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1.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146377

RESUMO

To evaluate the racial/ethnic differences in prevalence of germline pathogenic variants (PVs) and the effect of race/ethnicity on breast cancer (BC) risk among carriers, results of multigene testing of 77,900 women with BC (Non-Hispanic White [NHW] = 57,003; Ashkenazi-Jewish = 4,798; Black = 6,722; Hispanic = 5,194; and Asian = 4,183) were analyzed and the frequency of PVs in each gene were compared between BC cases and race/ethnicity-matched gnomAD reference controls. Compared to NHWs, BRCA1 PVs were enriched in Ashkenazi-Jews and Hispanics while CHEK2 PVs were statistically significantly lower in Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians (all two-sided P< 0.05). In case-control studies BARD1 PVs were associated with high risks (Odds Ratio>4.00) of BC in Blacks, Hispanics and Asians; ATM PVs were associated with increased risk of BC among all races/ethnicities except Asians; whereas CHEK2 and BRIP1 PVs were associated with increased risk of BC among NHWs and Hispanics only. These findings suggest a need for personalized management of BC risk in PV carriers based on race/ethnicity.

2.
Cancer Res ; 80(17): 3732-3744, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675277

RESUMO

Germline mutations in TP53 cause a rare high penetrance cancer syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS). Here, we identified a rare TP53 tetramerization domain missense mutation, c.1000G>C;p.G334R, in a family with multiple late-onset LFS-spectrum cancers. Twenty additional c.1000G>C probands and one c.1000G>A proband were identified, and available tumors showed biallelic somatic inactivation of TP53. The majority of families were of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, and the TP53 c.1000G>C allele was found on a commonly inherited chromosome 17p13.1 haplotype. Transient transfection of the p.G334R allele conferred a mild defect in colony suppression assays. Lymphoblastoid cell lines from the index family in comparison with TP53 normal lines showed that although classical p53 target gene activation was maintained, a subset of p53 target genes (including PCLO, PLTP, PLXNB3, and LCN15) showed defective transactivation when treated with Nutlin-3a. Structural analysis demonstrated thermal instability of the G334R-mutant tetramer, and the G334R-mutant protein showed increased preponderance of mutant conformation. Clinical case review in comparison with classic LFS cohorts demonstrated similar rates of pediatric adrenocortical tumors and other LFS component cancers, but the latter at significantly later ages of onset. Our data show that TP53 c.1000G>C;p.G334R is found predominantly in Ashkenazi Jewish individuals, causes a mild defect in p53 function, and leads to low penetrance LFS. SIGNIFICANCE: TP53 c.1000C>G;p.G334R is a pathogenic, Ashkenazi Jewish-predominant mutation associated with a familial multiple cancer syndrome in which carriers should undergo screening and preventive measures to reduce cancer risk.

3.
Genet Med ; 22(9): 1517-1523, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439974

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We describe the pathogenic variant spectrum and identify predictors of positive results among men referred for clinical genetic testing for prostate cancer. METHODS: One thousand eight hundred twelve men with prostate cancer underwent clinical multigene panel testing between April 2012 and September 2017. Stepwise logistic regression determined the most reliable predictors of positive results among clinical variables reported on test requisition forms. RESULTS: A yield of 9.4-12.1% was observed among men with no prior genetic testing. In this group, the positive rate of BRCA1 and BRCA2 was 4.6%; the positive rate for the mismatch repair genes was 2.8%. Increasing Gleason score (odds ratio [OR] 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97-1.45); personal history of breast or pancreatic cancer (OR 3.62; 95% CI 1.37-9.46); family history of breast, ovarian, or pancreatic cancer (OR 2.32 95% CI 1.48-3.65); and family history of Lynch syndrome-associated cancers (OR 1.97; 95% CI 1.23-3.15) were predictors of positive results. CONCLUSION: These results support multigene panel testing as the primary genetic testing approach for hereditary prostate cancer and are supportive of recommendations for consideration of germline testing in men with prostate cancer. Expanding the criteria for genetic testing should be considered as many pathogenic variants are actionable for treatment of advanced prostate cancer.

