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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444620

RESUMO

Association between physical performance and movement quality remains ambiguous. However, both affect injury risk. Furthermore, existing research rarely regards women. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the impact of physical performance components on FMS scores and asymmetries among young women-University Physical Education Students. The study sample was 101 women, 21.72 ± 1.57 years, body mass index 21.52 ± 2.49 [kg/m2]. The FMS test was conducted to assess the movement patterns quality. Physical performance tests were done to evaluate strength, power, flexibility. Flexibility has the strongest correlation with FMS overall (r = 0.25, p = 0.0130) and single tasks scores. A higher level of flexibility and strength of abdominal muscles are associated with fewer asymmetries (r = -0.31, p = 0.0018; r = -0.27, p = 0.0057, respectively). However, the main findings determine that flexibility has the strongest and statistically significant impact on FMS overall (ß = 0.25, p = 0.0106) and asymmetries (ß = -0.30, p = 0.0014). Additionally, a significant effect of abdominal muscles strength on FMS asymmetries were observed (ß = -0.29, p = 0.0027). Flexibility and abdominal muscles strength have the most decisive impact on movement patterns quality. These results suggest possibilities for shaping FMS scores in young women.


Assuntos
Educação Física e Treinamento , Universidades , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Estudantes
2.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(14)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300716

RESUMO

In this work, selected properties of metallic and oxide thin films based on titanium and cobalt were described. Thin-film coatings were prepared using the magnetron sputtering method. The deposition was carried out from sintered targets with different Co-content (2 at.%, 12 at.% and 50 at.%). The relation between the Ti-Co target composition and the Co-content in the metallic and oxide films was examined. There was 15-20% more cobalt in the films than in the target. Moreover, the deposition rate under neutral conditions (in Ar plasma) was even 10-times higher compared to oxidizing Ar:O2 (70:30) plasma. A comprehensive analysis of the structural properties (performed with GIXRD and SEM) revealed the amorphous nature of (Ti,Co)Ox coatings, regardless of the cobalt content in the coating. The fine-grained, homogenous microstructure was observed, where cracks and voids were identified only for films with high Co-content. Optical studies have shown that these films were well transparent (60% ÷ 80%), and the amount of cobalt in the target from which they were sputtered had a significant impact on the decrease in the transparency level, the slight shift of the absorption edge position (from 279 nm to 289 nm) as well as the decrease in their optical band gap energy (from 3.13 eV to 1.71 eV). Electrical studies have shown that in (Ti,Co)Ox thin films, a unipolar memristive-like effect can be observed. The occurrence of such effects has not been reported so far in the case of TiO2 coatings with the addition of Co.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064201

RESUMO

Identifying the factors associated with the injuries is crucial to prevention, enabling apply effective methods to reduce injuries frequency. This is especially important for young athletes for whom an injury may impair development or prematurely end a sports career. Therefore, the objective of this study is to examine if the movement patterns quality and physical performance simultaneously affected injury occurrence in young athletes. The participants were 176 athletes aged 22.44 ± 1.64. The injury data were collected from the 12 months retrospective period. The functional movement screen test was conducted to assess the quality of movement patterns, and the physical performance tests were done for assessing strength, power, flexibility, and balance. Results showed relationships between movement patterns quality and flexibility with injuries. The receiver operating characteristic curve demonstrated growing injury frequency for 14 ≥ FMS and 21 cm ≥ Sit-and-reach test. Rank Transform ANOVA revealed a simultaneous effect of movement quality (F = 11.5361; p = 0.0008) and flexibility (F = 8.0514; p = 0.0050) on an injury. Post-hoc tests indicated that the group with low-quality movement patterns combined with a low level of flexibility is the most frequently injured (p < 0.05). It is recommended to include in training, routine exercises improving movement patterns and flexibility to prevent injuries.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Movimento , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 25: 193-198, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In combat sports, long-term training load can lead to sport-specific functional and body posture adaptations. The most often observed changes are in the shape of the anterior-posterior spinal curvatures. The abnormal inclination of the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spine may lead to an additional overload of the musculoskeletal system and spinal pain or decrease sports performance. Therefore it is crucial to prevent disadvantageous body posture features. AIM: The aim was to examine differences in vertebral column's sagittal curves parameters between kickboxing fighters, kickboxing fighters who also trained CrossFit and CrossFit athletes and evaluate these parameters' predictive ability to predict sport disciplines. Received results show if CrossFit training influences vertebral column curvatures in the sagittal plane among Kickboxers is an effective method in proper body posture shaping. METHODS: The study involved 45 men aged 25.2 years divided into three groups depending on the sport they practiced: group kickboxing (KB), kickboxing and CrossFit (KBCF), and CrossFit (CF). The body posture was observed using the photogrammetric method. The parameters of the sagittal plane were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the kickboxers, it was observed that the angle of the thoracolumbar region, the angle of inclination of the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral regions significantly increased compared to other groups of athletes (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Practicing kickboxing can be a factor in increasing the risk of postural defects. It was found that CrossFit training has a beneficial effect on the shape of physiological curvatures of the spine in combat sports athletes.


