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1.
Eur J Cancer ; 120: 20-30, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The phase III OlympiAD study (NCT02000622) showed a statistically significant progression-free survival benefit with olaparib versus chemotherapy treatment of physician's choice (TPC) in patients with a germline BRCA mutation and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer. From this study, we report the effect of olaparib on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). METHODS: Patients were randomised 2:1 to olaparib monotherapy (300 mg twice daily) or single-agent TPC. The primary HRQoL end-point was mean change from baseline in the two-item global health status/QoL score determined from patient-completed European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30-item module (EORTC QLQ-C30) questionnaires and assessed using a mixed model for repeated measures. Symptoms and functioning domains, best overall response and time to deterioration of QoL were also evaluated. RESULTS: Overall questionnaire compliance rates were 93.2% for olaparib and 76.3% for TPC. Between-treatment global health status/QoL comparison showed a significant improvement in the olaparib arm versus the TPC arm, with mean change of 3.9 (standard deviation 1.2) versus -3.6 (2.2), a difference of 7.5 points (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.48, 12.44; P = 0.0035). A higher proportion of patients in the olaparib arm showed a best overall response of 'improvement' in global health status/QoL (33.7% vs 13.4%). Median time to global health status/QoL deterioration was not reached in olaparib patients and was 15.3 months for TPC patients (hazard ratio: 0.44 [95% CI: 0.25, 0.77]; P = 0.004). For EORTC QLQ-C30 symptoms and functioning subscales, only nausea/vomiting symptom score was worse in the olaparib arm than in the TPC arm (across all visits compared with baseline). CONCLUSION: HRQoL was consistently improved for patients treated with olaparib, compared with chemotherapy TPC.

2.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(9): e898, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While there is increasing interest in sharing genetic research results with participants, how best to communicate the risks, benefits and limitations of research results remains unclear. METHODS: Participants who received genetic research results answered open and closed-ended questions about their experiences receiving results and interest in and advantages and disadvantages of a web-based alternative to genetic counseling. RESULTS: 107 BRCA1/2 negative women with a personal or family history of breast cancer consented to receive genetic research results and 82% completed survey items about their experience. Most participants reported there was nothing they disliked (74%) or would change (85%) about their predisclosure or disclosure session (78% and 89%). They most frequently reported liking the genetic counselor and learning new information. Only 24% and 26% would not be willing to complete predisclosure counseling or disclosure of results by a web-based alternative, respectively. The most frequently reported advantages included convenience and reduced time. Disadvantages included not being able to ask questions, the risk of misunderstanding and the impersonal nature of the encounter. CONCLUSION: Most participants receiving genetic research results report high satisfaction with telephone genetic counseling, but some may be willing to consider self-directed web alternatives for both predisclosure genetic education and return of results.

3.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1900363, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403865
4.
Br J Cancer ; 121(2): 180-192, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Height and body mass index (BMI) are associated with higher ovarian cancer risk in the general population, but whether such associations exist among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is unknown. METHODS: We applied a Mendelian randomisation approach to examine height/BMI with ovarian cancer risk using the Consortium of Investigators for the Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) data set, comprising 14,676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, with 2923 ovarian cancer cases. We created a height genetic score (height-GS) using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score (BMI-GS) using 93 BMI-associated variants. Associations were assessed using weighted Cox models. RESULTS: Observed height was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.07 per 10-cm increase in height, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.23). Height-GS showed similar results (HR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.85-1.23). Higher BMI was significantly associated with increased risk in premenopausal women with HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06-1.48) and HR = 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33) per 5-kg/m2 increase in observed and genetically determined BMI, respectively. No association was found for postmenopausal women. Interaction between menopausal status and BMI was significant (Pinteraction < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our observation of a positive association between BMI and ovarian cancer risk in premenopausal BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is consistent with findings in the general population.

