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1.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; : 1-6, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059787

RESUMO

We compare the power of two different approaches to detect passive genotype-environment (GE) covariance originating from cultural and genetic transmission operating simultaneously. In the traditional nuclear twin family (NTF) design, cultural transmission is estimated from the phenotypic covariance matrices of the mono- and dizygotic twins and their parents. Here, phenotyping is required in all family members. A more recent method is the transmitted-nontransmitted (T-NT) allele design, which exploits measured genetic variants in parents and offspring to test for effects of nontransmitted alleles from parents. This design requires two-generation genome-wide data and a powerful genome-wide association study (GWAS) for the phenotype in addition to phenotyping in offspring. We compared the power of both designs. Using exact data simulation, we demonstrate three points: how the power of the T-NT design depends on the predictive power of polygenic risk scores (PRSs); that when the NTF design can be applied, its power to detect cultural transmission and GE covariance is high relative to T-NT; and that, given effect sizes from contemporary GWAS, adding PRSs to the NTF design does not yield an appreciable increase in the power to detect cultural transmission. However, it may be difficult to collect phenotypes of parents and the possible importance of gene × age interaction, and secular generational effects can cause complications for many important phenotypes. The T-NT design avoids these complications.

2.
Behav Genet ; 50(4): 273-288, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529491

RESUMO

We estimated the genetic covariance matrix among four inattention (INATT) and four hyperactivity (HYP) measures in the classical twin design. Data on INATT and HYP symptom counts were obtained in mono- and dizygotic twin pairs (N = 1593) with an average age of 12.2 years (sd = .51). We analyzed maternal ratings of INATT and HYP based on the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS), the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-symptoms and Normal-behavior (SWAN), and teacher ratings based on the Conners' Teacher rating scale (CTRS) and the ASEBA Teacher Rating Form (TRF). Broad-sense heritabilities, corrected for the main effects of sex and for random teacher rater effects, were large (ranging from .658 to .912). The results reveal pervasive and strong broad-sense genetic effects on INATT and HYP phenotypes with the phenotypic covariance among the phenotypes largely due to correlated genetic effects. Specifically between 79.9 and 99.9% of the phenotypic covariance among the HYP measures, and between 81.0 and 93.5% of the INATT measures are attributable to broad-sense genetic effects. Overall, the present results, pertaining to the broad-sense heritabilities and shared genetic effects, support the current genome-wide association meta-analytic approach to identifying pleiotropic genetic variants.

3.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456232

RESUMO

Childhood obesity is associated with alterations in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. However, it is unknown whether these alterations are a cause or a consequence of obesity. This study aimed to explore the temporal relationship between cortisol production and metabolism, and body mass index (BMI). This prospective follow-up study included 218 children (of whom 50% were male), born between 1995 and 1996, who were assessed at the ages of 9, 12 and 17 years. Morning urine samples were collected for assessment of cortisol metabolites by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, enabling the calculation of cortisol metabolite excretion rate and cortisol metabolic pathways. A cross-lagged regression model was used to determine whether BMI at various ages during childhood predicted later cortisol production and metabolism parameters, or vice versa. The cross-lagged regression coefficients showed that BMI positively predicted cortisol metabolite excretion (p = 0.03), and not vice versa (p = 0.33). In addition, BMI predicted the later balance of 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) activities (p = 0.07), and not vice versa (p = 0.55). Finally, cytochrome P450 3A4 activity positively predicted later BMI (p = 0.01). Our study suggests that changes in BMI across the normal range predict alterations in HPA axis activity. Therefore, the alterations in HPA axis activity as observed in earlier studies among children with obesity may be a consequence rather than a cause of increased BMI.

