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1.
Gynecol Oncol ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583580

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (RRBSO) substantially reduces ovarian cancer risk in women with pathogenic gene variants and is generally recommended by age 34-45 years. Natural menopause is a vulnerable period for mood disturbance, but the risk of depression and anxiety in the first 12 months after RRBSO and potential modifying effect of hormone therapy are uncertain. METHODS: Prospective controlled observational study of 95 premenopausal women planning RRBSO and a Comparison group of 99 premenopausal women who retained their ovaries,- 95% of whom were at population level risk of ovarian cancer. Clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured using standardised instruments at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. Chi-square tests and adjusted logistic regression models compared differences between groups. RESULTS: Baseline symptoms and previous depression or anxiety did not differ between groups. At 3 months after RRBSO clinically significant depressive symptoms were doubled (14.5% vs 27.1%, p = 0.010), which persisted at 12 months. Depressive symptoms were stable in comparisons. At 3 months after RRBSO, clinically significant anxiety symptoms almost trebled (6.1% vs 17.7%, p = 0.014) before plateauing at 6 months and returning to baseline at 12 months. Compared to comparisons, RRBSO participants were at 3.0-fold increased risk of chronic depressive symptoms (Wald 95% CI 1.27-7.26), 2.3-fold increased risk of incident depression (95% Wald CI 1.08-5.13) and 2.0-fold increase of incident anxiety (Wald 95% CI 0.78-5.00). Depression and anxiety were slightly more common in Hormone Therapy users after RRBSO vs non-users. CONCLUSIONS: RRBSO leads to a rapid increase in clinically significant depressive and anxiety symptoms despite Hormone Therapy use.

2.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 19(1): 77-102, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406487

RESUMO

The NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast, Ovarian, and Pancreatic focus primarily on assessment of pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants associated with increased risk of breast, ovarian, and pancreatic cancer and recommended approaches to genetic testing/counseling and management strategies in individuals with these pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants. This manuscript focuses on cancer risk and risk management for BRCA-related breast/ovarian cancer syndrome and Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Carriers of a BRCA1/2 pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant have an excessive risk for both breast and ovarian cancer that warrants consideration of more intensive screening and preventive strategies. There is also evidence that risks of prostate cancer and pancreatic cancer are elevated in these carriers. Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a highly penetrant cancer syndrome associated with a high lifetime risk for cancer, including soft tissue sarcomas, osteosarcomas, premenopausal breast cancer, colon cancer, gastric cancer, adrenocortical carcinoma, and brain tumors.

4.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2002151, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119476

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Olaparib, a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor (PARPi), is approved for the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in germline (g)BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Olaparib Expanded, an investigator-initiated, phase II study, assessed olaparib response in patients with MBC with somatic (s)BRCA1/2 mutations or g/s mutations in homologous recombination (HR)-related genes other than BRCA1/2. METHODS: Eligible patients had MBC with measurable disease and germline mutations in non-BRCA1/2 HR-related genes (cohort 1) or somatic mutations in these genes or BRCA1/2 (cohort 2). Prior PARPi, platinum-refractory disease, or progression on more than two chemotherapy regimens (metastatic setting) was not allowed. Patients received olaparib 300 mg orally twice a day until progression. A single-arm, two-stage design was used. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR); the null hypothesis (≤ 5% ORR) would be rejected within each cohort if there were four or more responses in 27 patients. Secondary endpoints included clinical benefit rate and progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: Fifty-four patients enrolled. Seventy-six percent had estrogen receptor-positive HER2-negative disease. Eighty-seven percent had mutations in PALB2, sBRCA1/2, ATM, or CHEK2. In cohort 1, ORR was 33% (90% CI, 19% to 51%) and in cohort 2, 31% (90% CI, 15% to 49%). Confirmed responses were seen only with gPALB2 (ORR, 82%) and sBRCA1/2 (ORR, 50%) mutations. Median PFS was 13.3 months (90% CI, 12 months to not available/computable [NA]) for gPALB2 and 6.3 months (90% CI, 4.4 months to NA) for sBRCA1/2 mutation carriers. No responses were observed with ATM or CHEK2 mutations alone. CONCLUSION: PARP inhibition is an effective treatment for patients with MBC and gPALB2 or sBRCA1/2 mutations, significantly expanding the population of patients with breast cancer likely to benefit from PARPi beyond gBRCA1/2 mutation carriers. These results emphasize the value of molecular characterization for treatment decisions in MBC.

