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1.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 67(1): 36-42, ene. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-186145

RESUMO

Introduction: There is no agreement on the procedures to be used for diagnosis and treatment of gestational thyroid dysfunction. Controversy still exists on the normal range of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and use of gestational hypothyroidism (GH) screening. The aim of this study was to assess diagnosis and treatment of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy in a group of Spanish hospitals. Study design: This was a retrospective, multicenter study in pregnant females with GH attending Spanish healthcare centers from March 2013 to July 2014. Variables analyzed included diagnosis criteria for GH (availability of universal screening for gestational thyroid disorders and TSH reference values (RVs) by trimester of pregnancy): risk factors for GH, iodine intake from food or supplementation, gestational age (at diagnosis/treatment) and l-thyroxine treatment. Results: Fourteen centers participated in the study. Universal screening was performed in only half of the centers, and only 14% had their own TSH RVs. Overall, 257 pregnant women were enrolled, 53.7% with hypothyroidism (HT) diagnosed before pregnancy (pre-GH) and 46.3% with HT diagnosed during pregnancy (intra-GH). A comparison of intra-GH and pre-GH women showed that intra-GH women made their first visit later (59.7% vs. 75.4% respectively before week 12, p = 0.007) and had more frequently high TSH levels (>2.5 μIU/ml) during the first trimester (94.4% vs. 67.0% respectively, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Our results suggest that GH may be underdiagnosed or inadequately diagnosed in most healthcare centers. These findings suggest the need of improving the current practice in Spain


Introducción: Los procedimientos a seguir para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la disfunción tiroidea en la gestación no están del todo consensuados. Aún se discute el rango de normalidad de los valores de la hormona estimulante del tiroides (TSH) y el uso de screening para detectar hipotiroidismo gestacional (HG). El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar la forma de diagnóstico y tratamiento de la disfunción tiroidea durante la gestación en un grupo de hospitales de España. Diseño del estudio: Estudio retrospectivo, multicéntrico en mujeres embarazadas con HG atendidas en instituciones sanitarias españolas entre marzo de 2013 y julio de 2014. Las variables analizadas incluyeron criterios diagnósticos de HG (disponibilidad de screening universal para trastornos tiroideos gestacionales y valores de referencia de TSH según el trimestre gestacional); factores de riesgo de HG, ingesta de yodo mediante alimentos o suplementos, edad gestacional (al diagnóstico/tratamiento) y tratamiento con L-tiroxina. Resultados: Participaron un total de 14 centros. Únicamente la mitad de los centros empleaba el screening universal, y solo el 14% tenía valores de referencia de TSH propios. Se incluyeron un total de 257 embarazadas, 53,7% con diagnóstico de hipotiroidismo previo al embarazo (pre-HG) y 46,3% con hipotiroidismo diagnosticado durante el embarazo (intra-HG). Comparando los casos de pre-HG e intra-HG, las mujeres con intra-HG realizaban la primera visita más tarde (antes de la semana 12; 59,7% vs. 75,4% respectivamente, p = 0,007) y tenían más frecuentemente valores elevados de TSH (> 2,5 μUI/ml) durante el primer trimestre (94,4% vs. 67,0% respectivamente, p < 0,001). Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados sugieren que el HG puede estar infradiagnosticado o diagnosticado indebidamente en la mayoría de los centros sanitarios. Estos hallazgos sugieren la necesidad de mejorar la práctica actual en España


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Hipotireoidismo/diagnóstico , Hipotireoidismo/terapia , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Iodo/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Idade Gestacional , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico
2.
Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr ; 67(1): 36-42, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109823