6.
Cancer ; 125(16): 2762-2771, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer therapies are associated with a risk of cardiac dysfunction, most commonly defined by changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Recently, the authors identified 3 classes of LVEF change after exposure to anthracyclines and/or trastuzumab using latent class growth modeling. The objective of the current study was to characterize the clinical, biochemical, and functional profiles associated with LVEF trajectory class membership. METHODS: Transthoracic echocardiography and biomarker assessments were performed and questionnaires were administered at standardized intervals in a longitudinal cohort of 314 patients with breast cancer who were treated with anthracyclines and/or trastuzumab. Univariable and multivariable multinomial regression analyses evaluated associations between baseline variables and LVEF trajectory class membership. Generalized estimating equations were used to define mean changes in cardiovascular measures over time within each class. RESULTS: Among the 3 distinct subgroups of LVEF changes identified (stable [class 1]; modest, persistent decline [class 2]; and significant early decline followed by partial recovery [class 3]), higher baseline LVEF, radiotherapy, and sequential therapy with anthracyclines and/or trastuzumab were associated with class 2 or 3 membership. Sustained abnormalities in longitudinal strain and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were observed in patients in class 2, as were heart failure symptoms. Similar abnormalities were observed in patients in class 3, but there was a trend toward recovery, particularly for longitudinal strain. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with modest, persistent LVEF declines experienced sustained abnormalities in imaging and biochemical markers of cardiac function and heart failure symptoms. Further investigation is needed to characterize the long-term risk of heart failure, particularly in those with modest LVEF declines.

7.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112363

RESUMO

BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) pathogenic sequence variants (PSVs) confer elevated risks of multiple cancers. However, most BRCA1/2 PSVs reports focus on European ancestry individuals. Knowledge of the PSV distribution in African descent individuals is poorly understood. We undertook a systematic review of the published literature and publicly available databases reporting BRCA1/2 PSVs also accessed the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) database to identify African or African descent individuals. Using these data, we inferred which of the BRCA PSVs were likely to be of African continental origin. Of the 43,817 BRCA1/2 PSV carriers in the CIMBA database, 469 (1%) were of African descent. Additional African descent individuals were identified in public databases (n = 291) and the literature (n = 601). We identified 164 unique BRCA1 and 173 unique BRCA2 PSVs in individuals of African ancestry. Of these, 83 BRCA1 and 91 BRCA2 PSVs are of likely or possible African origin. We observed numerous differences in the distribution of PSV type and function in African origin versus non-African origin PSVs. Research in populations of African ancestry with BRCA1/2 PSVs is needed to provide the information needed for clinical management and decision-making in African descent individuals worldwide.

8.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(14): 4363-4374, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914433

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Breast cancers with BRCA1/2 alterations have a relatively high mutational load, suggesting that immune checkpoint blockade may be a potential treatment option. However, the degree of immune cell infiltration varies widely, and molecular features contributing to this variability remain unknown. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We hypothesized that genomic signatures might predict immunogenicity in BRCA1/2 breast cancers. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) genomic data, we compared breast cancers with (89) and without (770) either germline or somatic BRCA1/2 alterations. We also studied 35 breast cancers with germline BRCA1/2 mutations from Penn using WES and IHC. RESULTS: We found that homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) scores were negatively associated with expression-based immune indices [cytolytic index (P = 0.04), immune ESTIMATE (P = 0.002), type II IFN signaling (P = 0.002)] despite being associated with a higher mutational/neoantigen burden, in BRCA1/2 mutant breast cancers. Further, absence of allele-specific loss of heterozygosity (LOH negative; P = 0.01) or subclonality (P = 0.003) of germline and somatic BRCA1/2 mutations, respectively, predicted for heightened cytolytic activity. Gene set analysis found that multiple innate and adaptive immune pathways that converge on NF-κB may contribute to this heightened immunogenicity. IHC of Penn breast cancers demonstrated increased CD45+ (P = 0.039) and CD8+ infiltrates (P = 0.037) and increased PDL1 expression (P = 0.012) in HRD-low or LOH-negative cancers. Triple-negative cancers with low HRD had far greater CD8+ T cells (P = 0.0011) and Perforin 1 expression (P = 0.014) compared with hormone receptor-positive HRD-high cancers. CONCLUSIONS: HRD scores and hormone receptor subtype are predictive of immunogenicity in BRCA1/2 breast cancers and may inform the design of optimal immune therapeutic strategies.