4.
Endocr Connect ; 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413849

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sex differences in disease susceptibility might be explained by sexual dimorphism in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, which has been postulated to emerge during puberty. However, studies conducted thus far lacked an assessment of Tanner pubertal stage. This study aimed to assess the contribution of pubertal development to sexual dimorphism in cortisol production and metabolism. METHODS: Participants (n=218), were enrolled from a population-based Netherlands Twin Register. At the ages of 9, 12 and 17 years Tanner pubertal stage was assessed, and early-morning urine samples were collected. Cortisol metabolites were measured with GC-MS/MS, and ratios were calculated, representing cortisol metabolism enzyme activities, such as A-ring reductases, 11ß-HSDs and CYP3A4. Cortisol production and metabolism parameters were compared between sexes for pre-pubertal (Tanner stage 1), early-pubertal (Tanner stage 2-3) and late-pubertal (Tanner stage 4-5) stages. RESULTS: Cortisol metabolite excretion rate decreased with pubertal maturation in both sexes, but did not significantly differ between sexes at any pubertal stage, although in girls a considerable decrease was observed between early- and late-pubertal stage (P<0.001). A-ring reductase activity was similar between sexes at pre- and early-pubertal stages, and was lower in girls than in boys at late-pubertal stage. Activities of 11ß-HSDs were similar between sexes at pre-pubertal stage, and favored cortisone in girls at early- and late-pubertal stages. Cytochrome P450 3A4 activity did not differ between sexes. CONCLUSIONS: Prepubertally, sexes were similar in cortisol parameters. During puberty, as compared to boys, in girls the activities of A-ring reductases declined and the balance between 11ß-HSDs progressively favored cortisone. Our findings suggest that the sexual dimorphism in cortisol may either be explained by rising concentrations of sex steroids or by puberty-induced changes in body composition.

5.
Behav Genet ; 50(5): 363-373, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419065

RESUMO

The adult self report (ASR) is a well-validated instrument with multiple scales relating to adult psychopathology. Recently, an 18-item version has been introduced, the brief problem monitor (BPM) to measure Internalizing behavior (INT), Externalizing behavior (EXT), and attention problems (ATT). The present study compared the BPM and ASR and investigated how well the BPM can serve as a supplement or an alternative for the ASR for specific clinical and scientific purposes. In a large sample of adult twins (N = 9.835) from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR), we compared the internal consistency, clinical classification concordance, means, and variances of the ASR and BPM. Using the classical twin design, we investigated the genetic covariance structure. For external validation, the associations between subjective well-being and different subscales of the ASR and BPM were compared. The internal consistency of the BPM scales (around α = 0.75) was somewhat lower than the ASR (α ~ 0.85). The BPM Externalizing scale showed the lowest internal consistency (α = 0.63). ASR and BPM scores showed good clinical classification concordance (0.61-0.80) and high correlations (r > 0.88). A small reversed sex difference in the BPM Externalizing scale appeared (women > men). Genetic (0.34-0.54) and environmental components (0.46-0.66) explained the variance to a similar extent for the ASR and BPM. The phenotypic and genetic associations with well-being were comparable. In situations where sum scores are sufficient, the BPM performs as well as the longer ASR. Depending on the situation and goal, it is worth considering the BPM as an alternative for the ASR to reduce the participant burden.

6.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mendelian randomization (MR) is widely used to unravel causal relationships in epidemiological studies. Whereas multiple MR methods have been developed to control for bias due to horizontal pleiotropy, their performance in the presence of other sources of bias, like non-random mating, has been mostly evaluated using simulated data. Empirical comparisons of MR estimators in such scenarios have yet to be conducted. Pleiotropy and non-random mating have been shown to account equally for the genetic correlation between height and educational attainment. Previous studies probing the causal nature of this association have produced conflicting results. METHODS: We estimated the causal effect of height on educational attainment in various MR models, including the MR-Egger and the MR-Direction of Causation (MR-DoC) models that correct for, or explicitly model, horizontal pleiotropy. RESULTS: We reproduced the weak but positive association between height and education in the Netherlands Twin Register sample (P= 3.9 × 10-6). All MR analyses suggested that height has a robust, albeit small, causal effect on education. We showed via simulations that potential assortment for height and education had no effect on the causal parameter in the MR-DoC model. With the pleiotropic effect freely estimated, MR-DoC yielded a null finding. CONCLUSIONS: Non-random mating may have a bearing on the results of MR studies based on unrelated individuals. Family data enable tests of causal relationships to be conducted more rigorously, and are recommended to triangulate results of MR studies assessing pairs of traits leading to non-random mate selection.