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is no agreement on the procedures to be used for diagnosis and treatment of gestational thyroid dysfunction. Controversy still exists on the normal range of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and use of gestational hypothyroidism (GH) screening. The aim of this study was to assess diagnosis and treatment of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy in a group of Spanish hospitals. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective, multicenter study in pregnant females with GH attending Spanish healthcare centers from March 2013 to July 2014. Variables analyzed included diagnosis criteria for GH (availability of universal screening for gestational thyroid disorders and TSH reference values (RVs) by trimester of pregnancy): risk factors for GH, iodine intake from food or supplementation, gestational age (at diagnosis/treatment) and l-thyroxine treatment. RESULTS: Fourteen centers participated in the study. Universal screening was performed in only half of the centers, and only 14% had their own TSH RVs. Overall, 257 pregnant women were enrolled, 53.7% with hypothyroidism (HT) diagnosed before pregnancy (pre-GH) and 46.3% with HT diagnosed during pregnancy (intra-GH). A comparison of intra-GH and pre-GH women showed that intra-GH women made their first visit later (59.7% vs. 75.4% respectively before week 12, p=0.007) and had more frequently high TSH levels (>2.5µIU/ml) during the first trimester (94.4% vs. 67.0% respectively, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that GH may be underdiagnosed or inadequately diagnosed in most healthcare centers. These findings suggest the need of improving the current practice in Spain.

3.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(1): 167-172, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834759

RESUMO

Introduction: Introduction: eating disorders (ED) such as anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), as well as obesity (OB), are related to emotional and neuropsychological impairments on measures of cognitive flexibility, central coherence or decision making. However, little is known about the association among emotional regulation, neuropsychological variables and affect. Objectives: to analyze whether neuropsychological and affect variables can predict emotional regulation in ED and in OB. Methods: thirty females with restricting ED (restricting AN) were assessed, 18 with purging ED (purging AN and BN), 33 with OB and 39 healthy controls matched for intelligence. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) assessed cognitive flexibility, the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) assessed central coherence, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) assessed decision making, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule assessed positive (PANAS-PA) and negative (PANAS-NA) affect, and the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) assessed emotional regulation. Results: relative to the healthy control group, ED and OB groups performed worse on IGT (p = 0.002) and GEFT (p = 0.003), had lower scores on PANAS-PA (p = 0.001) and higher scores on DERS (p < 0.001). ED groups had higher scores on PANAS-NA tan both OB and healthy controls (p = 0.001). PANAS-PA, PANAS-NA and IGT accounted for 51.4% of the variance of the DERS (p < 0.001). Conclusions: our study shows a significant association between decision making, affect and emotional regulation in the continuum from AN to OB, and also highlights the importance of including programs focused on decision making and affect in cognitive interventions for ED and OB.


Assuntos
Emoções , Função Executiva , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto , Cognição , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(1): 167-172, ene.-feb. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183203

RESUMO

Introduction: eating disorders (ED) such as anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), as well as obesity (OB), are related to emotional and neuropsychological impairments on measures of cognitive flexibility, central coherence or decision making. However, little is known about the association among emotional regulation, neuropsychological variables and affect. Objectives: to analyze whether neuropsychological and affect variables can predict emotional regulation in ED and in OB. Methods: thirty females with restricting ED (restricting AN) were assessed, 18 with purging ED (purging AN and BN), 33 with OB and 39 healthy controls matched for intelligence. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) assessed cognitive flexibility, the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) assessed central coherence, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) assessed decision making, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule assessed positive (PANAS-PA) and negative (PANAS-NA) affect, and the Diffi culties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) assessed emotional regulation. Results: relative to the healthy control group, ED and OB groups performed worse on IGT (p = 0.002) and GEFT (p = 0.003), had lower scores on PANAS-PA (p = 0.001) and higher scores on DERS (p < 0.001). ED groups had higher scores on PANAS-NA tan both OB and healthy controls (p = 0.001). PANAS-PA, PANAS-NA and IGT accounted for 51.4% of the variance of the DERS (p < 0.001). Conclusions: our study shows a significant association between decision making, affect and emotional regulation in the continuum from AN to OB, and also highlights the importance of including programs focused on decision making and affect in cognitive interventions for ED and OB