5.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 44, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964118

RESUMO

Germline genetic variation has been suggested to influence the survival of breast cancer patients independently of tumor pathology. We have studied survival associations of genetic variants in two etiologically unique groups of breast cancer patients, the carriers of germline pathogenic variants in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. We found that rs57025206 was significantly associated with the overall survival, predicting higher mortality of BRCA1 carrier patients with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, with a hazard ratio 4.37 (95% confidence interval 3.03-6.30, P = 3.1 × 10-9). Multivariable analysis adjusted for tumor characteristics suggested that rs57025206 was an independent survival marker. In addition, our exploratory analyses suggest that the associations between genetic variants and breast cancer patient survival may depend on tumor biological subgroup and clinical patient characteristics.

6.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(12): 2095-2097, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969947

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To assess the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancer risk and surveillance outcomes in Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS). METHODS: Analysis of the International Agency for Research on Cancer database and a single-center adult LFS cohort. RESULTS: UGI cancer was present in 7.2% of families and 3.9% of individuals with a pathogenic/likely pathogenic TP53 mutation in International Agency for Research on Cancer; 29% occurred before age 30. Our institutional cohort had 35 individuals (31% of the LFS cohort) with 48 cumulative upper endoscopies; 3 (8.5%) individuals had concerning UGI findings. DISCUSSION: UGI cancer is observed in LFS. Upper endoscopy should be part of a comprehensive LFS surveillance program.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923876

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women with a family history of breast cancer are frequently referred for hereditary cancer genetic testing, yet < 10% are found to have pathogenic variants in known breast cancer susceptibility genes. Large-scale genotyping studies have identified common variants (primarily single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) with individually modest breast cancer risk that, in aggregate, account for considerable breast cancer susceptibility. Here, we describe the development and empirical validation of an SNP-based polygenic breast cancer risk score. METHODS: A panel of 94 SNPs was examined for association with breast cancer in women of European ancestry undergoing hereditary cancer genetic testing and negative for pathogenic variants in breast cancer susceptibility genes. Candidate polygenic risk scores (PRSs) as predictors of personal breast cancer history were developed through multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for age, cancer history, and ancestry. An optimized PRS was validated in 2 independent cohorts (n = 13,174; n = 141,160). RESULTS: Within the training cohort (n = 24,259), 4,291 women (18%) had a personal history of breast cancer and 8,725 women (36%) reported breast cancer in a first-degree relative. The optimized PRS included 86 variants and was highly predictive of breast cancer status in both validation cohorts (P = 6.4 × 10-66; P < 10-325). The odds ratio (OR) per unit standard deviation was consistent between validations (OR, 1.45 [95% CI, 1.39 to 1.52]; OR 1.47 [95% CI, 1.45 to 1.49]). In a direct comparison, the 86-SNP PRS outperformed a previously described PRS of 77 SNPs. CONCLUSION: The validation and implementation of a PRS for women without pathogenic variants in known breast cancer susceptibility genes offers potential for risk stratification to guide surveillance recommendations.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954205