7.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 23(1): 33-38, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209144

RESUMO

Life-course experiences have been postulated to program hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, suggesting that HPA axis activity is, at least partially, stable over time. Yet, there is paucity of data on the long-term stability of cortisol production and metabolism. We performed a prospective follow-up study in twins recruited from a nationwide register to estimate the stability of cortisol production and metabolism over time, and the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to this stability. In total, 218 healthy mono- and dizygotic twins were included. At the ages of 9, 12 and 17 years, morning urine samples were collected for assessment (by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) of cortisol metabolites, enabling the calculation of cortisol metabolite excretion rate and cortisol metabolism activity. Our results showed a low stability for both cortisol metabolite excretion rate (with correlations <.20) and cortisol metabolism activity indices (with correlations of .25 to .46 between 9 and 12 years, -.02 to .15 between 12 and 17 years and .09 to .28 between 9 and 17 years). Because of the low stability over time, genetic and environmental contributions to this stability were difficult to assess, although it seemed to be mostly determined by genetic factors. The low stability in both cortisol production and metabolism between ages 9 and 17 years reflects the dynamic nature of the HPA axis.

8.
Eur Respir J ; 55(4)2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139457

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Early-life antibiotic use has been associated with the development of atopic diseases, but the aetiology remains unclear. To elucidate the aetiology, we used a discordant twin design to control for genetic and environmental confounding. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in twins aged 3-10 years from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR, n=35 365) and a replication study in twins aged 9 years from the Childhood and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS, n=7916). Antibiotic use was recorded at age 0-2 years. Doctor-diagnosed asthma and eczema were reported by parents when children were aged 3-12 years in both cohorts. Individuals were included in unmatched analyses and in co-twin control analyses with disease discordant twin pairs. RESULTS: Early-life antibiotic use was associated with increased risk of asthma (NTR OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.28-1.41; CATSS OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.34-1.56) and eczema (NTR OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.03-1.13; CATSS OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.14) in unmatched analyses. Co-twin analyses in monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs showed similar results for asthma (NTR OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.20-1.98; CATSS OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.28-3.13), but opposing results for eczema in the NTR (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.80-1.25) and the CATSS (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.12-2.49). The risk of asthma increased for antibiotics prescribed for respiratory infections (CATSS OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.34-1.56), but not for antibiotics commonly used for urinary tract/skin infections (CATSS OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.88-1.17). CONCLUSION: Children exposed to early-life antibiotic use, particularly prescribed for respiratory infections, may be at higher risk of asthma. This risk can still be observed when correcting for genetic and environmental factors. Our results could not elucidate whether the relationship between early-life antibiotic use and eczema is confounded by familial and genetic factors.

9.
Behav Genet ; 50(4): 221-232, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026073

RESUMO

It remains a challenge to determine whether children resemble their parents due to nature, nurture, or a mixture of both. Here we used a design that exploits the distinction between transmitted and non-transmitted alleles in genetic transmission from parent to offspring. Two separate polygenic scores (PGS) were calculated on the basis of the transmitted and non-transmitted alleles. The effect of the non-transmitted PGS is necessarily mediated by parental phenotypes, insofar as they contribute to the rearing environment of the offspring (genetic nurturing). We calculated transmitted and non-transmitted PGSs associated with adult educational attainment (EA) and PGSs associated with childhood ADHD in a general population sample of trios, i.e. child or adult offspring and their parents (N = 1120-2518). We tested if the EA and ADHD (non-)transmitted PGSs were associated with childhood academic achievement and ADHD in offspring. Based on the earlier findings for shared environment, we hypothesized to find genetic nurturing for academic achievement, but not for ADHD. In adults, both transmitted (R2 = 7.6%) and non-transmitted (R2 = 1.7%) EA PGSs were associated with offspring EA, evidencing genetic nurturing. In children around age 12, academic achievement was associated with the transmitted EA PGSs (R2 = 5.7%), but we found no support for genetic nurturing (R2 ~ 0.1%). The ADHD PGSs were not significantly associated with academic achievement (R2 ~ 0.6%). ADHD symptoms in children were only associated with transmitted EA PGSs and ADHD PGSs (R2 = 1-2%). Based on these results, we conclude that the associations between parent characteristics and offspring outcomes in childhood are mainly to be attributable to the effects of genes that are shared by parents and children.

