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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142007

RESUMO

Assessment of vitamin and trace element status (VTE) is important in the clinical management of the sick child. In this position paper we present the various assessment methods available to the clinical practitioner, and critically discuss pitfalls with interpretation of their results.There are four main approaches to assess the VTE body status of an individual patient including clinical examination, dietary assessment and measurement of direct and indirect biomarkers of VTE in biological samples. Clinical signs of VTE deficiencies usually present only when body stores are substantially depleted and are often difficult to detect or differentiate from other non-nutrient related causes. In isolation, dietary assessment of micronutrients can be inaccurate and imprecise, in disease and in individual patient assessment, but may be useful to complement findings from other VTE assessment methods. Use of biomarkers is the most common approach to assess VTE status in routine practice, but in the presence of systemic inflammatory response and in the absence of appropriate paediatric reference intervals, interpretation of biomarker results might be challenging and potentially mislead clinical practice.The use of a multimodal approach, including clinical examination, dietary assessment and laboratory biomarkers is proposed as the optimal way to ascertain the VTE status of individual patients. In the presence of acute inflammatory conditions, VTE measurements in plasma should be replaced by biomarkers not affected by systemic inflammatory response or delayed until inflammatory state is resolved.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044833

RESUMO

More than 10,000 preterm infants have participated in randomised controlled trials on probiotics worldwide, suggesting that probiotics in general could reduce rates of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), sepsis, and mortality. However, answers to relevant clinical questions as to which strain to use, at what dosage, and how long to supplement, are not available. On the other hand, an increasing number of commercial products containing probiotics are available from sometimes suboptimal quality. Also, a large number of units around the world are routinely offering probiotic supplementation as the standard of care despite lacking solid evidence. Our recent network meta-analysis identified probiotic strains with greatest efficacy regarding relevant clinical outcomes for preterm neonates. Efficacy in reducing mortality and morbidity was found for only a minority of the studied strains or combinations. In the present position paper, we aim to provide advice which specific strains might potentially be used and which strains should not be used. Besides, we aim to address safety issues of probiotic supplementation to preterm infants, who have reduced immunological capacities and occasional indwelling catheters. For example, quality reassurance of the probiotic product is essential, probiotic strains should be devoid of transferable antibiotic resistance genes, and local microbiologists should be able to routinely detect probiotic sepsis. Provided all safety issues are met, there is currently a conditional recommendation (with low certainty of evidence) to provide either L. rhamnosus GG ATCC53103 or the combination of B. infantis Bb-02, B. lactis Bb-12, and Str. thermophilus TH-4 in order to reduce NEC rates.

3.
Acta Paediatr ; 109(1): 31-44, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350926

RESUMO

AIM: Postnatal hypoglycaemia in newborn infants remains an important clinical problem where prolonged periods of hypoglycaemia are associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcome. The aim was to develop an evidence-based national guideline with the purpose to optimise prevention, diagnosis and treatment of hypoglycaemia in newborn infants with a gestational age ≥35 + 0 weeks. METHODS: A PubMed search-based literature review was used to find actual and applicable evidence for all incorporated recommendations. The GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach was used for grading the evidence of the recommendations. RESULTS: Recommendations for the prevention of neonatal hypoglycaemia were extended and updated, focusing on promotion of breastfeeding as one prevention strategy. Oral dextrose gel as a novel supplemental therapy was incorporated in the treatment protocol. A new threshold-based screening and treatment protocol presented as a flow chart was developed. CONCLUSION: An updated and evidence-based national guideline for screening and treatment of neonatal hypoglycaemia will support standardised regimes, which may prevent hypoglycaemia and the risk for hypoglycaemia-related long-term sequelae.

4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(1): 10-16, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665201

RESUMO

Recently adopted regulatory standards on infant and follow-on formula for the European Union stipulate that from February 2020 onwards, all such products marketed in the European Union must contain 20-50 mg omega-3 DHA (22:6n-3) per 100 kcal, which is equivalent to about 0.5-1% of fatty acids (FAs) and thus higher than typically found in human milk and current infant formula products, without the need to also include ω-6 arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6). This novel concept of infant formula composition has given rise to concern and controversy because there is no accountable evidence on its suitability and safety in healthy infants. Therefore, international experts in the field of infant nutrition were invited to review the state of scientific research on DHA and AA, and to discuss the questions arising from the new European regulatory standards. Based on the available information, we recommend that infant and follow-on formula should provide both DHA and AA. The DHA should equal at least the mean content in human milk globally (0.3% of FAs) but preferably reach 0.5% of FAs. Although optimal AA intake amounts remain to be defined, we strongly recommend that AA should be provided along with DHA. At amounts of DHA in infant formula up to ∼0.64%, AA contents should at least equal the DHA contents. Further well-designed clinical studies should evaluate the optimal intakes of DHA and AA in infants at different ages based on relevant outcomes.