11.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(7): 2072-2079, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635336

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The CDK 4/6 inhibitor palbociclib rapidly and reversibly inhibits the cell cycle. The goal of this study was to exploit the cell cycle through intermittent, alternating dosing with palbociclib/paclitaxel to enhance efficacy. We determined the combination dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) in patients with Rb protein-expressing, advanced breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This open-label, phase I trial (NCT01320592) enrolled patients to sequential cohorts of palbociclib orally dosed intermittently between days 1 and 19 of a 28-day cycle alternating with weekly paclitaxel. Dose escalation proceeded in a standard 3 + 3 design. Ten additional patients received the combination at the recommended phase II dose (RP2D). Those who reached response plateau ≥6 cycles could continue on palbociclib alone on a 3 week on/1 week off schedule at one dose level above their combination dose. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients enrolled. Although there was only 1 DLT (grade 3 alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase at 125 mg), neutropenia (NTP) requiring dose modification in cycle 1 (C1) resulted in an RP2D of 75 mg palbociclib/80 mg/m2 paclitaxel. During C1, the most common adverse event was NTP, occurring in 15 patients (55.6%); grade 1 or 2 nausea and peripheral neuropathy were also observed in 8 patients each (29.6%). The clinical benefit rate was 55% at the RP2D; benefit was observed across all receptor subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: Alternating sequential palbociclib/paclitaxel in patients with Rb+ advanced breast cancer is feasible and safe, without evidence of additive toxicity. This represents a new application for CDK 4/6 inhibitors in Rb+ breast cancer regardless of subtype; efficacy trials are warranted.

13.
PLoS Genet ; 14(12): e1007752, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586411

RESUMO

The BRCA Challenge is a long-term data-sharing project initiated within the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH) to aggregate BRCA1 and BRCA2 data to support highly collaborative research activities. Its goal is to generate an informed and current understanding of the impact of genetic variation on cancer risk across the iconic cancer predisposition genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Initially, reported variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 available from public databases were integrated into a single, newly created site, www.brcaexchange.org. The purpose of the BRCA Exchange is to provide the community with a reliable and easily accessible record of variants interpreted for a high-penetrance phenotype. More than 20,000 variants have been aggregated, three times the number found in the next-largest public database at the project's outset, of which approximately 7,250 have expert classifications. The data set is based on shared information from existing clinical databases-Breast Cancer Information Core (BIC), ClinVar, and the Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)-as well as population databases, all linked to a single point of access. The BRCA Challenge has brought together the existing international Evidence-based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles (ENIGMA) consortium expert panel, along with expert clinicians, diagnosticians, researchers, and database providers, all with a common goal of advancing our understanding of BRCA1 and BRCA2 variation. Ongoing work includes direct contact with national centers with access to BRCA1 and BRCA2 diagnostic data to encourage data sharing, development of methods suitable for extraction of genetic variation at the level of individual laboratory reports, and engagement with participant communities to enable a more comprehensive understanding of the clinical significance of genetic variation in BRCA1 and BRCA2.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Variação Genética , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas/ética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação/ética , Disseminação de Informação/legislação & jurisprudência , Masculino , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Penetrância , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
14.
Clin Genet ; 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30417332

RESUMO

Telephone disclosure of cancer genetic test results is noninferior to in-person disclosure. However, how patients who prefer in-person communication of results differ from those who agree to telephone disclosure is unclear but important when considering delivery models for genetic medicine. Patients undergoing cancer genetic testing were recruited to a multicenter, randomized, noninferiority trial (NCT01736345) comparing telephone to in-person disclosure of genetic test results. We evaluated preferences for in-person disclosure, factors associated with this preference and outcomes compared to those who agreed to randomization. Among 1178 enrolled patients, 208 (18%) declined randomization, largely given a preference for in-person disclosure. These patients were more likely to be older (P = 0.007) and to have had multigene panel testing (P < 0.001). General anxiety (P = 0.007), state anxiety (P = 0.008), depression (P = 0.011), cancer-specific distress (P = 0.021) and uncertainty (P = 0.03) were higher after pretest counseling. After disclosure of results, they also had higher general anxiety (P = 0.003), depression (P = 0.002) and cancer-specific distress (P = 0.043). While telephone disclosure is a reasonable alternative to in-person disclosure in most patients, some patients have a strong preference for in-person communication. Patient age, distress and complexity of testing are important factors to consider and requests for in-person disclosure should be honored when possible.