10.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(2)2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608377

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Inter-individual differences in cortisol production and metabolism emerge with age and may be explained by genetic factors. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to inter-individual differences in cortisol production and metabolism throughout adolescence. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study of twins. SETTING: Nationwide register. PARTICIPANTS: 218 mono- and dizygotic twins (N = 109 pairs) born between 1995 amd 1996, recruited from the Netherlands Twin Register. Cortisol metabolites were determined in 213, 169, and 160 urine samples at the ages of 9, 12, and 17, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The total contribution of genetic factors (broad-sense heritability) and shared and unshared environmental influences to inter-individual differences in cortisol production and activities of 5α-reductase, 5ß-reductase, and 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and cytochrome P450 3A4. RESULTS: For cortisol production rate at the ages of 9, 12, and 17, broad-sense heritability was estimated as 42%, 30%, and 0%, respectively, and the remainder of the variance was explained by unshared environmental factors. For cortisol metabolism indices, the following heritability was observed: for the A-ring reductases (5α-and 5ß-reductases), broad-sense heritability increased with age (to >50%), while for the other indices (renal 11ß-HSD2, global 11ß-HSD, and CYP3A4), the contribution of genetic factors was highest (68%, 18%, and 67%, respectively) at age 12. CONCLUSIONS: The contribution of genetic factors to inter-individual differences in cortisol production decreased between 12 and 17y, indicative of a predominant role of individual circumstances. For cortisol metabolism, distinct patterns of genetic and environmental influences were observed, with heritability that either increased with age or peaked at age 12y.

11.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 22(6): 623-636, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666148

RESUMO

The Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) is a national register in which twins, multiples and their parents, siblings, spouses and other family members participate. Here we describe the NTR resources that were created from more than 30 years of data collections; the development and maintenance of the newly developed database systems, and the possibilities these resources create for future research. Since the early 1980s, the NTR has enrolled around 120,000 twins and a roughly equal number of their relatives. The majority of twin families have participated in survey studies, and subsamples took part in biomaterial collection (e.g., DNA) and dedicated projects, for example, for neuropsychological, biomarker and behavioral traits. The recruitment into the NTR is all inclusive without any restrictions on enrollment. These resources - the longitudinal phenotyping, the extended pedigree structures and the multigeneration genotyping - allow for future twin-family research that will contribute to gene discovery, causality modeling, and studies of genetic and cultural inheritance.

12.
BMC Microbiol ; 19(1): 230, 2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota composition is known to be influenced by a myriad of factors including the host genetic profile and a number of environmental influences. Here, we focus on the environmental influence of cohabitation on the gut microbiota as well as whether these environmentally influenced microorganisms are associated with cardiometabolic and inflammatory burden. We perform this by investigating the gut microbiota composition of various groups of related individuals including cohabitating monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs, non-cohabitating MZ twin pairs and spouse pairs. RESULTS: A stronger correlation between alpha diversity was found in cohabitating MZ twins (45 pairs, r = 0.64, p = 2.21 × 10- 06) than in non-cohabitating MZ twin pairs (121 pairs, r = 0.42, p = 1.35 × 10- 06). Although the correlation of alpha diversity did not attain significance between spouse pairs (42 pairs, r = 0.23, p = 0.15), the correlation was still higher than those in the 209 unrelated pairs (r = - 0.015, p = 0.832). Bray-Curtis (BC) dissimilarity metrics showed cohabitating MZ twin pairs had the most similar gut microbiota communities which were more similar than the BC values of non-cohabitating MZ twins (empirical p-value = 0.0103), cohabitating spouses (empirical p-value = 0.0194), and pairs of unrelated non-cohabitating individuals (empirical p-value< 0.00001). There was also a significant difference between the BC measures from the spouse pairs and those from the unrelated non-cohabitating individuals (empirical p-value< 0.00001). Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated between the various groups of interest and the results indicate the presence of OTUs with an environmental influence and one OTU that appeared to demonstrate genetic influences. One of the OTUs (Otu0190) was observed to have a significant association with both the cardiometabolic and inflammatory burden scores (p's < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Through the comparison of the microbiota contents of MZ twins with varying cohabitation status and spousal pairs, we showed evidence of environmentally influenced OTUs, one of which had a significant association with cardiometabolic and inflammatory burden scores.

