared between East Asian and European populations, others were population-specific, indicating that the landscape of EOC risk in Asian women has both shared and unique features compared to women of European ancestry.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Sequência de Bases , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
8.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(5): 537-547, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905014

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous epidemiologic studies have shown that smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity are associated with poor survival following a diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Yet, the combined relationship of these unfavorable lifestyle factors on ovarian cancer survival has not been sufficiently investigated. METHODS: Using data pooled from 13 studies, we examined the associations between combined exposures to smoking, overweight/obesity weight, and physical inactivity and overall survival (OS) as well as progression-free survival (PFS) among women diagnosed with invasive epithelial ovarian carcinoma (n = 7,022). Using age- and stage-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with joint exposure to these factors. RESULTS: Combined exposure to current smoking, overweight/obesity, and physical inactivity prior to diagnosis was associated with a significantly increased risk of mortality compared to women who never smoked, had normal body mass index (BMI), and were physically active (HR = 1.37; 95% CI 1.10-1.70). The association for a joint exposure to these factors exceeded that of each exposure individually. In fact, exposure to both current smoking and overweight/obesity, and current smoking and physical inactivity was also associated with increased risk of death (HR = 1.28; 95% CI 1.08-1.52, and HR = 1.26; 95% CI 1.04-1.54, respectively). The associations were of a similar magnitude when former smoking was assessed in combination with the other exposures and when excessive weight was limited to obesity only. No significant associations were observed between joint exposure to any of these factors and PFS. CONCLUSIONS: Joint exposure to smoking, excessive weight, and physical inactivity may negatively impact survival of ovarian cancer patients. These results suggest the importance of examining the combined effect of lifestyle factors on ovarian cancer patients' survival.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Fumar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Atividade Motora , Obesidade/complicações , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Sobrepeso/complicações , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Ganho de Peso
9.
Cancer Res ; 79(3): 505-517, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30559148

RESUMO

DNA methylation is instrumental for gene regulation. Global changes in the epigenetic landscape have been recognized as a hallmark of cancer. However, the role of DNA methylation in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains unclear. In this study, high-density genetic and DNA methylation data in white blood cells from the Framingham Heart Study (N = 1,595) were used to build genetic models to predict DNA methylation levels. These prediction models were then applied to the summary statistics of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ovarian cancer including 22,406 EOC cases and 40,941 controls to investigate genetically predicted DNA methylation levels in association with EOC risk. Among 62,938 CpG sites investigated, genetically predicted methylation levels at 89 CpG were significantly associated with EOC risk at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 7.94 × 10-7. Of them, 87 were located at GWAS-identified EOC susceptibility regions and two resided in a genomic region not previously reported to be associated with EOC risk. Integrative analyses of genetic, methylation, and gene expression data identified consistent directions of associations across 12 CpG, five genes, and EOC risk, suggesting that methylation at these 12 CpG may influence EOC risk by regulating expression of these five genes, namely MAPT, HOXB3, ABHD8, ARHGAP27, and SKAP1. We identified novel DNA methylation markers associated with EOC risk and propose that methylation at multiple CpG may affect EOC risk via regulation of gene expression. SIGNIFICANCE: Identification of novel DNA methylation markers associated with EOC risk suggests that methylation at multiple CpG may affect EOC risk through regulation of gene expression.

10.
Hum Genet ; 138(1): 49-60, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536049

RESUMO

Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a heritable trait with two potential sources of heritability (h2): inherited variation in non-telomeric regions (e.g., SNPs that influence telomere maintenance) and variability in the lengths of telomeres in gametes that produce offspring zygotes (i.e., "direct" inheritance). Prior studies of LTL h2 have not attempted to disentangle these two sources. Here, we use a novel approach for detecting the direct inheritance of telomeres by studying the association between identity-by-descent (IBD) sharing at chromosome ends and phenotypic similarity in LTL. We measured genome-wide SNPs and LTL for a sample of 5069 Bangladeshi adults with substantial relatedness. For each of the 6318 relative pairs identified, we used SNPs near the telomeres to estimate the number of chromosome ends shared IBD, a proxy for the number of telomeres shared IBD (Tshared). We then estimated the association between Tshared and the squared pairwise difference in LTL ((ΔLTL)2) within various classes of relatives (siblings, avuncular, cousins, and distant), adjusting for overall genetic relatedness (ϕ). The association between Tshared and (ΔLTL)2 was inverse among all relative pair types. In a meta-analysis including all relative pairs (ϕ > 0.05), the association between Tshared and (ΔLTL)2 (P = 0.01) was stronger than the association between ϕ and (ΔLTL)2 (P = 0.43). Our results provide strong evidence that telomere length (TL) in parental germ cells impacts TL in offspring cells and contributes to LTL h2 despite telomere "reprogramming" during embryonic development. Applying our method to larger studies will enable robust estimation of LTL h2 attributable to direct transmission of telomeres.