4.
Hum Mutat ; 41(8): e1-e6, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442341

RESUMO

Multigene panel testing for cancer predisposition mutations is becoming routine in clinical care. However, the gene content of panels offered by testing laboratories vary significantly, and data on mutation detection rates by gene and by the panel is limited, causing confusion among clinicians on which test to order. Using results from 147,994 multigene panel tests conducted at Ambry Genetics, we built an interactive prevalence tool to explore how differences in ethnicity, age of onset, and personal and family history of different cancers affect the prevalence of pathogenic mutations in 31 cancer predisposition genes, across various clinically available hereditary cancer gene panels. Over 13,000 mutation carriers were identified in this high-risk population. Most were non-Hispanic white (74%, n = 109,537), but also Black (n = 10,875), Ashkenazi Jewish (n = 10,464), Hispanic (n = 10,028), and Asian (n = 7,090). The most prevalent cancer types were breast (50%), ovarian (6.6%), and colorectal (4.7%), which is expected based on genetic testing guidelines and clinician referral for testing. The Hereditary Cancer Multi-Gene Panel Prevalence Tool presented here can be used to provide insight into the prevalence of mutations on a per-gene and per-multigene panel basis, while conditioning on multiple custom phenotypic variables to include race and cancer type.

5.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The germline cancer predisposition genes associated with increased risk of each clinical subtype of breast cancer, defined by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2, are not well defined. METHODS: A total of 54,555 invasive breast cancer patients with 56,480 breast tumors were subjected to clinical hereditary cancer multigene panel testing. Heterogeneity for predisposition genes across clinical breast cancer subtypes was assessed by comparing mutation frequencies by gene among tumor subtypes and by association studies between each tumor subtype and reference controls. RESULTS: Mutations in 15 cancer predisposition genes were detected in 8.6% of patients with ER+/HER2-; 8.9% with ER+/HER2+; 7.7% with ER-/HER2+; and 14.4% of ER-/PR-/HER2- tumors. BRCA1, BRCA2, BARD1 and PALB2 mutations were enriched in ER- and HER2- tumors, RAD51C and RAD51D mutations were enriched in ER- tumors only, TP53 mutations were enriched in HER2+ tumors, and ATM and CHEK2 mutations were enriched in both ER+ and/or HER2+ tumors. All genes were associated with moderate (odds ratio (OR)>2.00) or strong (OR > 5.00) risks of at least one subtype of breast cancer in case-control analyses. Mutations in ATM, BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, PALB2, RAD51C, RAD51D, and TP53 had predicted lifetime absolute risks of ≥ 20.0% for breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Germline mutations in hereditary cancer panel genes confer subtype-specific risks of breast cancer. Combined tumor subtype, age at breast cancer diagnosis, and family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer information provides refined categorical estimates of mutation prevalence for women considering genetic testing.

6.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to estimate precise age-specific tubo-ovarian carcinoma (TOC) and breast cancer (BC) risks for carriers of pathogenic variants in RAD51C and RAD51D. METHODS: We analysed data from 6178 families, 125 with pathogenic variants in RAD51C; and 6690 families, 60 with pathogenic variants in RAD51D. TOC and BC relative and cumulative risks were estimated using complex segregation analysis to model the cancer inheritance patterns in families, while adjusting for the mode of ascertainment of each family. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Pathogenic variants in both RAD51C and RAD51D were associated with TOC (RAD51C RR = 7.55, 95%CI:5.60-10.19, p = 5 × 10-40; RAD51D RR = 7.60, 95%CI:5.61-10.30, p = 5 × 10-39) and BC (RAD51C RR = 1.99, 95%CI:1.39-2.85, p = 1.55 × 10-4; RAD51D RR = 1.83, 95%CI:1.24-2.72, p = 0.002). For both RAD51C and RAD51D, there was a suggestion that the TOC RRs increased with age until around age 60 years and decreased thereafter. The estimated cumulative risks of developing TOC to age 80 were 11% (95%CI:6-21%) for RAD51C and 13% (95%CI:7-23%) for RAD51D pathogenic variant carriers. The estimated cumulative risks of developing BC to 80 were 21% (95%CI:15-29%) for RAD51C and 20% (95%CI:14-28%) for RAD51D pathogenic variant carriers. Both TOC and BC risks for RAD51C/D pathogenic variant carriers varied by cancer family history, and could be as high as 32-36% for TOC, for carriers with two first degree relatives diagnosed with TOC; or 44-46% for BC, for carriers with two first degree relatives diagnosed with BC. CONCLUSIONS: These estimates will facilitate the genetic counselling of RAD51C and RAD51D pathogenic variant carriers and justify the incorporation of RAD51C and RAD51D into cancer risk prediction models.