13.
Depress Anxiety ; 36(12): 1163-1172, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety may unfavorably impact on cardiac autonomic dysregulation. However, it is unclear whether this relationship results from a causal effect or may be attributable to confounding factors. We tested the relationship between depression and anxiety with heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) across a 9-year follow-up (FU) period and investigated possible confounding by antidepressant use and genetic pleiotropy. METHODS: Data (no. of observations = 6,994, 65% female) were obtained from the longitudinal Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, with repeated waves of data collection of HR, HRV, depression, anxiety, and antidepressant use. Summary statistics from meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies were used to derive polygenic risk scores of depression, HR, and HRV. RESULTS: Across the 9-year FU, generalized estimating equations analyses showed that the relationship between cardiac autonomic dysregulation and depression/anxiety rendered nonsignificant after adjusting for antidepressant use. A robust association was found between antidepressant use (especially tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin, and noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors) and unfavorable cardiac autonomic activity across all waves. However, no evidence was found for a genetic correlation of depression with HR and HRV, indicating that confounding by genetic pleiotropy is minimal. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the association between depression/anxiety and cardiac autonomic dysregulation does not result from a causal pathway or genetic pleiotropy, and these traits might therefore not be inevitably linked. Previously reported associations were likely confounded by the use of certain classes of antidepressants.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Coração/inervação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antidepressivos Tricíclicos/farmacologia , Antidepressivos Tricíclicos/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/genética , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/genética , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Depressão/genética , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo/genética , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência Cardíaca/genética , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Países Baixos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Behav Genet ; 49(5): 432-443, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502010

RESUMO

Bullying comes in different forms, yet most previous genetically-sensitive studies have not distinguished between them. Given the serious consequences and the high prevalence of bullying, it is remarkable that the aetiology of bullying and its different forms has been under-researched. We present the first study to investigate the genetic architecture of bullying perpetration, bullying victimization, and their co-occurrence for verbal, physical and relational bullying. Primary-school teachers rated 8215 twin children on bullying perpetration and bullying victimization. For each form of bullying, we investigated, through genetic structural equation modelling, the genetic and environmental influences on being a bully, a victim or both. 34% of the children were involved as bully, victim, or both. The correlation between being a bully and being a victim varied from 0.59 (relational) to 0.85 (physical). Heritability was ~ 70% for perpetration and ~ 65% for victimization, similar in girls and boys, yet both were somewhat lower for the relational form. Shared environmental influences were modest and more pronounced among girls. The correlation between being a bully and being a victim was explained mostly by genetic factors for verbal (~ 71%) and especially physical (~ 77%) and mostly by environmental factors for relational perpetration and victimization (~ 60%). Genes play a large role in explaining which children are at high risk of being a victim, bully, or both. For victimization this suggests an evocative gene-environment correlation: some children are at risk of being exposed to bullying, partly due to genetically influenced traits. So, genetic influences make some children more vulnerable to become a bully, victim or both.


Assuntos
Bullying/classificação , Vítimas de Crime/classificação , Criança , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Hereditariedade/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética
15.
NPJ Sci Learn ; 4: 13, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508241

RESUMO

Parental socioeconomic status (SES) is a strong predictor of children's educational achievement (EA), with an increasing effect throughout development. Inequality in educational outcomes between children from different SES backgrounds exists in all Western countries. It has been proposed that a cause of this inequality lies in the interplay between genetic effects and SES on EA, which might depend on society and the equality of the education system. This study adopted two approaches, a classical twin design and polygenic score (PGS) approach, to address the effect of parental SES on EA in a large sample of 12-year-old Dutch twin pairs (2479 MZ and 4450 DZ twin pairs with PGSs for educational attainment available in 2335 children) from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR). The findings of this study indicated that average EA increased with increasing parental SES. The difference in EA between boys and girls became smaller in the higher SES groups. The classical twin design analyses based on genetic covariance structure modeling pointed to lower genetic, environmental, and thus phenotypic variation in EA at higher SES. Independent from a child's PGS, parental SES predicted EA. However, the strength of the association between PGS and EA did not depend on parental SES. In a within-family design, the twin with a higher PGS scored higher on EA than the co-twin, demonstrating that the effect of the PGS on EA was at least partly independent from parental SES. To conclude, EA depended on SES both directly and indirectly, and SES moderated the additive genetic and environmental components of EA. Adding information from PGS, in addition to parental SES, improved the prediction of children's EA.