Assuntos
Leucócitos/metabolismo , Leucócitos/patologia , Pais , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Homeostase do Telômero , Telômero/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 11(11): 727-734, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30254071

RESUMO

The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a biomarker that indicates systemic inflammation and can be estimated using array-based DNA methylation data as methylation-derived NLR (mdNLR). We assessed the relationship between prediagnosis mdNLR and lung cancer risk in a nested case-control study in the ß-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) of individuals at high risk for lung cancer due to heavy smoking or substantial occupational asbestos exposure. We matched 319 incident lung cancer cases to controls based on age at blood draw, smoking, sex, race, asbestos, enrollment year, and time at risk. We computed mdNLR using the ratio of predicted granulocyte and lymphocyte proportions derived from DNA methylation signatures in whole blood collected prior to diagnosis (median 4.4 years in cases). Mean mdNLR was higher in cases than controls (2.06 vs. 1.86, P = 0.03). Conditional logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders revealed a 21% increased risk of lung cancer per unit increase in mdNLR [OR 1.21; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.45]. A 30% increased risk of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was observed for each unit increase in mdNLR (n = 240 pairs; OR 1.30, 95% CI, 1.03-1.63), and there was no statistically significant association between mdNLR and small-cell lung cancer risk. The mdNLR-NSCLC association was most pronounced in those with asbestos exposure (n = 42 male pairs; OR 3.39; 95% CI, 1.32-8.67). A better understanding of the role of mdNLR in lung cancer etiology may improve prevention and detection of lung cancer. Cancer Prev Res; 11(11); 727-34. ©2018 AACR.

12.
Gynecol Oncol ; 151(1): 53-60, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30121132

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Major changes in the classification of ovarian carcinoma histotypes occurred over the last two decades, resulting in the current 2014 World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria that recognize five principal histotypes: high-grade serous, low-grade serous, endometrioid, clear cell, and mucinous carcinoma. We assessed the impact of these guidelines and use of immunohistochemical (IHC) markers on classification of ovarian carcinomas in existing population-based studies. METHODS: We evaluated histotype classification for 2361 ovarian carcinomas diagnosed between 1999 and 2009 from two case-control studies using three approaches: 1. pre-2014 WHO ("historic") histotype; 2. Standardized review of pathology slides using the 2014 WHO criteria alone; and 3. An integrated IHC assessment along with the 2014 WHO criteria. We used Kappa statistics to assess agreement between approaches, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate mortality. RESULTS: Compared to the standardized pathologic review histotype, agreement across approaches was high (kappa = 0.892 for historic, and 0.849 for IHC integrated histotype), but the IHC integrated histotype identified more low-grade serous carcinomas and a subset of endometrioid carcinomas that were assigned as high-grade serous (n = 25). No substantial differences in histotype-specific mortality were observed across approaches. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that histotype assignment is fairly consistent regardless of classification approach, but that progressive improvements in classification accuracy for some less common histotypes are achieved with pathologic review using the 2014 WHO criteria and with IHC integration. We additionally recommend a classification scheme to fit historic data into the 2014 WHO categories to answer histotype-specific research questions.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Ovário/patologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma/classificação , Carcinoma/diagnóstico , Carcinoma/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias Ovarianas/classificação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(9)2018 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30134598

RESUMO

Thymidylate synthase (TYMS) is a crucial enzyme for DNA synthesis. TYMS expression is regulated by its antisense mRNA, ENOSF1. Disrupted regulation may promote uncontrolled DNA synthesis and tumor growth. We sought to replicate our previously reported association between rs495139 in the TYMS-ENOSF1 3' gene region and increased risk of mucinous ovarian carcinoma (MOC) in an independent sample. Genotypes from 24,351 controls to 15,000 women with invasive OC, including 665 MOC, were available. We estimated per-allele odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using unconditional logistic regression, and meta-analysis when combining these data with our previous report. The association between rs495139 and MOC was not significant in the independent sample (OR = 1.09; 95% CI = 0.97⁻1.22; p = 0.15; N = 665 cases). Meta-analysis suggested a weak association (OR = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.03⁻1.24; p = 0.01; N = 1019 cases). No significant association with risk of other OC histologic types was observed (p = 0.05 for tumor heterogeneity). In expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis, the rs495139 allele was positively associated with ENOSF1 mRNA expression in normal tissues of the gastrointestinal system, particularly esophageal mucosa (r = 0.51, p = 1.7 × 10-28), and nonsignificantly in five MOC tumors. The association results, along with inconclusive tumor eQTL findings, suggest that a true effect of rs495139 might be small.