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women with breast cancer have a 4%-16% lifetime risk of a second primary cancer. Whether mutations in genes other than BRCA1/2 are enriched in patients with breast and another primary cancer over those with a single breast cancer (S-BC) is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified pathogenic germline mutations in 17 cancer susceptibility genes in patients with BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer in 2 different cohorts: cohort 1, high-risk breast cancer program (multiple primary breast cancer [MP-BC], n = 551; S-BC, n = 449) and cohort 2, familial breast cancer research study (MP-BC, n = 340; S-BC, n = 1,464). Mutation rates in these 2 cohorts were compared with a control data set (Exome Aggregation Consortium [ExAC]). RESULTS: Overall, pathogenic mutation rates for autosomal, dominantly inherited genes were higher in patients with MP-BC versus S-BC in both cohorts (8.5% v 4.9% [P = .02] and 7.1% v 4.2% [P = .03]). There were differences in individual gene mutation rates between cohorts. In both cohorts, younger age at first breast cancer was associated with higher mutation rates; the age of non-breast cancers was unrelated to mutation rate. TP53 and MSH6 mutations were significantly enriched in patients with MP-BC but not S-BC, whereas ATM and PALB2 mutations were significantly enriched in both groups compared with ExAC. CONCLUSION: Mutation rates are at least 7% in all patients with BRCA1/2 mutation-negative MP-BC, regardless of age at diagnosis of breast cancer, with mutation rates up to 25% in patients with a first breast cancer diagnosed at age < 30 years. Our results suggest that all patients with breast cancer with a second primary cancer, regardless of age of onset, should undergo multigene panel testing.

9.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(9): 1155-1164, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors combined with immunotherapy have shown antitumour activity in preclinical studies. We aimed to assess the safety and activity of olaparib in combination with the PD-L1-inhibitor, durvalumab, in patients with germline BRCA1-mutated or BRCA2-mutated metastatic breast cancer. METHODS: The MEDIOLA trial is a multicentre, open-label, phase 1/2, basket trial of durvalumab and olaparib in solid tumours. Patients were enrolled into four initial cohorts: germline BRCA-mutated, metastatic breast cancer; germline BRCA-mutated, metastatic ovarian cancer; metastatic gastric cancer; and relapsed small-cell lung cancer. Here, we report on the cohort of patients with breast cancer. Patients who were aged 18 years or older (or aged 19 years or older in South Korea) with germline BRCA1-mutated or BRCA2-mutated or both and histologically confirmed, progressive, HER2-negative, metastatic breast cancer were enrolled from 14 health centres in the UK, the USA, Israel, France, Switzerland, and South Korea. Patients should not have received more than two previous lines of chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer. Patients received 300 mg olaparib in tablet form orally twice daily for 4 weeks and thereafter a combination of olaparib 300 mg twice daily and durvalumab 1·5 g via intravenous infusion every 4 weeks until disease progression. Primary endpoints were safety and tolerability, and 12-week disease control rate. Safety was analysed in patients who received at least one dose of study treatment, and activity analyses were done in the full-analysis set (patients who received at least one dose of study treatment and were not excluded from the study). Recruitment has completed and the study is ongoing. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02734004. FINDINGS: Between June 14, 2016, and May 2, 2017, 34 patients were enrolled and received both study drugs and were included in the safety analysis. 11 (32%) patients experienced grade 3 or worse adverse events, of which the most common were anaemia (four [12%]), neutropenia (three [9%]), and pancreatitis (two [6%]). Three (9%) patients discontinued due to adverse events and four (12%) patients experienced a total of six serious adverse events. There were no treatment-related deaths. 24 (80%; 90% CI 64·3-90·9) of 30 patients eligible for activity analysis had disease control at 12 weeks. INTERPRETATION: Combination of olaparib and durvalumab showed promising antitumour activity and safety similar to that previously observed in olaparib and durvalumab monotherapy studies. Further research in a randomised setting is needed to determine predictors of therapeutic benefit and whether addition of durvalumab improves long-term clinical outcomes compared with olaparib monotherapy. FUNDING: AstraZeneca.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Ftalazinas/administração & dosagem , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Ftalazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 20(1): 210, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is needed regarding effective incentive strategies to increase clinician survey response rates. Cash cards are increasingly used as survey incentives; they are appealing because of their convenience and because in some cases their value can be reclaimed by investigators if not used. However, their effectiveness in clinician surveys is not known. In this study within the BRCA Founder OutReach (BFOR) study, a clinical trial of population-based BRCA1/2 mutation screening, we compared the use of upfront cash cards requiring email activation versus checks as clinician survey incentives. METHODS: Participants receiving BRCA1/2 testing in the BFOR study could elect to receive their results from their primary care provider (PCP, named by the patient) or from a geneticist associated with the study. In order to understand PCPs' knowledge, attitudes, experiences and willingness to disclose results we mailed paper surveys to the first 501 primary care providers (PCPs) in New York, Boston, Los Angeles and Philadelphia who were nominated by study participants to disclose their BRCA1/2 mutation results obtained through the study. We used alternating assignment stratified by city to assign the first 303 clinicians to receive a $50 up-front incentive as a cash card (N = 155) or check (N = 148). The cash card required PCPs to send an activation email in order to be used. We compared response rates by incentive type, adjusting for PCP characteristics and study site. RESULTS: In unadjusted analyses, PCPs who received checks were more likely to respond to the survey than those who received cash cards (54.1% versus 41.9%, p = 0.046); this remained true when we adjusted for provider characteristics (OR for checks 1.61, 95% CI 1.01, 2.59). No other clinician characteristics had a statistically significant association with response rates in adjusted analyses. When we included an interaction term for incentive type and city, the favorable impact of checks on response rates was evident only in Los Angeles and Philadelphia. CONCLUSIONS: An up-front cash card incentive requiring email activation may be less effective in eliciting clinician responses than up-front checks. However, the benefit of checks for clinician response rates may depend on clinicians' geographic location. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT03351803 ), November 24, 2017.