7.
Genet Med ; 22(2): 407-415, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406321

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite the rapid uptake of multigene panel testing (MGPT) for hereditary cancer predisposition, there is limited guidance surrounding indications for testing and genes to include. METHODS: To inform the clinical approach to hereditary cancer MGPT, we comprehensively evaluated 32 cancer predisposition genes by assessing phenotype-specific pathogenic variant (PV) frequencies, cancer risk associations, and performance of genetic testing criteria in a cohort of 165,000 patients referred for MGPT. RESULTS: We identified extensive genetic heterogeneity surrounding predisposition to cancer types commonly referred for germline testing (breast, ovarian, colorectal, uterine/endometrial, pancreatic, and melanoma). PV frequencies were highest among patients with ovarian cancer (13.8%) and lowest among patients with melanoma (8.1%). Fewer than half of PVs identified in patients meeting testing criteria for only BRCA1/2 or only Lynch syndrome occurred in the respective genes (33.1% and 46.2%). In addition, 5.8% of patients with PVs in BRCA1/2 and 26.9% of patients with PVs in Lynch syndrome genes did not meet respective testing criteria. CONCLUSION: Opportunities to improve upon identification of patients at risk for hereditary cancer predisposition include revising BRCA1/2 and Lynch syndrome testing criteria to include additional clinically actionable genes with overlapping phenotypes and relaxing testing criteria for associated cancers.

8.
Genet Med ; 22(4): 701-708, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853058

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Genetic testing of individuals often results in identification of genomic variants of unknown significance (VUS). Multiple lines of evidence are used to help determine the clinical significance of these variants. METHODS: We analyzed ~138,000 individuals tested by multigene panel testing (MGPT). We used logistic regression to predict carrier status based on personal and family history of cancer. This was applied to 4644 tested individuals carrying 2383 BRCA1/2 variants to calculate likelihood ratios informing pathogenicity for each. Heterogeneity tests were performed for specific classes of variants defined by in silico predictions. RESULTS: Twenty-two variants labeled as VUS had odds of >10:1 in favor of pathogenicity. The heterogeneity analysis found that among variants in functional domains that were predicted to be benign by in silico tools, a significantly higher proportion of variants were estimated to be pathogenic than previously indicated; that missense variants outside of functional domains should be considered benign; and that variants predicted to create de novo donor sites were also largely benign. CONCLUSION: The evidence presented here supports the use of personal and family history from MGPT in the classification of VUS and will be integrated into ongoing efforts to provide large-scale multifactorial classification.

9.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(7): 674-685, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841383