Introducción: los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (TCA) como la anorexia nerviosa (AN) o la bulimia nerviosa (BN), así como la obesidad (OB), se relacionan con alteraciones neuropsicológicas en flexibilidad cognitiva, coherencia central, toma de decisiones y alteraciones emocionales. Sin embargo, se desconoce la asociación entre regulación emocional, variables neuropsicológicas y variables de afecto. Objetivos: analizar si variables neuropsicológicas y afectivas pueden predecir la regulación emocional en los TCA y en la OB. Métodos: se evaluó a 30 mujeres con TCA restrictivo (AN restrictiva), 18 con TCA purgativo (AN purgativa y BN), 33 OB y 39 controles sanas emparejadas por nivel intelectual. El Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) evaluó la flexibilidad cognitiva; el Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), la coherencia central; el Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), la toma de decisiones; el Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, el afecto positivo (PANAS-PA) y negativo (PANAS-NA); y la Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), la regulación emocional. Resultados: respecto al grupo control, los grupos TCA y OB rindieron peor en IGT (p = 0,002) y GEFT (p = 0,003) y presentaron menores puntuaciones en PANAS-PA (p = 0,001) y mayores en DERS (p < 0,001). Los grupos TCA puntuaron más alto en PANAS-NA que los grupos OB y control (p = 0,001). El 51,4% de la varianza del DERS fue explicado por PANAS-PA, PANAS-NA e IGT (p < 0,001). Conclusiones: nuestro estudio muestra una asociación entre toma de decisiones y afecto con regulación emocional en el continuo de AN a OB e indica la importancia de incluir programas de toma de decisiones y afecto en las intervenciones cognitivas para TCA y para OB


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Emoções , Função Executiva , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Cognição , Tomada de Decisões , Testes Neuropsicológicos
5.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 32(1): 26-31, 20170000. tab, fig
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-884616

RESUMO

Introducción. La apendicitis aguda es una de las causas más frecuentes de indicación quirúrgica urgente en pacientes con abdomen agudo. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional, analítico y retrospectivo de 294 apendicectomías practicadas en el Complejo Hospitalario Llerena-Zafra entre enero de 2012 y julio de 2014, comparando la apendicectomía laparoscópica y la abierta, y analizando posibles factores asociados a la morbilidad quirúrgica. Resultados. La apendicectomía laparoscópica se practicó en 179 (60,9 %) pacientes y, la abierta, en 115 (39,1 %). El tiempo quirúrgico fue mayor con la técnica laparoscópica que con la tradicional (53,56 ± 22,62 Vs. 41,87 ± 16,86 minutos) (p<0,001) y el drenaje se usó más en la primera (63,7 % Vs. 19,5 %) (p<0,001). La tasa de conversión fue de 1,1 %. Hubo más complicaciones quirúrgicas en el grupo de apendicectomía abierta (p=0,01), principalmente, infección del sitio quirúrgico (p<0,001) y abscesos intraabdominales (p=0,04). El 14,3 % de las apendicectomías fueron en blanco, más frecuentemente en las laparoscópicas (17,9 % Vs. 8,7 %) (p=0,02). La estancia hospitalaria media fue 3,36 ± 3,48 días, siendo menor en la apendicectomía laparoscópica (2,99 ± 2,40 Vs. 3,95 ± 4,65 días) (p=0,01). En el análisis multivariado, las variables independientes que alargaban la estancia hospitalaria fueron: insuficiencia renal crónica (p<0,001), intervención con técnica abierta (p=0,02), inicio de tolerancia a la vía oral después de las primeras 24 horas (p<0,001) y presencia de complicaciones quirúrgicas (p<0,001). Discusión. En esta serie, la apendicectomía laparoscópica fue un procedimiento seguro, con baja tasa de conversión, inferiores tasas de complicaciones y menor estancia hospitalaria, aunque conlleva mayor tiempo operatorio


Background: Acute appendicitis is one of the most frequent causes of emergency surgical intervention in patients with acute abdomen. Material and methods: Retrospective observational study of 294 appendectomies performed at the Llerena-Zafra Hospital Center, Badajoz, Spain, between January 2012 and July 2014, comparing laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) and open (OA) analyzing possible factors associated with surgical morbidity. LA was performed in 179 patients (60.9%) and OA in 115 (39.1%) Results: Surgical time was longer in LA 53.56 ± 22.62 versus 41.87 min ± 16.86 min in OA (p<0.001). There were also differences in the use of drainage, most used in LA (63.7% vs. 19.5%, p<0.001). The conversion rate was 1.1%. More surgical complications developed in the OA group (p=0.01), highlighting increased rate of surgical site infection (p<0.001) and intra-abdominal abscesses (p=0.04). We registered 14.3% blank appendectomies, more common in LA (17.9% vs.8.7%, p=0.02). The average hospital stay was 3.36 ± 3.48 days, being lower in LA (2.99 ± 2.40 days vs. 3.95 ± 4.65 days, p=0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that the independent variables lengthening hospital stay were chronic renal failure (p<0.001), surgical intervention as OA (p = 0.02), onset of oral feeding tolerance after the first 24 hours (p<0.001), and the development of surgical complication (p <0.001). Discussion: In our series, laparoscopic appendectomy is a safe procedure, with low conversion rate, lower complication rates and shorter hospital stay, but it does take longer operating time