16.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 22(3): 164-176, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198125

RESUMO

A literature review was carried out to identify pre and perinatal characteristics associated with variation in Apgar scores in population-based studies. The parameters identified in the literature search were included in the classical twin design study to estimate effects of pre and perinatal factors shared and nonshared by twins and to test for a contribution of genetic factors in 1- and 5-min Apgar scores in a large sample of Dutch monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. The sample included MZ and DZ twins (N = 5181 pairs) recruited by the Netherlands Twin Register shortly after birth, with data on prenatal characteristics and Apgar scores at first and/or fifth minutes. The ordinal regression and structural equation modeling were used to analyze the effects of characteristics identified in the literature review and to estimate genetic and nongenetic variance components. The literature review identified 63 papers. Consistent with the review, we observed statistically significant effects of birth order, zygosity and gestational age (GA) for 1- and 5-min Apgar scores of both twins. Apgar scores are higher in first-born versus second-born twins and DZ first-born versus MZ first-born twins. Birth weight had an effect on the 5-min Apgar of the first born. Fetal presentation and mode of delivery had different effects on Apgar scores of first- and second-born twins. Parental characteristics and chorionicity did not have significant main effects on Apgar scores. The MZ twins' Apgar correlations equaled the DZ Apgar correlations. Our analyses suggest that individual differences in 1- and 5-min Apgar scores are attributable to shared and nonshared pre and perinatal factors, but not to genotypic factors of the newborns. The main predictors of Apgar scores are birth order, zygosity, GA, birth weight, mode of delivery and fetal presentation.


Assuntos
Índice de Apgar , Peso ao Nascer , Assistência Perinatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Gêmeos Dizigóticos , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Ordem de Nascimento , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Países Baixos , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 21(6): 835-840, 2019 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29228387

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The common genetic variant (rs1051730) in the 15q24 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 was associated with smoking quantity and has been reported to be associated also with reduced ability to quit smoking in pregnant women but results were inconsistent in nonpregnant women. The aim of this study was to explore the association between rs1051730 and smoking cessation during pregnancy in a sample of Dutch women. METHODS: Data on smoking during pregnancy were available from 1337 women, who ever smoked, registered at the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR). Logistic regression was used to assess evidence for the association of rs1051730 genotype on smoking during pregnancy. In a subsample of 561 women, we investigated the influence of partner's smoking. Educational attainment and year of birth were used as covariates in both analyses. RESULTS: There was evidence for a significant association between having one or more T alleles of the rs1051730 polymorphism and the likelihood of smoking during pregnancy (p = .03, odds ratio = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.61). However, this association attenuated when adjusting for birth cohort and educational attainment (p = .37, odds ratio = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.87 to 1.43). In the subsample, smoking spouse was highly associated with smoking during pregnancy, even when educational attainment and birth cohort were included in the model. CONCLUSIONS: Our results did not support a strong association between this genetic variant and smoking during pregnancy. However, a strong association was observed with the smoking behavior of the partner, regardless of the genotype of the women. IMPLICATIONS: The present study emphasizes the importance of social influences like spousal smoking on the smoking behavior of pregnant women. Further research is needed to address the role of rs1051730 genetic variant in influencing smoking cessation and the interaction with important environmental factors like the smoking behavior of the partner.


Assuntos
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Fumar/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Fumar/epidemiologia
18.
Front Psychiatry ; 9: 261, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29962975