14.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2018 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059977

RESUMO

Background: Evidence from observational studies of telomere length (TL) has been conflicting regarding its direction of association with cancer risk. We investigated the causal relevance of TL for lung and head and neck cancers using Mendelian Randomization (MR) and mediation analyses. Methods: We developed a novel genetic instrument for TL in chromosome 5p15.33, using variants identified through deep-sequencing, that were genotyped in 2051 cancer-free subjects. Next, we conducted an MR analysis of lung (16 396 cases, 13 013 controls) and head and neck cancer (4415 cases, 5013 controls) using eight genetic instruments for TL. Lastly, the 5p15.33 instrument and distinct 5p15.33 lung cancer risk loci were evaluated using two-sample mediation analysis, to quantify their direct and indirect, telomere-mediated, effects. Results: The multi-allelic 5p15.33 instrument explained 1.49-2.00% of TL variation in our data (p = 2.6 × 10-9). The MR analysis estimated that a 1000 base-pair increase in TL increases risk of lung cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-1.65] and lung adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.51-2.22), but not squamous lung carcinoma (OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.83-1.29) or head and neck cancers (OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.70-1.05). Mediation analysis of the 5p15.33 instrument indicated an absence of direct effects on lung cancer risk (OR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.95-1.04). Analysis of distinct 5p15.33 susceptibility variants estimated that TL mediates up to 40% of the observed associations with lung cancer risk. Conclusions: Our findings support a causal role for long telomeres in lung cancer aetiology, particularly for adenocarcinoma, and demonstrate that telomere maintenance partially mediates the lung cancer susceptibility conferred by 5p15.33 loci.

15.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 91(8): 937-950, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971594

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Radon is a risk factor for lung cancer and uranium miners are more exposed than the general population. A genome-wide interaction analysis was carried out to identify genomic loci, genes or gene sets that modify the susceptibility to lung cancer given occupational exposure to the radioactive gas radon. METHODS: Samples from 28 studies provided by the International Lung Cancer Consortium were pooled with samples of former uranium miners collected by the German Federal Office of Radiation Protection. In total, 15,077 cases and 13,522 controls, all of European ancestries, comprising 463 uranium miners were compared. The DNA of all participants was genotyped with the OncoArray. We fitted single-marker and in multi-marker models and performed an exploratory gene-set analysis to detect cumulative enrichment of significance in sets of genes. RESULTS: We discovered a genome-wide significant interaction of the marker rs12440014 within the gene CHRNB4 (OR = 0.26, 95% CI 0.11-0.60, p = 0.0386 corrected for multiple testing). At least suggestive significant interaction of linkage disequilibrium blocks was observed at the chromosomal regions 18q21.23 (p = 1.2 × 10-6), 5q23.2 (p = 2.5 × 10-6), 1q21.3 (p = 3.2 × 10-6), 10p13 (p = 1.3 × 10-5) and 12p12.1 (p = 7.1 × 10-5). Genes belonging to the Gene Ontology term "DNA dealkylation involved in DNA repair" (GO:0006307; p = 0.0139) or the gene family HGNC:476 "microRNAs" (p = 0.0159) were enriched with LD-blockwise significance. CONCLUSION: The well-established association of the genomic region 15q25 to lung cancer might be influenced by exposure to radon among uranium miners. Furthermore, lung cancer susceptibility is related to the functional capability of DNA damage signaling via ubiquitination processes and repair of radiation-induced double-strand breaks by the single-strand annealing mechanism.

16.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0197561, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29979793

RESUMO

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fifth leading cause of cancer mortality in American women. Normal ovarian physiology is intricately connected to small GTP binding proteins of the Ras superfamily (Ras, Rho, Rab, Arf, and Ran) which govern processes such as signal transduction, cell proliferation, cell motility, and vesicle transport. We hypothesized that common germline variation in genes encoding small GTPases is associated with EOC risk. We investigated 322 variants in 88 small GTPase genes in germline DNA of 18,736 EOC patients and 26,138 controls of European ancestry using a custom genotype array and logistic regression fitting log-additive models. Functional annotation was used to identify biofeatures and expression quantitative trait loci that intersect with risk variants. One variant, ARHGEF10L (Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 10 like) rs2256787, was associated with increased endometrioid EOC risk (OR = 1.33, p = 4.46 x 10-6). Other variants of interest included another in ARHGEF10L, rs10788679, which was associated with invasive serous EOC risk (OR = 1.07, p = 0.00026) and two variants in AKAP6 (A-kinase anchoring protein 6) which were associated with risk of invasive EOC (rs1955513, OR = 0.90, p = 0.00033; rs927062, OR = 0.94, p = 0.00059). Functional annotation revealed that the two ARHGEF10L variants were located in super-enhancer regions and that AKAP6 rs927062 was associated with expression of GTPase gene ARHGAP5 (Rho GTPase activating protein 5). Inherited variants in ARHGEF10L and AKAP6, with potential transcriptional regulatory function and association with EOC risk, warrant investigation in independent EOC study populations.