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To estimate age-specific relative and absolute cancer risks of breast cancer and to estimate risks of ovarian, pancreatic, male breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers associated with germline PALB2 pathogenic variants (PVs) because these risks have not been extensively characterized. METHODS: We analyzed data from 524 families with PALB2 PVs from 21 countries. Complex segregation analysis was used to estimate relative risks (RRs; relative to country-specific population incidences) and absolute risks of cancers. The models allowed for residual familial aggregation of breast and ovarian cancer and were adjusted for the family-specific ascertainment schemes. RESULTS: We found associations between PALB2 PVs and risk of female breast cancer (RR, 7.18; 95% CI, 5.82 to 8.85; P = 6.5 × 10-76), ovarian cancer (RR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.40 to 6.04; P = 4.1 × 10-3), pancreatic cancer (RR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.24 to 4.50; P = 8.7 × 10-3), and male breast cancer (RR, 7.34; 95% CI, 1.28 to 42.18; P = 2.6 × 10-2). There was no evidence for increased risks of prostate or colorectal cancer. The breast cancer RRs declined with age (P for trend = 2.0 × 10-3). After adjusting for family ascertainment, breast cancer risk estimates on the basis of multiple case families were similar to the estimates from families ascertained through population-based studies (P for difference = .41). On the basis of the combined data, the estimated risks to age 80 years were 53% (95% CI, 44% to 63%) for female breast cancer, 5% (95% CI, 2% to 10%) for ovarian cancer, 2%-3% (95% CI females, 1% to 4%; 95% CI males, 2% to 5%) for pancreatic cancer, and 1% (95% CI, 0.2% to 5%) for male breast cancer. CONCLUSION: These results confirm PALB2 as a major breast cancer susceptibility gene and establish substantial associations between germline PALB2 PVs and ovarian, pancreatic, and male breast cancers. These findings will facilitate incorporation of PALB2 into risk prediction models and optimize the clinical cancer risk management of PALB2 PV carriers.

10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(10): e1913900, 2019 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642931

RESUMO

Importance: Performing DNA genetic testing (DGT) for hereditary cancer genes is now a well-accepted clinical practice; however, the interpretation of DNA variation remains a challenge for laboratories and clinicians. Adding RNA genetic testing (RGT) enhances DGT by clarifying the clinical actionability of hereditary cancer gene variants, thus improving clinicians' ability to accurately apply strategies for cancer risk reduction and treatment. Objective: To evaluate whether RGT is associated with improvement in the diagnostic outcome of DGT and in the delivery of personalized cancer risk management for patients with hereditary cancer predisposition. Design, Setting, and Participants: Diagnostic study in which patients and/or families with inconclusive variants detected by DGT in genes associated with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, Lynch syndrome, and hereditary diffuse gastric cancer sent blood samples for RGT from March 2016 to April 2018. Clinicians who ordered genetic testing and received a reclassification report for these variants were surveyed to assess whether RGT-related variant reclassifications changed clinical management of these patients. To quantify the potential number of tested individuals who could benefit from RGT, a cohort of 307 812 patients who underwent DGT for hereditary cancer were separately queried to identify variants predicted to affect splicing. Data analysis was conducted from March 2016 and September 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Variant reclassification outcomes following RGT, clinical management changes associated with RGT-related variant reclassifications, and the proportion of patients who would likely be affected by a concurrent DGT and RGT multigene panel testing approach. Results: In total, 93 if 909 eligible families (10.2%) submitted samples for RGT. Evidence from RGT clarified the interpretation of 49 of 56 inconclusive cases (88%) studied; 26 (47%) were reclassified as clinically actionable and 23 (41%) were clarified as benign. Variant reclassifications based on RGT results changed clinical management recommendations for 8 of 18 patients (44%) and 14 of 18 families (78%), based on responses from 18 of 45 clinicians (40%) surveyed. A total of 7265 of 307 812 patients who underwent DGT had likely pathogenic variants or variants of uncertain significance potentially affecting splicing, indicating that approximately 1 in 43 individuals could benefit from RGT. Conclusions and Relevance: In this diagnostic study, conducting RNA testing resolved a substantial proportion of variants of uncertain significance in a cohort of individuals previously tested for cancer predisposition by DGT. Performing RGT might change the diagnostic outcome of at least 1 in 43 patients if performed in all individuals undergoing genetic evaluation for hereditary cancer.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/métodos , Neoplasias/genética , RNA/análise , Tomada de Decisões , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Genet Med ; 21(11): 2478-2484, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105275

