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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624154

RESUMO

Despite advances in the theoretical and empirical literature, a better understanding of the etiological determinants of callous-unemotional (CU) traits is needed. In this study, we tested the hypotheses advanced by the Sensitivity to Threat and Affiliative Reward (STAR) model, a theoretical framework, which proposes that individual differences in two temperament dimensions, fearlessness and low affiliation, jointly contribute to the development of CU traits. Specifically, we examined the unique and interactive effects of fearlessness and low affiliation on CU traits, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally and within and across informants (teachers and parents) in a large community sample of Spanish preschoolers (N = 2467, 48.1% girls, M = 4.25 years; SD = 0.91). Both fearlessness and low affiliation were independently related to higher CU traits across models. Consistent with the purported relationships outlined in the STAR model, we also found that a significant interaction between fearlessness and low affiliation explained unique variance in CU traits. The results suggested that main and interactive effects were specific to CU traits and not to other related dimensions of psychopathic traits that are measurable in early childhood (i.e. grandiose-deceitfulness and impulse need of stimulation). Thus, we provide new empirical support to the hypotheses generated by the STAR model in relation to the development of CU traits. Fearlessness and low affiliation are potential targets of future child-focused interventions to prevent or treat the development of CU traits and childhood conduct problems.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987641

RESUMO

The present study aimed to examine the effects of the Spanish confinement derived from the COVID-19 crisis on children and their families, accounting for child's age. A range of child negative (e.g., conduct problems) and positive outcomes (e.g., routine maintenance) were examined, along with a set of parent-related variables, including resilience, perceived distress, emotional problems, parenting distress and specific parenting practices (e.g., structured or avoidant parenting), which were modeled through path analysis to better understand child adjustment. Data were collected in April 2020, with information for the present study provided by 940 (89.6%) mothers, 102 (9.7%) fathers and 7 (0.7%) different caregivers, who informed on 1049 Spanish children (50.4% girls) aged 3 to 12 years (Mage = 7.29; SD = 2.39). The results suggested that, according to parents' information, most children did not show important changes in behavior, although some increasing rates were observed for both negative and positive outcomes. Child adjustment was influenced by a chain of effects, derived from parents' perceived distress and emotional response to the COVID-19 crisis, via parenting distress and specific parenting practices. While parenting distress in particular triggered child negative outcomes, specific parenting practices were more closely related to child positive outcomes. These findings may help to better inform, for potential future outbreaks, effective guidelines and prevention programs aimed at promoting the child's well-being in the family.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Poder Familiar , Pais/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Angústia Psicológica , Espanha
3.
Rev. psicol. clín. niños adolesc ; 7(3): 81-87, sept. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-195043

RESUMO

Child emotion regulation (ER) skills and specific parenting practices during the COVID-19 pandemic are likely to influence children adjustment in these unprecedented times. On this assumption, we first aimed to examine the predictive value of ER skills in relation to diverse indicators of behavioral and socioemotional adjustment. Then, we tested whether some of these associations could be partially explained through the mediator role of the specific parenting practices displayed within the pandemic context. These hypotheses were tested considering the previous levels of child reactivity as a potential moderator of the examined relations. Using parent-reported data from a sample of 874 Galician children (49.6% girls) aged 5 to 9 (Mage = 7.09; SD= 1.04), multiple regression and mediation analyses were conducted. Robust associations between ER skills and diverse indicators of child adjusment were found. Moreover, it was found that specific parenting practices mediate the relation between child ER skills and specific behavioral outcomes (i.e., child routine maintenance). Thus, our findings highlight the importance of ER skills for child adjustment during the COVID-19 crisis, not only through direct, but also indirect effects, suggesting that the kind of parenting style that children receive during the pandemic conditions might be partially elicited by their individual characteristics


Las habilidades de regulación emocional (HRE) de los niños/as y las prácticas parentales específicas surgidas como consecuencia de los importantes cambios originados por la pandemia del COVID-19, podrían contribuir a su adaptación durante esta época sin precedentes. Bajo estas consideraciones, nos propusimos, en primer lugar, examinar el valor predictivo de las HRE en relación a diversos indicadores conductuales y socioemocionales de ajuste, para después estudiar si algunas de estas asociaciones podrían ser parcialmente explicadas a través del rol mediador de las prácticas parentales específicas desplegadas por los padres/madres en estas circunstancias. Contrastamos nuestras hipótesis considerando los niveles previos de reactividad del niño/a como moderadores de las relaciones analizadas. Usando los datos proporcionados por los padres/madres de 874 niños/as gallegos (49.6% niñas) de 5 a 9 años (Medad = 7.09; SD = 1.04), se llevaron a cabo múltiples análisis de regresión y mediación. Se encontraron asociaciones robustas entre las HRE y diversos indicadores de ajuste. Además, se encontró que prácticas parentales específicas median la relación entre las HRE y un tipo de consecuencias conductuales positivas (i.e., el mantenimiento de rutinas por parte de los niños/as). Nuestros resultados constatan, por tanto, la importancia de las HRE para la adaptación de los niños/as a las condiciones derivadas de la crisis, no solo por sus efectos directos, sino también por su influencia a través de efectos indirectos, que sugieren que el tipo de prácticas parentales que los niños/as reciben durante la pandemia, podría ser parcialmente elicitado por sus características personales


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Ajustamento Emocional/classificação , Transtornos de Adaptação/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Distância Social , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos
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