Assuntos
Curvaturas da Coluna Vertebral , Coluna Vertebral , Humanos , Região Lombossacral , Masculino , Fotogrametria , Postura
5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6675416, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681371

RESUMO

Background: The optimal body mass index (BMI) and fat mass index (FMI) values for a positive change or the lowest risk of no positive change after high-intensity interval training (HIIT) using the Tabata protocol remain unclear. This study is aimed at establishing these optimal BMI and FMI values for the lowest risk of failure of aerobic performance in adolescents. Methods: A 10-week HIIT programme was introduced into the physical education of 73 students. BMI was calculated using height and weight. Bioelectrical impedance analysis measured body fat, and the InBody apparatus generated the FMI. Based on BMI and FMI, the participants were divided into four groups. Pre- and post-HIIT intervention analyses were carried out using the Harvard step test, which was used to determine the physical efficiency index (PEI). Results: The Youden index confirmed that the risk of no positive effects in PEI was the lowest for the second BMI interval (19.01-22.00 kg/m2) and FMI Q 2-3 (7.96-8.91 kg/m2). The optimal BMI value for the lowest risk of no change in PEI was 20.60 kg/m2, and the optimal FMI value was 8.84 kg/m2. Conclusion: A comparison of the two indices shows that FMI had stronger effects on PEI than BMI. In addition, the model obtained for FMI had higher accuracy. Identifying at-risk individuals, those in need of improving health-related fitness (H-RF), and those with a low risk of poor H-RF allows for efficient planning of individual intervention services and training programmes.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722036

RESUMO

Reactive agility (RA) directly refers to athletes' visuomotor processing of the specific conditions for team sports. The aim of the study was to identify the factors among age, gender, sport discipline, time participation in a sports activity, reaction time, and visual field which could have an impact on visual-motor performance in RA tasks in young, competitive team sports players. The study included boys (n = 149) and girls (n = 157) aged 13-15 participating in basketball, volleyball and handball. Anthropometric measurements were carried out, and the Peripheral Perception (PP) test was used to evaluate the visual-motor performance under laboratory conditions. The Five-Time Shuttle Run to Gates test was used to determine the RA. A multiple regression analysis was performed to identify the relationships between the visual-motor performance in an RA task (dependent variable) and the remaining independent variables (continuous and categorical). The findings of the current study indicate that the main predictive factors of visual-motor performance in RA among young athletes are gender (ß = -0.46, p < 0.000) and age (ß = -0.30, p < 0.000). Moreover, peripheral perception positively affected the achievements in the RA task in boys (ß = -0.25, p = 0.020). The sport discipline does not differentiate the visual-motor performance in RA in team sports players in the puberty period.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Atletas , Esportes , Adolescente , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019253