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Panel testing has led to the identification of TP53 pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) variant carriers (TP53+) who exhibit a broad range of phenotypes. We sought to evaluate and compare genotype-phenotype associations among TP53+ panel-ascertained subjects. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2017, 317 TP53+ subjects (279 females and 38 males) identified through panel testing at one testing laboratory were found to have evaluable clinical histories and molecular results. Subject cancer histories were obtained from test requisition forms. P/LP variants were categorized by type and were examined in relation to phenotype. RESULTS: Loss-of-function (LOF) variants were associated with the earliest age at first cancer, with a median age of 30.5 years (P = 0.014); increased frequency of a sarcoma diagnosis (P = 0.016); and more often meeting classic LFS testing and Chompret 2015 criteria (P = 0.004 and 0.002 respectively), as compared with dominant-negative missense, other missense, or miscellaneous (splice or in-frame deletion) P/LP variant categories. CONCLUSION: Loss-of-function variants were more often associated with characteristic LFS cancer histories than other variant categories in TP53+ carriers ascertained through multigene panel testing. These findings require validation in other TP53+ cohorts. Genetic counseling for panel-ascertained TP53+ individuals should reflect the dynamic expansion of the Li-Fraumeni syndrome phenotype.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/diagnóstico , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
12.
Cancer ; 125(14): 2488-2496, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline genetic testing currently is recommended for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). In the current study, the authors assessed how often results are communicated to first-degree relatives within 3 months and the emotional impact of testing on patients. METHODS: A total of 148 patients who were newly diagnosed with PDAC and who had undergone testing of 32 cancer susceptibility genes at 3 academic centers were selected; 71% participated. Subjects completed the Multidimensional Impact of Cancer Risk Assessment (MICRA) and a family communication survey. The results of both surveys were assessed at 3 months according to the genetic test result (positive, negative, or variant of unknown significance [VUS]) and whether a patient met criteria for genetic testing. RESULTS: A total of 99 patients completed the MICRA survey and 104 completed the family communication survey. The average age of the patients was 67 years, 47% were female, 29% had stage III/IV (AJCC 8th edition) disease, and 42% met genetic testing criteria. Approximately 80% of patients told at least 1 first-degree relative about their result. There was a trend toward greater disclosure among patients who tested positive (93% vs 77% for those with a VUS result [P = .149] and 74% for those who tested negative [P = .069]). Patients not meeting genetic testing criteria were less likely to disclose results (69% vs 93%; P = .003). MICRA scores did not differ by test result, age, stage of disease, or sex. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of result communication was high, although it was lower among patients who did not meet genetic testing criteria, those who tested negative, or those who had a VUS result. Testing-associated distress was similar across patient groups, and was comparable to that reported by other patients with cancer. Improved communication for all patients is crucial given the prognosis of PDAC, which limits time for disclosure.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Comunicação , Família/psicologia , Aconselhamento Genético/psicologia , Testes Genéticos , Células Germinativas , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Pacientes/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Revelação da Verdade
13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 110(8): 855-862, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30099541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline genetic testing with hereditary cancer gene panels can identify women at increased risk of breast cancer. However, those at increased risk of triple-negative (estrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative, human epidermal growth factor receptor-negative) breast cancer (TNBC) cannot be identified because predisposition genes for TNBC, other than BRCA1, have not been established. The aim of this study was to define the cancer panel genes associated with increased risk of TNBC. METHODS: Multigene panel testing for 21 genes in 8753 TNBC patients was performed by a clinical testing laboratory, and testing for 17 genes in 2148 patients was conducted by a Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC) of research studies. Associations between deleterious mutations in cancer predisposition genes and TNBC were evaluated using results from TNBC patients and reference controls. RESULTS: Germline pathogenic variants in BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, and RAD51D were associated with high risk (odds ratio > 5.0) of TNBC and greater than 20% lifetime risk for overall breast cancer among Caucasians. Pathogenic variants in BRIP1, RAD51C, and TP53 were associated with moderate risk (odds ratio > 2) of TNBC. Similar trends were observed for the African American population. Pathogenic variants in these TNBC genes were detected in 12.0% (3.7% non-BRCA1/2) of all participants. CONCLUSIONS: Multigene hereditary cancer panel testing can identify women with elevated risk of TNBC due to mutations in BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, and RAD51D. These women can potentially benefit from improved screening, risk management, and cancer prevention strategies. Patients with mutations may also benefit from specific targeted therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 110(8): 863-870, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29529297