15.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2018 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312457

RESUMO

Background: BRCA1/2 mutations confer high lifetime risk of breast cancer, although other factors may modify this risk. Whether height or body mass index (BMI) modifies breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers remains unclear. Methods: We used Mendelian randomization approaches to evaluate the association of height and BMI on breast cancer risk, using data from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 with 14 676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, including 11 451 cases of breast cancer. We created a height genetic score using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score using 93 BMI-associated variants. We examined both observed and genetically determined height and BMI with breast cancer risk using weighted Cox models. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Observed height was positively associated with breast cancer risk (HR = 1.09 per 10 cm increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0 to 1.17; P = 1.17). Height genetic score was positively associated with breast cancer, although this was not statistically significant (per 10 cm increase in genetically predicted height, HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.93 to 1.17; P = .47). Observed BMI was inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase, HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.90 to 0.98; P = .007). BMI genetic score was also inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase in genetically predicted BMI, HR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.76 to 0.98; P = .02). BMI was primarily associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Conclusion: Height is associated with overall breast cancer and BMI is associated with premenopausal breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Incorporating height and BMI, particularly genetic score, into risk assessment may improve cancer management.

16.
J Adolesc Health ; 2018 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30301677

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare health behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, fruit and vegetable intake, and exercise frequency) and breast self-exam (BSE) between girls with breast cancer family history (BCFH+) and without (BCFH-) and assess associates of behaviors across all girls. METHODS: A total of 208 BCFH+ girls (11-19years old), with first- or second-degree relatives with breast cancer or a mother with a BRCA1/2 mutation, and 112 BCFH- peers reported their health behaviors, beliefs, and psychosocial function. RESULTS: Despite higher BCFH+ girls' greater perceived breast cancer risk, there were no differences between BCFH+ and BCFH- girls on diet, exercise, alcohol initiation, or BSE. BCFH+ girls were slightly more likely to report trying cigarettes (11% vs. 5%, p = .04). In multivariable models with all girls, categorical associations with behaviors included the following: developmental and demographic factors with smoking, alcohol, diet, and exercise; family breast cancer history and experience with smoking, alcohol, and diet; psychosocial factors with smoking; girls perceptions of cancer controllability and mother support for health behaviors with alcohol, diet, exercise, and BSE; and mother behaviors with diet. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent girls from BCFH+ families reported similar health behaviors to BCFH- peers, signaling that they are not translating their higher perceived risk into cancer controlbehaviors. Both uncontrollable (i.e., breast cancer experiences) and modifiable factors relate to health behaviors and warrant further investigation. Results indicate that interventions with teens and parents that target modifiable variables such as controllability perceptions, maternal modeling, and communication may relate to better health behaviors and reduced future breast cancer risk.

17.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2018786558, 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30240327

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This multicenter phase II trial evaluated lurbinectedin (PM01183), a selective inhibitor of active transcription of protein-coding genes, in patients with metastatic breast cancer. A unicenter translational substudy assessed potential mechanisms of lurbinectedin resistance. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two arms were evaluated according to germline BRCA1/2 status: BRCA1/2 mutated (arm A; n = 54) and unselected ( BRCA1/2 wild-type or unknown status; arm B; n = 35). Lurbinectedin starting dose was a 7-mg flat dose and later, 3.5 mg/m2 in arm A. The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR) per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). The translational substudy of resistance mechanisms included exome sequencing (n = 13) and in vivo experiments with patient-derived xenografts (n = 11) from BRCA1/2-mutated tumors. RESULTS: ORR was 41% (95% CI, 28% to 55%) in arm A and 9% (95% CI, 2% to 24%) in arm B. In arm A, median progression-free survival was 4.6 months (95% CI, 3.0 to 6.0 months), and median overall survival was 20.0 months (95% CI, 11.8 to 26.6 months). Patients with BRCA2 mutations showed an ORR of 61%, median progression-free survival of 5.9 months, and median overall survival of 26.6 months. The safety profile improved with lurbinectedin dose adjustment to body surface area. The most common nonhematologic adverse events seen at 3.5 mg/m2 were nausea (74%; grade 3, 5%) and fatigue (74%; grade 3, 21%). Neutropenia was the most common severe hematologic adverse event (grade 3, 47%; grade 4, 10%). Exome sequencing showed mutations in genes related to the nucleotide excision repair pathway in four of seven tumors at primary or acquired resistance and in one patient with short-term stable disease. In vivo, sensitivity to cisplatin and lurbinectedin was evidenced in lurbinectedin-resistant (one of two) and cisplatin-resistant (two of three) patient-derived xenografts. CONCLUSION: Lurbinectedin showed noteworthy activity in patients with BRCA1/2 mutations. Response and survival was notable in those with BRCA2 mutations. Additional clinical development in this subset of patients with metastatic breast cancer is warranted.