11.
Genet Med ; 22(10): 1653-1666, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665703

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We assessed the associations between population-based polygenic risk scores (PRS) for breast (BC) or epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with cancer risks for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers. METHODS: Retrospective cohort data on 18,935 BRCA1 and 12,339 BRCA2 female pathogenic variant carriers of European ancestry were available. Three versions of a 313 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BC PRS were evaluated based on whether they predict overall, estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, or ER-positive BC, and two PRS for overall or high-grade serous EOC. Associations were validated in a prospective cohort. RESULTS: The ER-negative PRS showed the strongest association with BC risk for BRCA1 carriers (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation = 1.29 [95% CI 1.25-1.33], P = 3×10-72). For BRCA2, the strongest association was with overall BC PRS (HR = 1.31 [95% CI 1.27-1.36], P = 7×10-50). HR estimates decreased significantly with age and there was evidence for differences in associations by predicted variant effects on protein expression. The HR estimates were smaller than general population estimates. The high-grade serous PRS yielded the strongest associations with EOC risk for BRCA1 (HR = 1.32 [95% CI 1.25-1.40], P = 3×10-22) and BRCA2 (HR = 1.44 [95% CI 1.30-1.60], P = 4×10-12) carriers. The associations in the prospective cohort were similar. CONCLUSION: Population-based PRS are strongly associated with BC and EOC risks for BRCA1/2 carriers and predict substantial absolute risk differences for women at PRS distribution extremes.

12.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(8): 1218-1230, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614418

RESUMO

Importance: The limited data on cancer phenotypes in men with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants (PVs) have hampered the development of evidence-based recommendations for early cancer detection and risk reduction in this population. Objective: To compare the cancer spectrum and frequencies between male BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 6902 men, including 3651 BRCA1 and 3251 BRCA2 PV carriers, older than 18 years recruited from cancer genetics clinics from 1966 to 2017 by 53 study groups in 33 countries worldwide collaborating through the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Clinical data and pathologic characteristics were collected. Main Outcomes and Measures: BRCA1/2 status was the outcome in a logistic regression, and cancer diagnoses were the independent predictors. All odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, country of origin, and calendar year of the first interview. Results: Among the 6902 men in the study (median [range] age, 51.6 [18-100] years), 1634 cancers were diagnosed in 1376 men (19.9%), the majority (922 of 1,376 [67%]) being BRCA2 PV carriers. Being affected by any cancer was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2, rather than a BRCA1, PV carrier (OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.81-3.70; P < .001), as well as developing 2 (OR, 7.97; 95% CI, 5.47-11.60; P < .001) and 3 (OR, 19.60; 95% CI, 4.64-82.89; P < .001) primary tumors. A higher frequency of breast (OR, 5.47; 95% CI, 4.06-7.37; P < .001) and prostate (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.09-1.78; P = .008) cancers was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Among cancers other than breast and prostate, pancreatic cancer was associated with a higher probability (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.55-5.81; P = .001) and colorectal cancer with a lower probability (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29-0.78; P = .003) of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Conclusions and Relevance: Significant differences in the cancer spectrum were observed in male BRCA2, compared with BRCA1, PV carriers. These data may inform future recommendations for surveillance of BRCA1/2-associated cancers and guide future prospective studies for estimating cancer risks in men with BRCA1/2 PVs.