Assuntos
Humanos , Apendicite , Abdome Agudo , Apendicectomia , Laparoscopia
7.
Bone ; 56(1): 73-6, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23707628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the introduction of automated calcium measurements with multichannel continuous-flow analyzers in the 1970s, primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT), the silent disease, began to be detected. Years later, with the first appearance of random access analyzers, laboratory tests were requested if the patient had clinical symptoms and pHPT was again overlooked. In this current scenario, serum calcium (s-Ca) is at risk of becoming a forgotten test. In consensus with endocrinologists and general practitioners (GPs), we implemented a strategy to detect asymptomatic pHPT patients. METHODS: During a 9 month period, the Laboratory Information System automatically added s-Ca to every sample of blood from primary care patients older than 45 years, without a s-Ca request in the previous three years. If hypercalcemia was detected (albumin-corrected s-Ca > 2.6 mmol/L), phosphate, 25-hydroxy vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were automatically processed in the same sample. We reviewed the medical record of every patient with hypercalcemia. RESULTS: S-Ca was automatically added to 14,461 samples, with 79 hypercalcemia results. 14 hypercalcemia results with PTH levels in the reference range were clinically justified by causes other than pHPT. Of the remaining 65 patients, 41 were referred for evaluation by endocrinology. 34 resulted in a diagnosis of pHPT and 7 are currently in study. 24 patients were not followed by GPs to find out the primary cause of hypercalcemia. After a phone call from the laboratory, they are also currently being studied for hypercalcemia. Each case represented a cost of 110.4 US dollars. CONCLUSION: Our proposed opportunistic screening to discover pHPT seems cost-effective.


Assuntos
Cálcio/sangue , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/sangue , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/diagnóstico , Demografia , Feminino , Clínicos Gerais , Humanos , Hipercalcemia/sangue , Hipercalcemia/diagnóstico , Hipercalcemia/etiologia , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 63(4): 473-477, abr. 2010. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-81105

RESUMO

El tratamiento quirúrgico de la coartación aórtica presenta una alta tasa de éxito; sin embargo, independientemente de la técnica utilizada, un porcentaje significativo de los pacientes desarrolla complicaciones tardías relacionadas con la pared aórtica. La reintervención quirúrgica para la reparación de estas complicaciones es un procedimiento complicado y se asocia a una mortalidad elevada. El abordaje endovascular se ha propuesto recientemente como una alternativa prometedora para el manejo de estos casos. Presentamos una serie compuesta por 4 pacientes, 3 con desarrollo de aneurismas aórticos y 1 paciente con recoartación, años después de ser sometidos a cirugía de coartación aórtica. Todos ellos fueron tratados por vía endovascular de forma satisfactoria y sin complicaciones. Describimos nuestra experiencia y discutimos diversos aspectos técnicos relacionados con estos complejos procedimientos: acceso vascular, oclusión de troncos supraaórticos y utilización de ecografía intravascular (AU)


Surgical treatment of aortic coarctation has a high success rate. However, irrespective of the surgical technique used, a significant percentage of patients develop late complications affecting the aortic wall. Reoperation to repair these complications is a complex procedure and is associated with high mortality. Recently an endovascular approach has been proposed as a promising alternative for managing these patients. Here we report a series of four patients, three of whom had an aortic aneurysm, while one had recoarctation several years after undergoing aortic coarctation surgery. All successfully underwent endovascular treatment, without complications. We describe our experience with this complex procedure and discuss a number of associated technical considerations, including vascular access, occlusion of the supraaortic arteries, and the use of intravascular ultrasound (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Coartação Aórtica/cirurgia , Angioplastia com Balão/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Aneurisma Aórtico/cirurgia
9.
Rev Esp Cardiol ; 63(4): 473-7, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20334813