RESUMO

Whether well-being and depressive symptoms can be considered as two sides of the same coin is widely debated. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the etiology of the association between well-being and depressive symptoms across the lifespan. In a large twin-design, including data from 43,427 twins between age 7 and 99, we estimated the association between well-being and depressive symptoms throughout the lifespan and assessed genetic and environmental contributions to the observed overlap. For both well-being (range 31-47%) and depressive symptoms (range 49-61%), genetic factors explained a substantial part of the phenotypic variance across the lifespan. Phenotypic correlations between well-being and depressive symptoms across ages ranged from -0.34 in childhood to -0.49 in adulthood. In children, genetic effects explained 49% of the phenotypic correlation while in adolescents and young adults, genetic effects explained 60-77% of the phenotypic correlations. Moderate to high genetic correlations (ranging from -0.59 to -0.66) were observed in adolescence and adulthood, while in childhood environmental correlations were substantial but genetic correlations small. Our results suggest that in childhood genetic and environmental effects are about equally important in explaining the relationship between well-being and depressive symptoms. From adolescence onwards, the role of genetic effects increases compared to environmental effects. These results provided more insights into the etiological underpinnings of well-being and depressive symptoms, possibly allowing to articulate better strategies for health promotion and resource allocation in the future.

19.
Behav Genet ; 48(4): 337-349, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29882082

RESUMO

Although experimental studies are regarded as the method of choice for determining causal influences, these are not always practical or ethical to answer vital questions in health and social research (e.g., one cannot assign individuals to a "childhood trauma condition" in studying the causal effects of childhood trauma on depression). Key to solving such questions are observational studies. Mendelian Randomization (MR) is an influential method to establish causality in observational studies. MR uses genetic variants to test causal relationships between exposures/risk factors and outcomes such as physical or mental health. Yet, individual genetic variants have small effects, and so, when used as instrumental variables, render MR liable to weak instrument bias. Polygenic scores have the advantage of larger effects, but may be characterized by horizontal pleiotropy, which violates a central assumption of MR. We developed the MR-DoC twin model by integrating MR with the Direction of Causation twin model. This model allows us to test pleiotropy directly. We considered the issue of parameter identification, and given identification, we conducted extensive power calculations. MR-DoC allows one to test causal hypotheses and to obtain unbiased estimates of the causal effect given pleiotropic instruments, while controlling for genetic and environmental influences common to the outcome and exposure. Furthermore, the approach allows one to employ strong instrumental variables in the form of polygenic scores, guarding against weak instrument bias, and increasing the power to detect causal effects of exposures on potential outcomes. Beside allowing to test pleiotropy directly, incorporating in MR data collected from relatives provide additional within-family data that resolve additional assumptions like random mating, the absence of the gene-environment interaction/covariance, no dyadic effects. Our approach will enhance and extend MR's range of applications, and increase the value of the large cohorts collected at twin/family registries as they correctly detect causation and estimate effect sizes even in the presence of pleiotropy.


Assuntos
Causalidade , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Modelos Genéticos , Estudos em Gêmeos como Assunto/métodos , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Pleiotropia Genética , Variação Genética , Humanos , Método de Monte Carlo , Herança Multifatorial , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética
20.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 21(3): 203-213, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29792248

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The human gut microbiota has been demonstrated to be associated with a number of host phenotypes, including obesity and a number of obesity-associated phenotypes. This study is aimed at further understanding and describing the relationship between the gut microbiota and obesity-associated measurements obtained from human participants. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Here, we utilize genetically informative study designs, including a four-corners design (extremes of genetic risk for BMI and of observed BMI; N = 50) and the BMI monozygotic (MZ) discordant twin pair design (N = 30), in order to help delineate the role of host genetics and the gut microbiota in the development of obesity. RESULTS: Our results highlight a negative association between BMI and alpha diversity of the gut microbiota. The low genetic risk/high BMI group of individuals had a lower gut microbiota alpha diversity when compared to the other three groups. Although the difference in alpha diversity between the lean and heavy groups of the BMI-discordant MZ twin design did not achieve significance, this difference was observed to be in the expected direction, with the heavier participants having a lower average alpha diversity. We have also identified nine OTUs observed to be associated with either a leaner or heavier phenotype, with enrichment for OTUs classified to the Ruminococcaceae and Oxalobacteraceae taxonomic families. CONCLUSION: Our study presents evidence of a relationship between BMI and alpha diversity of the gut microbiota. In addition to these findings, a number of OTUs were found to be significantly associated with host BMI. These findings may highlight separate subtypes of obesity, one driven by genetic factors, the other more heavily influenced by environmental factors.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Oxalobacteraceae/classificação , Ruminococcus/classificação , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Oxalobacteraceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ruminococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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