17.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2018 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29718305

RESUMO

Background: The understanding of ovarian cancer pathogenesis has recently shifted to recognize distinct changes in how ovarian cancer histotypes are defined. Using the 2014 World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic guidelines, we classified ovarian cancer histotypes in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registry data and examined survival patterns by histotype and disease stage. Methods: We extracted data on 28 118 incident epithelial ovarian cancer cases diagnosed in 2004-2014 from SEER and defined histotype using the 2014 WHO guidelines (high-grade serous, low-grade serous, endometrioid, clear cell, mucinous, carcinosarcoma, and malignant Brenner tumors). By histotype and disease stage, we estimated Kaplan-Meier survival curves and calculated age-adjusted overall and cause-specific survival estimates. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate histotype-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by disease stage while adjusting for age at diagnosis, region, race/ethnicity, and receipt of surgery. Results: Within two years after diagnosis, localized/regional-stage carcinosarcoma and distant-stage mucinous, clear cell, and carcinosarcoma had a higher risk of mortality compared with high-grade serous, with the most pronounced association for localized/regional carcinosarcoma (>1-2-year time period: HR = 3.81, 95% CI = 2.74 to 5.30) and distant-stage mucinous (0-1-year time period: HR = 3.87, 95% CI = 3.45 to 4.34). In the time period more than four to 10 years after diagnosis, hazard ratios for all histotypes relative to high-grade serous, irrespective of disease stage, were less than 1.00. Cumulatively, both localized/regional and distant-stage low-grade serous and endometrioid carcinomas had the most favorable outcomes. Conclusions: Our large study, which is representative of the United States population and incorporates the most current knowledge of ovarian cancer pathogenesis, highlights the need to recognize ovarian cancer as a set of distinct diseases and not a single entity. Only then will we be able to effectively target the unique features of each histotype to reduce ovarian cancer mortality.

18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(7): 829-837, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29743162

RESUMO

Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that short telomere length is associated with increased overall mortality, but the relationship with cancer mortality is less clear. We examined whether telomere length (global, and chromosome arm 5p- and 13q-specific) is associated with lung cancer mortality among cases from the ß-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial of heavy smokers.Methods: Telomere length was measured on average 6 years before diagnosis for 788 lung cancer cases. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards models of all-cause and lung cancer-specific mortality were assessed for lung cancer overall and by histotype.Results: Short telomere length was associated with increased mortality for small cell lung cancer (SCLC), particularly stage III/IV SCLC [HR and 95% confidence interval for shortest vs. longest telomere length tertile: 3.32 (1.78-6.21)]. Associations were strongest for those randomized to the active intervention and when telomere length was measured ≤5 years before diagnosis. All-cause mortality patterns were similar. Short chromosome 5p telomere length was suggestively associated with lung cancer mortality, but there was no association with chromosome 13q telomere length.Conclusions: Our large prospective study suggests that among heavy smokers who developed lung cancer, short prediagnosis telomere length is associated with increased risk of death from SCLC.Impact: This is the first study to examine telomere length and mortality in lung cancer cases by histotype. If the association between short telomere length and SCLC mortality is replicated, elucidation of mechanisms through which telomere length influences survival for this highly aggressive cancer may inform more effective use of telomere-targeted therapeutics. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(7); 829-37. ©2018 AACR.

19.
Br J Cancer ; 118(8): 1123-1129, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29555990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies suggest greater height is associated with increased ovarian cancer risk, but cannot exclude bias and/or confounding as explanations for this. Mendelian randomisation (MR) can provide evidence which may be less prone to bias. METHODS: We pooled data from 39 Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium studies (16,395 cases; 23,003 controls). We applied two-stage predictor-substitution MR, using a weighted genetic risk score combining 609 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Study-specific odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between genetically predicted height and risk were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Greater genetically predicted height was associated with increased ovarian cancer risk overall (pooled-OR (pOR) = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.01-1.11 per 5 cm increase in height), and separately for invasive (pOR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.01-1.11) and borderline (pOR = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.02-1.29) tumours. CONCLUSIONS: Women with a genetic propensity to being taller have increased risk of ovarian cancer. This suggests genes influencing height are involved in pathways promoting ovarian carcinogenesis.

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