13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e208501, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609350

RESUMO

Importance: To date, few studies have examined the extent to which polygenic single-nucleotide variation (SNV) (formerly single-nucleotide polymorphism) scores modify risk for carriers of pathogenic variants (PVs) in breast cancer susceptibility genes. In previous reports, polygenic risk modification was reduced for BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers compared with noncarriers, but limited information is available for carriers of CHEK2, ATM, or PALB2 PVs. Objective: To examine an 86-SNV polygenic risk score (PRS) for BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, ATM, and PALB2 PV carriers. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective case-control study using data on 150 962 women tested with a multigene hereditary cancer panel between July 19, 2016, and January 11, 2019, was conducted in a commercial testing laboratory. Participants included women of European ancestry between the ages of 18 and 84 years. Main Outcomes and Measures: Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association of the 86-SNV score with invasive breast cancer after adjusting for age, ancestry, and personal and/or family cancer history. Effect sizes, expressed as standardized odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs, were assessed for carriers of PVs in each gene as well as for noncarriers. Results: The median age at hereditary cancer testing of the population was 48 years (range, 18-84 years); there were 141 160 noncarriers in addition to carriers of BRCA1 (n = 2249), BRCA2 (n = 2638), CHEK2 (n = 2564), ATM (n = 1445), and PALB2 (n = 906) PVs included in the analysis. The 86-SNV score was associated with breast cancer risk in each of the carrier populations (P < 1 × 10-4). Stratification was more pronounced for noncarriers (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.45-1.49) and CHEK2 PV carriers (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.36-1.64) than for carriers of BRCA1 (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.10-1.32) or BRCA2 (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.12-1.34) PVs. Odds ratios for ATM (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.21-1.55) and PALB2 (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.16-1.55) PV carrier populations were intermediate between those for BRCA1/2 and CHEK2 noncarriers. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, the 86-SNV score was associated with modified risk for carriers of BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, ATM, and PALB2 PVs. This finding supports previous reports of reduced PRS stratification for BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers compared with noncarriers. Modification of risk in CHEK2 carriers associated with the 86-SNV score appeared to be similar to that observed in women without a PV. Larger studies are needed to provide more refined estimates of polygenic modification of risk for women with PVs in other moderate-penetrance genes.

14.
Cancer Res ; 80(17): 3732-3744, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675277

RESUMO

Germline mutations in TP53 cause a rare high penetrance cancer syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS). Here, we identified a rare TP53 tetramerization domain missense mutation, c.1000G>C;p.G334R, in a family with multiple late-onset LFS-spectrum cancers. Twenty additional c.1000G>C probands and one c.1000G>A proband were identified, and available tumors showed biallelic somatic inactivation of TP53. The majority of families were of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, and the TP53 c.1000G>C allele was found on a commonly inherited chromosome 17p13.1 haplotype. Transient transfection of the p.G334R allele conferred a mild defect in colony suppression assays. Lymphoblastoid cell lines from the index family in comparison with TP53 normal lines showed that although classical p53 target gene activation was maintained, a subset of p53 target genes (including PCLO, PLTP, PLXNB3, and LCN15) showed defective transactivation when treated with Nutlin-3a. Structural analysis demonstrated thermal instability of the G334R-mutant tetramer, and the G334R-mutant protein showed increased preponderance of mutant conformation. Clinical case review in comparison with classic LFS cohorts demonstrated similar rates of pediatric adrenocortical tumors and other LFS component cancers, but the latter at significantly later ages of onset. Our data show that TP53 c.1000G>C;p.G334R is found predominantly in Ashkenazi Jewish individuals, causes a mild defect in p53 function, and leads to low penetrance LFS. SIGNIFICANCE: TP53 c.1000C>G;p.G334R is a pathogenic, Ashkenazi Jewish-predominant mutation associated with a familial multiple cancer syndrome in which carriers should undergo screening and preventive measures to reduce cancer risk.