RESUMO

Physical education classes often fail to include sufficient exercise intensity to induce changes in body tissue composition and physical fitness. Short-term high-intensity interval training protocols incorporated into physical education lessons are one possible solution to this problem. Existing studies have not examined how individuals differing in body mass index (e.g., normal-weight, underweight) respond to high-intensity interval training exercises. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of a Tabata protocol on body composition measurements, aerobic capacity, and motor performance in underweight and overweight adolescents (the experimental groups) vs normal-weight adolescents (here regarded as the control group). The sample included 58 adolescents (28 boys, mean age = 16.2 years; 30 girls, mean age = 16.2 years) who completed the high-intensity interval training and the following set of measurements pre- and post- intervention: height, weight, body fat percentage and waist-to-hip ratio, physical efficiency index (based on the Harvard Step Test), agility (in 4 × 10 shuttle run test), and lower-limb muscle power in vertical jump. The results showed that high-intensity interval training was effective in reducing body weight, waist-to-hip ratio, and body fat percentage only in overweight individuals. Improvement in aerobic capacity was found only in underweight and overweight boys. Further research should focus on the development of customized exercise protocols and their adaptation to girls and assess the sustainability of the changes induced.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Educação Física e Treinamento , Aptidão Física , Adolescente , Anaerobiose , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso , Magreza
8.
Coll Antropol ; 41(1): 81-7, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29139651

RESUMO

The constantly rising percentage of the elderly (60+), who are particularly at risk of the dangerous consequence of falls, results not only in the loss of independence in daily life, but also in a serious threat to health and life. Therefore, many authors emphasize the necessity of conducting prophylaxis and prevention among senior citizens. The most important aspect of fall prophylaxis is care about the optimum level of agility. Exercise should focus on increasing muscular strength, balance and dexterity. The aim of the present study is to determine the relationship between functional fitness and the risk for falls of older people in the light of maintaining physical independence. The research group consisted of 522 persons: 142 males and 380 females aged 60-84 years from Wroclaw (a city in the south-west of Poland). All subjects provided written consent, and were measured and tested in 2009 through 2015, excluding the winter months. Body height and weight were measured. Body mass index was calculated. The Senior Fitness Test was used to assess functional capacity and efficiency. The results of the Senior Fitness Test were used to estimate Maintaining Physical Independence in Older Adults. The differences in the means of the results of all the tests between the age and sex-specific groups were assessed by means of a two-way analysis of variance, where sex and age were factors and results of appropriate test dependent variables. Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk for fall, based on the incidence of fall in the last year, for each test comparing the individuals met referenced criteria to maintain functionally dependence and independent, controlled for age and BMI. The risk for falls was more than twice greater in the case of the studied females, whose muscular strength of the upper part of the body was lower. The females in whose cases no fewer than two tests failed to ascertain functional independence, had a greater risk for falls. In the case of the males, no statistically-significant connections between functional independence and the risk for falls was found.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Polônia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
9.
Clin Interv Aging ; 10: 781-92, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25960643

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To comparatively analyze the rate and magnitude of age-related changes between two groups of elderly women with different lifestyles living in Poland: women attending a University of the Third Age (active lifestyle) and less-active peers not involved in any seniors association. METHODS: The study was conducted in 2010-2012. The study design was approved by the Senate Ethics Committee for Scientific Research of the University School of Physical Education. In total, 417 women were recruited. Basic somatic characteristics, body composition, bone mineral density, physical fitness, respiratory function, postural stability, and body posture were measured. Regression analysis and Student's t-tests for independent samples were calculated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The best results among the tests assessing functional biological markers of health were found in the group of elderly women attending a University of the Third Age. The rate of change was larger in the group of seniors leading a less-active lifestyle, indicating the important role of a preventive gerontological approach and the participation of seniors in programs that accentuate the need for physical activity.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Nível de Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Composição Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Força da Mão , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aptidão Física , Polônia , Equilíbrio Postural , Testes de Função Respiratória , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Polim Med ; 43(3): 135-40, 2013.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24377178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biomaterials in the form of thin-film coatings as-deposited on different substrates are nowadays increasingly popular. In particular coatings based on a combination of biocompatible materials (eg. titanium) with metals of high biological activity (eg. copper) have a potentially wide range of applications as active films, intended for various types of medical devices. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to present a method for preparation and analysis of the properties of Cu-Ti thin films, in particular their biological activity in connection with the properties of the surface. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The films were prepared by magnetron sputtering method with the aid of an innovative four-target apparatus. During deposition process two metallic targets (copper and titanium) were sputtered under an argon atmosphere. Material composition of produced coatings was characterized by scanning electron microscope equipped with an adapter for energy dispersive spectroscopy. Moreover, the surface microstructure and roughness of coatings was characterized based on three-dimensional surface profiles, which were obtained with the aid of optical profilometer. The research was also carried out by investigations of surface wettability on the apparatus for measurements of contact angle. Characterization of Cu-Ti surface properties was also expanded by microbiological tests involving Staphylococcus aureus (PCM 2602) bacteria and investigations of cytotoxicity with L 929 (NCTC clone 929) cell line. RESULTS: Measurements have shown that the film was composed of 71% at. Cu and 29% at. Ti. The analysis of surface topography has shown that the surface of Cu-Ti thin film was very uniform with roughness in range of nanometers. It was found that as-deposited film is hydrophilic. Obtained results has shown that as-deposited film had a very good bactericidal properties and it was cytotoxic. This effect was associated with the migration of copper ions, which was the most intense at the edge of the sample. CONCLUSIONS: The results presented in this paper testify that manufactured Cu-Ti thin films may find practical application in the industry as a bioactive coating.