19.
Cancer Res ; 78(18): 5419-5430, 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054336

RESUMO

Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified approximately 35 loci associated with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. The majority of GWAS-identified disease susceptibility variants are located in noncoding regions, and causal genes underlying these associations remain largely unknown. Here, we performed a transcriptome-wide association study to search for novel genetic loci and plausible causal genes at known GWAS loci. We used RNA sequencing data (68 normal ovarian tissue samples from 68 individuals and 6,124 cross-tissue samples from 369 individuals) and high-density genotyping data from European descendants of the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx V6) project to build ovarian and cross-tissue models of genetically regulated expression using elastic net methods. We evaluated 17,121 genes for their cis-predicted gene expression in relation to EOC risk using summary statistics data from GWAS of 97,898 women, including 29,396 EOC cases. With a Bonferroni-corrected significance level of P < 2.2 × 10-6, we identified 35 genes, including FZD4 at 11q14.2 (Z = 5.08, P = 3.83 × 10-7, the cross-tissue model; 1 Mb away from any GWAS-identified EOC risk variant), a potential novel locus for EOC risk. All other 34 significantly associated genes were located within 1 Mb of known GWAS-identified loci, including 23 genes at 6 loci not previously linked to EOC risk. Upon conditioning on nearby known EOC GWAS-identified variants, the associations for 31 genes disappeared and three genes remained (P < 1.47 × 10-3). These data identify one novel locus (FZD4) and 34 genes at 13 known EOC risk loci associated with EOC risk, providing new insights into EOC carcinogenesis.Significance: Transcriptomic analysis of a large cohort confirms earlier GWAS loci and reveals FZD4 as a novel locus associated with EOC risk. Cancer Res; 78(18); 5419-30. ©2018 AACR.

20.
JCO Precis Oncol ; 20182018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30051098

RESUMO

Purpose: Pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Approximately 9% of pancreatic cancers harbor a germline or somatic BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutation. Because poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors have significant activity in BRCA1/2-mutant ovarian and breast cancers, RUCAPANC investigated the efficacy and safety of rucaparib in BRCA1/2-mutant pancreatic cancer. Patients and Methods: RUCAPANC enrolled patients with measurable locally advanced/metastatic pancreatic cancer who had received one to two prior chemotherapy regimens. Patients received oral rucaparib (600 mg twice daily) until disease progression. The primary end point was objective response rate. Results: Nineteen patients were enrolled. Sixteen of 19 BRCA1/2 mutations were germ-line; three were somatic. Patients had received a median of two prior chemotherapy regimens. Four patients achieved a response; two partial responses and one complete response (CR) were confirmed (objective response rate, 15.8%; 3 of 19), with an additional CR unconfirmed. The disease control rate (CR, partial response, or stable disease for ≥ 12 weeks) was 31.6% (6 of 19) in all patients and 44.4% (4 of 9) in those who had received one prior chemotherapy regimen. As prespecified in the protocol, enrollment was stopped because of an insufficient response rate among the first 15 patients. Treatment-emergent adverse events included nausea (63.2%) and anemia (47.4%). Grade ≥ 3 adverse events included anemia (31.6%), fatigue (15.8%), and ascites (15.8%). Secondary resistance mutations were detected in circulating free tumor DNA in two patients with a germline BRCA2 mutation. These mutations are predicted to lead to the reversion of a somatic-not germline-mutation. Conclusion: Rucaparib provided clinical benefit to patients with advanced pancreatic cancer and a BRCA1/2 mutation, and demonstrated an acceptable safety profile. Additional trials of rucaparib in this population are warranted.

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