RESUMO

Surgical treatment of aortic coarctation has a high success rate. However, irrespective of the surgical technique used, a significant percentage of patients develop late complications affecting the aortic wall. Reoperation to repair these complications is a complex procedure and is associated with high mortality. Recently an endovascular approach has been proposed as a promising alternative for managing these patients. Here we report a series of four patients, three of whom had an aortic aneurysm, while one had recoarctation several years after undergoing aortic coarctation surgery. All successfully underwent endovascular treatment, without complications. We describe our experience with this complex procedure and discuss a number of associated technical considerations, including vascular access, occlusion of the supraaortic arteries, and the use of intravascular ultrasound.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Coartação Aórtica/cirurgia , Prótese Vascular , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Stents , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 82(5): 481-92, 2008.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19039502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The possible emissions from a municipal urban solid waste treatment plant (MUSWTP) include heavy metals. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the levels of heavy metals in the blood and urine of the general population of Biscay. METHODS: The level of Pb was measured in 95 blood samples (BPb) and Cd, Cr and Hg in 93 urine samples (UCd, UCr, UHg) taken from adults in the general population of Biscay, Basque Country, in 2006. The samples were obtained in two areas with high traffic density in the metropolitan area of Bilbao close to an MUSWTP which had just commenced operation, a third area in downtown Bilbao with heavy traffic and at a distance from the area of influence of possible emissions from the MUSWTP, and a fourth area at a distance from the plant and with low traffic density. The objective was to select a minimum of 20 participants from each area, with an equal number of male and female subjects, and with half the subjects aged between 20 and 44 years and the other half between 45 and 69. A chi-squared test was used to study the association between categorical variables, Students t-test was used as a comparison of means test, and ANOVA was used for variables with two or more categories. A multiple linear regression model was used to adjust for confounding factors. RESULTS: The mean concentrations were: BPb: 2.68 microg/100ml; UCd: 0.54 microg/g creatinine; UCr: 0.51 microg/g creatinine; UHg: 0.65 microg/g creatinine. CONCLUSION: No significant differences were observed between the areas. The single-factor and multifactor analyses showed that the BPb levels increased with age and were associated with the consumption of local horticultural products and with employment in the metallurgy sector. The UCd levels also increased with age, and higher levels were observed in the upper social classes as well as in women and smokers. The UCr levels were higher in areas at a distance from the MUSWTP and in the upper classes, and UHg levels were higher in women than in men.


Assuntos
Cádmio/sangue , Cromo/sangue , Chumbo/sangue , Mercúrio/sangue , População Urbana , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
11.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 82(5): 481-492, sept.-oct. 2008. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-126646

RESUMO

Fundamento: Entre las posibles emisiones de una planta de valorización energética de residuos sólidos urbanos (PVERSU) se encuentran los metales pesados. el objetivo del estudio es conocer los niveles en sangre y orina de metales pesados en población general de Bizkaia. Métodos: En 2006 se midió la exposición a Pb en 95 muestras de sangre y Cd, Cr y Hg en 93 muestras de orina de adultos de la población general de Bizkaia, País Vasco, obtenidas de dos áreas con alta densidad de tráfico del área metropolitana de Bilbao en la cercanía de una PVERSU que iniciaba su actividad, una tercera correspondiente a una zona urbana de Bilbao con tráfico denso y alejada del área de influencia de las posibles emisiones de la PVERSU y la cuarta alejada de la planta y con baja densidad de tráfico. De cada área se estableció como objetivo elegir a un mínimo 20 participantes, la mitad de cada sexo y, a su vez, la mitad de 20 a 44 años y la mitad de 45 a 69. Se utilizó la prueba de la c2 para estudiar la asociación entre variables categóricas. Como prueba de comparación de medias se utilizó la t de Student y la ANOVA para variables con dos o más categorías, respectivamente. Para ajustar factores de confusión se utilizó un modelo de regresión lineal múltiple. Resultados: Las concentraciones medias fueron PbS: 2,68 µg/100ml, CdU 0,54 µg/g creatinina, CrU: 0,51 µg/g creatinina, y HgU: 0,65 µg/g creatinina. Conclusión: No se observaron diferencias entre las zonas. El análisis unifactorial y multifactorial mostró que los niveles de PbS se incrementaban con la edad y estaban asociados con el consumo de productos locales de huerta y con el trabajo en la metalurgia. La edad eleva los niveles de CdU y se observa en clases sociales altas niveles más elevados, así como en mujeres y en personas fumadoras. Los niveles de CrU eran más elevados en zonas alejadas a la PVERSU y en las clases altas. Los niveles de HgU fueron más elevados en mujeres que en hombres (AU)