Assuntos
Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/química , Cobre/química , Teste de Materiais , Titânio/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Propriedades de Superfície , Molhabilidade
11.
Polim Med ; 43(3): 141-6, 2013.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24377179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Titanium dioxide is widely used as a bacteriostatic and non-toxic material. It is important, therefore, to modify its properties, for greater biological activity. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was comparison of the specific surface properties and the biological activity of TiO2 and TiO2 with niobium and copper additives--TiO2:(Nb,Cu) thin films. MATERIALS AND METHODS: TiO2 and TiO2:(Nb,Cu) thin films were prepared by high-energy magnetron sputtering of metallic Ti-Nb-Cu target in oxygen atmosphere. Films that have been deposited on glass substrates were investigated by transmission method and with the aid of optical profiler transparent. Besides, wettability measurements and antibacterial testes with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PCM2058) were performed. RESULTS: The light transmission characteristics have shown that the film with niobium and copper additives was less transparent than undoped titanium dioxide. Studies of surface geometric structure, performed with the aid of optical profilometer, have shown that coatings were uniform and the surface roughness had several nanometers. The roughness of TiO2:(Nb, Cu) was higher compared to the film of undoped TiO2. The wettability measurements have shown that (Nb, Cu) additives cause a significant reduction in the degree of surface wettability relative to TiO2 and the change of properties from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. The results of the microbiological tests have shown that the TiO2:(Nb, Cu) film had a very good antibacterial properties, while the undoped TiO2 did not exhibit such properties. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of all results of carried investigations has shown that manufactured TiO2:(Nb,Cu) thin films can be used as a transparent antibacterial coating.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cobre/química , Nióbio/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Titânio/química , Titânio/farmacologia , Cobre/farmacologia , Nióbio/farmacologia , Propriedades de Superfície , Molhabilidade
12.
Scanning ; 24(2): 65-9, 2002.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11998903

RESUMO

The backscattered electron signal (BSE) is widely used for investigation of specimen surfaces in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The development of multiple detector systems for BSE signal detection and the methods of digital processing of these signals have allowed for reconstruction of the third dimension on the basis of the two-dimensional (2-D) SEM image. A technique for simultaneous mapping of material composition (COMPO mode) and reconstruction of surface topography (TOPO mode) has also been proposed. This method is based on the measurements of BSE currents sensed by four semiconductor detectors versus the inclination angle of surface. To improve the separation of topographic and material contrasts in SEM, a correction of the TOPO and COMPO modes (resulting from a theoretical description of the system: electron beam, specimen, and detector) was applied. The proposed method can be used for a correct reconstruction of the surface image when the surface slope is <60 degrees. The measuring limit of the slope was closely connected with the detector setup. Next, the digital simulation of the colors was performed (after application of the method of linearization of BSE characteristic versus atomic number). This procedure to increase the SEM resolution for the BSE signal by use of digital image processing allows for a better distinction between the two elements with high atomic numbers.

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