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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2288: 145-162, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270010

RESUMO

Culture of isolated microspores is a widely used method to obtain haploid and doubled haploid plants for many crop species. This protocol describes the steps necessary to obtain a large number of microspore derived embryos for pakchoi (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis) and zicaitai (Brassica rapa L. ssp. сhinensis Hanelt var. purpuraria Kitam).


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Brassica rapa/ultraestrutura , Cloroplastos/ultraestrutura , Cromossomos de Plantas/ultraestrutura , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meios de Cultura/química , Diploide , Germinação/genética , Haploidia , Homozigoto , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Ploidias , Pólen/genética , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2288: 217-232, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270014

RESUMO

Here, we describe the first protocol of European radish (Raphanus sativus L. subsp. sativus convar. radicula) for obtaining doubled haploid plants through in vitro microspore culture, in which the full cycle of doubled haploid formation was successfully achieved. Using this protocol, a yield of up to eight embryoids per Petri dish can be obtained. Effectiveness of this protocol was confirmed for several genotypes of European radish.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Raphanus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raphanus/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia , Meios de Cultura/química , Diploide , Corantes Fluorescentes , Genótipo , Haploidia , Homozigoto , Indóis , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Ploidias , Pólen/genética , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raphanus/fisiologia , Regeneração/genética , Coloração e Rotulagem , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
3.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(4)2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290301

RESUMO

Antibiotics are widely applied for plant cultivation in vitro to eliminate bacterial contamination. However, they can have both positive and negative effects on the cells of cultivated plants, and these effects largely depend on the type antibiotic used and its concentration. The objective of the present study was to estimate the effect of ß-lactam antibiotics ampicillin (Amp) and cefotaxime (Cef) on microspore embryogenesis induction in vitro in the Brassica species. The performed experiments confirmed cefotaxime inhibits microspores in B. napus and B. oleracea, even in concentrations as low as 50 mg/L. The highest embryo yield was obtained for B. napus in the NLN-13 medium with added ampicillin in concentrations of 50-100 mg/L as an antimicrobial agent. This embryo yield was significantly higher than that obtained in a medium without supplemented antibiotics and two times higher than in the medium with added cefotaxime. Analogous results were obtained for B. oleracea and B. rapa.

4.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(2)2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098097

RESUMO

Turnip is a biennial crop and, consequently, the creation of pure lines for breeding is a time-consuming process. The production of pure turnip lines using doubled haploids produced in isolated microspore culture has not been sufficiently developed. The aim of the present work was to determine some key factors inducing embryogenesis in the isolated microspore culture of turnip, as well as investigating the manners of embryo development. It was shown that the acidity of the medium is an important factor in embryo production; different optimal pH levels ranging from 6.2 to 6.6 corresponded to individual genotypes. Such factors as the cold treatment of buds and the addition of activated charcoal to the nutrient medium increased the responsiveness of all genotypes studied. The turnip variety 'Ronde witte roodkop herfst' demonstrated a genetic disorder in the development of microspores; namely, non-separation of some microspores from tetrads. In the in vitro culture, each of the daughter microspores developed on its own. This indicates the dependence of the possibility of embryogenesis in the turnip microspore culture on the genotype. Results suggest that the initiation of secondary embryogenesis in primary embryos leads to an increase in the proportion of doubled haploid plants.

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