RESUMO

Background: Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) has traditionally been identified by single-gene testing (SGT) of TP53 triggered by clinical criteria, but the widespread use of multigene panel tests (MGPTs) has upended this paradigm. We sought to compare the personal and family cancer histories of TP53-positive result (TP53+) carriers who were identified by either MGPT or SGT. Methods: Of 44 310 individuals who underwent testing of TP53 in a single clinical diagnostic laboratory between 2010 and 2014, 44 086 (40 885 MGPT and 3201 SGT) met study eligibility criteria. Personal cancer histories were available for 38 938 subjects. The frequency of germline TP53 results and various phenotypic manifestations were compared according to test type. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: MGPT TP53+ individuals (n = 126) had an older median age at first cancer than SGT TP53+ carriers (n = 96; women: median = 36 vs 28 years, P < .001; and men: median = 40 vs 15 years, P = .004). The median age of breast cancer diagnosis was 40 years in MGPT TP53+ women vs 33 years in SGT TP53+ women (P < .001). In both cohorts, childhood and LFS core cancers, and for women, multiple primary cancers (not multiple breast tumors), were associated with TP53+ results. Established LFS testing criteria were less often met by MGPT TP53+ individuals. Conclusions: MGPT TP53+ individuals differ in phenotype from those ascertained through SGT and are notably older at cancer diagnosis and less likely to meet LFS clinical criteria. These findings suggest that LFS may have a greater phenotypic spectrum than previously appreciated. This has implications for the counseling of MGPT TP53+ individuals. Prospective follow-up of these individuals and families is needed to re-evaluate cancer risks.


Assuntos
Triagem de Portadores Genéticos/métodos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/genética , Transcriptoma , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/complicações , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/epidemiologia , Masculino , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
15.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 2: 1-11, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652589

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Clinical history data reported on test requisition forms (TRFs) for hereditary cancer multigene panel testing (MGPT) are routinely used by genetic testing laboratories. More recently, publications have incorporated TRF-based clinical data into studies exploring yield of testing by phenotype and estimating cancer risks for mutation carriers. We aimed to assess the quality of TRF data for patients undergoing MGPT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ten percent of patients who underwent hereditary cancer MGPT between January and June 2015 at a clinical laboratory were randomly selected. TRF-reported cancer diagnoses were evaluated for completeness and accuracy for probands and relatives using clinical documents such as pedigrees and chart notes as the comparison standard in cases where these documents were submitted after the time of test order. RESULTS: TRF-reported cancer sites and ages at diagnosis were complete for > 90.0% of proband cancer diagnoses overall, and the completion rate was even higher (> 96.0%) for breast, ovarian, colorectal, and uterine cancers. When reported, these data were accurate on TRFs for > 99.5% of proband cancer sites and > 97.5% of proband ages at diagnosis. Cancer site and age at diagnosis data were also complete on the TRF for the majority of cancers among first- and second-degree relatives. Completeness decreased as relation to the proband became more distant, whereas accuracy remained high across all degrees of relation. CONCLUSION: Data collected as part of cancer genetic risk assessment is completely and accurately reported on TRFs for the majority of probands and their close relatives and is comparable to information directly obtained from clinic notes, particularly for breast and other cancers commonly associated with hereditary cancer syndromes.