15.
Breast J ; 26(8): 1549-1555, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691458

RESUMO

The landscape of genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility has transformed dramatically over the last decade and a half. Traditionally, the process of genetic testing resided fully within a medical infrastructure, from identification of appropriate testing candidates to gene selection to risk mitigation recommendations. More recently, decreasing costs, advancing technology, and a growing understanding of therapeutic implications of certain genetic test results have led to more widespread uptake of testing that increasingly involves broad multigene panels. Germline genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility can now be obtained through one of three approaches: through clinical care; a direct-to-consumer (DTC) approach that is entirely consumer-driven; or a hybrid, patient-initiated, provider-mediated model. Increased access to testing has led to extensive dialogue about the best way to conduct testing and act on results. Points of discussion include: selection of appropriate candidates for genetic testing; optimal composition of genes on panels; informed consent; safe return of results; privacy; and legal protections for those found to have relevant pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants. As more individuals undergo genetic testing, a growing population of individuals with inherited breast cancer predisposition informs optimal management of cancer risk and also highlights unanswered questions. This article aims to review the current state of genetic testing for inherited breast cancer susceptibility including testing approaches, the legal, ethical and social landscape, and selected contemporary management issues.

16.
Genet Med ; 22(8): 1401-1406, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376981

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To better understand the longitudinal risks and benefits of telephone disclosure of genetic test results in the era of multigene panel testing. METHODS: Adults who were proceeding with germline cancer genetic testing were randomized to telephone disclosure (TD) with a genetic counselor or in-person disclosure (IPD) (i.e., usual care) of test results. All participants who received TD were recommended to return to meet with a physician to discuss medical management recommendations. RESULTS: Four hundred seventy-three participants were randomized to TD and 497 to IPD. There were no differences between arms for any cognitive, affective, or behavioral outcomes at 6 and 12 months. Only 50% of participants in the TD arm returned for the medical follow-up appointment. Returning was associated with site (p < 0.0001), being female (p = 0.047), and not having a true negative result (p < 0.002). Mammography was lower at 12 months among those who had TD and did not return for medical follow-up (70%) compared with those who had TD and returned (86%) and those who had IPD (87%, adjusted p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Telephone disclosure of genetic test results is a reasonable alternative to in-person disclosure, but attention to medical follow-up may remain important for optimizing appropriate use of genetic results.

17.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 40: e259-e263, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453613

RESUMO

Genetic information, both germline and somatic, is an increasingly important consideration in therapeutic decision-making in cancer. Germline mutations in genes associated with increased cancer risk can identify those individuals without cancer who may benefit from enhanced screening and prevention strategies. In individuals with cancer, germline and somatic mutations may help to guide local and systemic management decisions. Here, we review considerations of these issues in selected cancer types.

18.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risks of breast cancer in African American (AA) women associated with inherited mutations in breast cancer predisposition genes are not well defined. Thus, whether multigene germline hereditary cancer testing panels are applicable to this population is unknown. We assessed associations between mutations in panel-based genes and breast cancer risk in 5054 AA women with breast cancer and 4993 unaffected AA women drawn from 10 epidemiologic studies. METHODS: Germline DNA samples were sequenced for mutations in 23 cancer predisposition genes using a QIAseq multiplex amplicon panel. Prevalence of mutations and odds ratios (ORs) for associations with breast cancer risk were estimated with adjustment for study design, age, and family history of breast cancer. RESULTS: Pathogenic mutations were identified in 10.3% of women with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, 5.2% of women with ER-positive breast cancer, and 2.3% of unaffected women. Mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 were associated with high risks of breast cancer (OR = 47.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.43 to >100; OR = 7.25, 95% CI = 4.07 to 14.12; OR = 8.54, 95% CI = 3.67 to 24.95, respectively). RAD51D mutations were associated with high risk of ER-negative disease (OR = 7.82, 95% CI = 1.61 to 57.42). Moderate risks were observed for CHEK2, ATM, ERCC3, and FANCC mutations with ER-positive cancer, and RECQL mutations with all breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The study identifies genes that predispose to breast cancer in the AA population, demonstrates the validity of current breast cancer testing panels for use in AA women, and provides a basis for increased referral of AA patients for cancer genetic testing.