Background: The possible emissions from a municipal urban solid waste treatment plant (MUSWTP) include heavy metals. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the levels of heavy metals in the blood and urine of the general population of Biscay. Methods: The level of Pb was measured in 95 blood samples (BPb) and Cd, Cr and Hg in 93 urine samples (UCd, UCr, UHg) taken from adults in the general population of Biscay, Basque Country, in 2006. The samples were obtained in two areas with high traffic density in the metropolitan area of Bilbao close to an MUSWTP which had just commenced operation, a third area in downtown Bilbao with heavy traffic and at a distance from the area of influence of possible emissions from the MUSWTP, and a fourth area at a distance from the plant and with low traffic density. The objective was to select a minimum of 20 participants from each area, with an equal number of male and female subjects, and with half the subjects aged between 20 and 44 years and the other half between 45 and 69. A chi-squared test was used to study the association between categorical variables, Student’s t-test was used as a comparison of means test, and ANOVA was used for variables with two or more categories. A multiple linear regression model was used to adjust for confounding factors. Results: The mean concentrations were: BPb: 2.68 µg/100ml; UCd: 0.54 µg/g creatinine; UCr: 0.51 µg/g creatinine; UHg: 0.65 µg/g creatinine. Conclusion: No significant differences were observed between the areas. The single-factor and multifactor analyses showed that the BPb levels increased with age and were associated with the consumption of local horticultural products and with employment in the metallurgy sector. The UCd levels also increased with age, and higher levels were observed in the upper social classes as well as in women and smokers. The UCr levels were higher in areas at a distance from the MUSWTP and in the upper classes, and UHg levels were higher in women than in men (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Chumbo/efeitos adversos , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Mercúrio/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/tendências , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Resíduos Sólidos/efeitos adversos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Espanha/epidemiologia
12.
Talanta ; 73(5): 962-4, 2007 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19073129

RESUMO

Hydrogen peroxide in basic media is proposed as a means for dissolving whole blood samples to be analyzed by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry, ET AAS. Approximately 2g of the whole blood sample were directly weighed in a 150mL volumetric flask; 3mL of a NaOH 0.2molL(-1) solution, two drops of 1-octanol, as an antifoaming agent, and 1mL of 30% volume hydrogen peroxide were added to the flask to promote oxidation. The solution was then manually shaken and after approximately three minutes of shaking, a clear solution, with no apparent suspended solids or greasy layers, was obtained. Distilled-deionized water was used to complete the volume. Ten muL of the resulting solution along with 10muL of a solution containing 5000mgL(-1) of NH(4)H(2)PO(4) and 300mgL(-1) of Mg(NO(3))(2) as a modifier, were injected into transversely heated graphite tubes for lead determination. Both aqueous standards and standard addition calibration curves produced results not significantly different at a 95% confidence limit level. Accuracy of the measurements was assessed by analysis of the IAEA A-13 (concentration of trace and minor elements in freeze dried animal blood) standard reference material containing 0.18mgL(-1) lead on a dry basis and by means of recovery tests. Analysis of the IAEA A-13 standard produced 0.17+/-0.02mgL(-1) lead on a dry basis; recovery tests afforded values from 95 to 105%. Ten consecutive measurements of a 5ppb lead solution gave a characteristic mass of 47.2pg and a (3S) detection limit of 1.77mugL(-1) Pb. Results obtained from analysis of whole blood samples of volunteer donors covered a lead concentration range between 8 and 21mugL(-1) with a mean value of 11.9+/-4.7mugL(-1).

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