Assuntos
Anamnese/normas , Mutação , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Idade de Início , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497750

RESUMO

Purpose: The relevance of inherited pathogenic mutations in cancer predisposition genes in pancreatic cancer is not well understood. We aimed to assess the characteristics of patients with pancreatic cancer referred for hereditary cancer genetic testing and to estimate the risk of pancreatic cancer associated with mutations in panel-based cancer predisposition genes in this high-risk population. Methods: Patients with pancreatic cancer (N = 1,652) were identified from a 140,000-patient cohort undergoing multigene panel testing of predisposition genes between March 2012 and June 2016. Gene-level mutation frequencies relative to Exome Aggregation Consortium and Genome Aggregation Database reference controls were assessed. Results: The frequency of germline cancer predisposition gene mutations among patients with pancreatic cancer was 20.73%. Mutations in ATM, BRCA2, CDKN2A, MSH2, MSH6, PALB2, and TP53 were associated with high pancreatic cancer risk (odds ratio, > 5), and mutations in BRCA1 were associated with moderate risk (odds ratio, > 2). In a logistic regression model adjusted for age at diagnosis and family history of cancer, ATM and BRCA2 mutations were associated with personal history of breast or pancreatic cancer, whereas PALB2 mutations were associated with family history of breast or pancreatic cancer. Conclusion: These findings provide insight into the spectrum of mutations expected in patients with pancreatic cancer referred for cancer predisposition testing. Mutations in eight genes confer high or moderate risk of pancreatic cancer and may prove useful for risk assessment for pancreatic and other cancers. Family and personal histories of breast cancer are strong predictors of germline mutations.

17.
Genet Med ; 20(8): 809-816, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29189820

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Blood/saliva DNA is thought to represent the germ line in genetic cancer-risk assessment. Cases with pathogenic TP53 variants detected by multigene panel testing are often discordant with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, raising concern about misinterpretation of acquired aberrant clonal expansions (ACEs) with TP53 variants as germ-line results. METHODS: Pathogenic TP53 variants with abnormal next-generation sequencing metrics (e.g., decreased ratio (<25%) of mutant to wild-type allele, more than two detected alleles) were selected from a CLIA laboratory testing cohort. Alternate tissues and/or close relatives were tested to distinguish between ACE and germ-line status. Clinical data and Li-Fraumeni syndrome testing criteria were examined. RESULTS: Among 114,630 multigene panel tests and 1,454 TP53 gene-specific analyses, abnormal next-generation sequencing metrics were observed in 20% of 353 TP53-positive results, and ACE was confirmed for 91% of cases with ancillary materials, most of these due to clonal hematopoiesis. Only four met Chompret criteria. Individuals with ACE were older (50 years vs. 33.7; P = 0.02) and were identified more frequently in multigene panel tests (66/285; 23.2%) than in TP53 gene-specific tests (6/68; 8.8%, P = 0.005). CONCLUSION: ACE confounds germ-line diagnosis, may portend hematologic malignancy, and may provoke unwarranted clinical interventions. Ancillary testing to confirm germ-line status should precede Li-Fraumeni syndrome management.


Assuntos
Genes p53/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Células Germinativas , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/diagnóstico , Mutação/genética , Linhagem , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
18.
Gynecol Oncol ; 147(2): 375-380, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28888541

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Given the lack of adequate screening modalities, knowledge of ovarian cancer risks for carriers of pathogenic alterations in predisposition genes is important for decisions about risk-reduction by salpingo-oophorectomy. We sought to determine which genes assayed on multi-gene panels are associated with ovarian cancer, the magnitude of the associations, and for which clinically meaningful associations could be ruled out. METHODS: 7768 adult ovarian cancer cases of European ancestry referred to a single clinical testing laboratory underwent multi-gene panel testing for detection of pathogenic alterations in known or suspected ovarian cancer susceptibility genes. A targeted capture approach was employed to assay each of 19 genes for the presence of pathogenic or likely pathogenic alterations. Mutation frequencies in ovarian cancer cases were compared to mutation frequencies in individuals from the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC). Analyses stratified by family and personal history of other cancers and age at diagnosis were also performed. RESULTS: Significant associations (p<0.001) were identified between alterations in 11 genes and ovarian cancer, with eight of these displaying ≥5-fold increased risk (BRCA1, BRCA2, BRIP1, MSH2, MSH6, RAD51C, RAD51D). Relative risks of ovarian cancer greater than two-fold were also observed for ATM, but could reliably be ruled out for RAD50 and CHEK2. CONCLUSIONS: These results will inform clinical management of women found to carry pathogenic alterations in genes tested on multi-gene panels. The knowledge that some genes are not associated with OC can reduce concerns of women found to carry pathogenic alterations in those genes.