19.
Eur J Cancer ; 132: 53-60, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) in BRCA1/2 carriers reduces the breast cancer (BC) risk is conflicting, potentially due to methodological issues of prior analysis. We analysed the association between premenopausal RRSO and BC risk in BRCA1/2 carriers after adjusting for potential biases. METHODS: We analysed data from 444 BRCA1 and 409 BRCA2 carriers under age 51 with no cancer prior to genetic testing or during first 6 months of surveillance (to avoid cancer-induced testing bias and prevalent-cancer bias). Observation started 6 months after genetic testing (to avoid event-free time bias), until BC diagnosis, risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) or death. A multistate model with four states (non-RRSO, RRSO, RRM and BC) and five transitions was fitted to characterise outcomes and to calculate the BC risk reduction after premenopausal RRSO (before age 51). A systematic review was performed to assess the association between premenopausal RRSO and BC. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 4.3 years, 96 women (11.3%) developed BC (54 BRCA1, 42 BRCA2). The risk of BC after premenopausal RRSO decreased significantly in BRCA1 carriers (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.45 [95% confidence interval (CI):0.22-0.92]), but was not conclusive in BRCA2 carriers (HR = 0.77 [95%CI:0.35-1.67]). The systematic review suggested that premenopausal RRSO is associated with a decrease of BC risk in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. CONCLUSIONS: Premenopausal RRSO was associated with BC risk reduction in BRCA1 carriers, which can help guide cancer risk-reducing strategies in this population. Longer follow-up and larger sample size may be needed to estimate the potential benefit in BRCA2 carriers.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Pré-Menopausa , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Salpingo-Ooforectomia/métodos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 181(1): 181-188, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246378

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), a cancer predisposition syndrome caused by germline mutations in TP53, have an over 50% risk of developing breast cancer by age 70. Patients with LFS are at risk for radiation-induced malignancies; however, only small case series have prior investigated radiation risks in the treatment of breast cancer. We therefore aimed to investigate the risk of malignancy in breast cancer patients with LFS following adjuvant radiotherapy. METHODS: A single-institution retrospective chart review was conducted for female breast cancer patients with confirmed germline TP53 mutation. The frequency of radiation-induced malignancies in LFS patients was compared to non-LFS breast cancer cases reported in the Penn Medicine Cancer Registry via statistical analyses. RESULTS: We identified 51 female LFS breast cancer patients with 74 primary diagnoses. Fifty-seven% had a history of breast cancer only, and 25% had breast cancer as their presenting diagnosis of LFS. LFS-associated breast cancers were predominantly invasive ductal carcinoma (48%) and HER2+ (58%). Twenty patients underwent adjuvant radiotherapy with a median follow-up of 12.5 (2-20) years. Of 18 patients who received radiation in a curative setting, one (6%) patient developed thyroid cancer, and one (6%) patient developed sarcoma in the radiation field. This risk for radiation-induced malignancy associated with LFS was higher for both sarcoma and thyroid cancer in comparison with the control cohort. CONCLUSIONS: We found a lower risk of radiation-induced secondary malignancies in LFS breast cancer patients than previously reported in the literature (33% risk of radiation-induced sarcoma). These findings suggest that LFS may not be an absolute contraindication for radiotherapy in breast cancer. The potential risk for locoregional recurrence without radiotherapy must be weighed against the long-term risk for radiation-induced malignancies in consideration of adjuvant radiotherapy for LFS breast cancer patients.

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