Assuntos
Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Grupos de Complementação da Anemia de Fanconi , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , RNA Helicases/genética
19.
JAMA Oncol ; 3(9): 1190-1196, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28418444

RESUMO

Importance: Germline pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to an increased lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, the relevance of germline variants in other genes from multigene hereditary cancer testing panels is not well defined. Objective: To determine the risks of breast cancer associated with germline variants in cancer predisposition genes. Design, Setting, and Participants: A study population of 65 057 patients with breast cancer receiving germline genetic testing of cancer predisposition genes with hereditary cancer multigene panels. Associations between pathogenic variants in non-BRCA1 and non-BRCA2 predisposition genes and breast cancer risk were estimated in a case-control analysis of patients with breast cancer and Exome Aggregation Consortium reference controls. The women underwent testing between March 15, 2012, and June 30, 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures: Breast cancer risk conferred by pathogenic variants in non-BRCA1 and non-BRCA2 predisposition genes. Results: The mean (SD) age at diagnosis for the 65 057 women included in the analysis was 48.5 (11.1) years. The frequency of pathogenic variants in 21 panel genes identified in 41 611 consecutively tested white women with breast cancer was estimated at 10.2%. After exclusion of BRCA1, BRCA2, and syndromic breast cancer genes (CDH1, PTEN, and TP53), observed pathogenic variants in 5 of 16 genes were associated with high or moderately increased risks of breast cancer: ATM (OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 2.22-3.62), BARD1 (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.31-3.63), CHEK2 (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.31-1.67), PALB2 (OR, 7.46; 95% CI, 5.12-11.19), and RAD51D (OR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.21-7.88). Conversely, variants in the BRIP1 and RAD51C ovarian cancer risk genes; the MRE11A, RAD50, and NBN MRN complex genes; the MLH1 and PMS2 mismatch repair genes; and NF1 were not associated with increased risks of breast cancer. Conclusions and Relevance: This study establishes several panel genes as high- and moderate-risk breast cancer genes and provides estimates of breast cancer risk associated with pathogenic variants in these genes among individuals qualifying for clinical genetic testing.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Hidrolases Anidrido Ácido , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p18/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi , Proteínas de Grupos de Complementação da Anemia de Fanconi , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Proteína Homóloga a MRE11 , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Neurofibromina 1/genética , Fenótipo , RNA Helicases/genética , Fatores de Risco
20.
Genet Med ; 19(10): 1096-1104, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28301460

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Data sharing through ClinVar offers a unique opportunity to identify interpretation differences between laboratories. As part of a ClinGen initiative, four clinical laboratories (Ambry, GeneDx, Partners Healthcare Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, and University of Chicago Genetic Services Laboratory) collaborated to identify the basis of interpretation differences and to investigate if data sharing and reassessment resolve interpretation differences by analyzing a subset of variants. METHODS: ClinVar variants with submissions from at least two of the four participating laboratories were compared. For a subset of identified differences, laboratories documented the basis for discordance, shared internal data, independently reassessed with the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics-Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG-AMP) guidelines, and then compared interpretations. RESULTS: At least two of the participating laboratories interpreted 6,169 variants in ClinVar, of which 88.3% were initially concordant. Laboratories reassessed 242/724 initially discordant variants, of which 87.2% (211) were resolved by reassessment with current criteria and/or internal data sharing; 12.8% (31) of reassessed variants remained discordant owing to differences in the application of the ACMG-AMP guidelines. CONCLUSION: Participating laboratories increased their overall concordance from 88.3 to 91.7%, indicating that sharing variant interpretations in ClinVar-thereby allowing identification of differences and motivation to resolve those differences-is critical to moving toward more consistent variant interpretations.Genet Med advance online publication 09 March 2017.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação em Laboratório Clínico/normas , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Testes Genéticos/normas , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Laboratórios/normas , Software
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