5.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr ; 44(2): 327-336, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence showing the beneficial effects of enhanced parenteral nutrition (PN) to very low-birth-weight (VLBW, <1500 g) infants is accumulating. However, PN composition and its impact on growth outcomes are questioned. This study aimed to investigate the associations between administration of a concentrated PN regime and intakes of energy and macronutrients as well as postnatal growth in VLBW infants. METHODS: We compared 2 cohorts of VLBW infants born before (n = 74) and after (n = 44) a concentrated PN regime was introduced into clinical use. Daily nutrition and fluid intake during the first 28 postnatal days and all available growth measurements during hospitalization were retrospectively collected from clinical charts. RESULTS: Infants who received concentrated PN compared with original PN had higher parenteral intakes of energy (56 vs 45 kcal/kg/d, P < 0.001), protein (2.6 vs 2.2 g/kg/d, P = 0.008), and fat (1.5 vs 0.7 g/kg/d, P < 0.001) during the first postnatal week. Changes in standard deviation scores for weight and length from birth to postnatal day 28 were more positive in the concentrated PN group (mean [95% CI]; weight change: -0.77 [-1.02 to -0.52] vs -1.29 [-1.33 to -1.05], P = 0.005; length change: -1.01 [-1.36 to -0.65] vs -1.60 [-1.95 to -1.25], P = 0.025). There were no significant differences in fluid intake and infant morbidity between the groups. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that concentrated PN is useful and seems to be safe for improving early nutrition and growth in VLBW infants.

6.
Nitric Oxide ; 94: 73-78, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682925

RESUMO

The inorganic anions nitrate and nitrite are oxidation products from endogenous nitric oxide (NO) generation and constituents in our diet. A nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway exists in which nitrate can be serially reduced to bioactive NO. The first step of this pathway occurs in the oral cavity where oral bacteria convert salivary nitrate to nitrite, whereafter nitrite is reduced to NO systemically by several enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways. Data are scarce regarding salivary levels and oral conversion capacity of these anions in infants. We measured salivary nitrate and nitrate in infants at 4 and 12 months of age and related values to age, sex, dietary pattern and oral microbiome. Saliva was collected from a total of 188 infants at 4 and 12 months of age. Salivary nitrate, nitrite and nitrite/nitrate ratio as a measure of oral nitrate-reducing capacity were analyzed by HPLC and related to age, sex, type of diet (breast milk or formula) and oral microbiome. There was no difference in salivary nitrate, nitrite or nitrite/nitrate ratio between boys and girls at any age. At 4 months levels of these parameters were lower than what has been described in adults but they had all increased significantly at 12 months of age. At 4 months of age salivary nitrite/nitrate ratio was lower in breast-fed compared to formula-fed infants, but these differences disappeared at 12 months. Several bacterial species were associated with oral nitrate reducing capacity including Prevotella, Veillonella, Alloprevotella and Leptotrichia. We conclude that in infants there is an increase in salivary nitrate and nitrite as well as in oral nitrate-reductase capacity during the first year of life. Differences observed at 4 months of age between breast-fed and formula-fed infants disappear at one year of age.

8.
Neonatology ; : 1-8, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At term-equivalent age, infants born prematurely are shorter, lighter and have more adipose tissue compared to term counterparts. Little is known on whether the differences in body composition persist in later age. METHODS: We prospectively recruited 33 preterm infants (<32 weeks gestational age, mean gestational age 28.1 weeks) and 69 term controls. Anthropometry and body composition (air displacement plethysmography) were monitored up to 4 months of age. Nutrient intakes from preterm infants were collected from clinical records. RESULTS: At 4 months of age preterm infants were lighter and shorter than term controls (mean weight-for-age z-score: -0.73 vs. 0.06, p = 0.001; mean length-for-age z-score: -1.31 vs. 0.29, p < 0.0001). The significantly greater percentage of total body fat seen in preterm infants at term-equivalent age (20.2 vs. 11.7%, p < 0.0001) was no longer observed at 4 months. A deficit of fat-free mass persisted until 4 months of age (fat-free mass at term-equivalent age: 2.71 vs. 3.18 kg, p < 0.0001; at 4 months: 4.3 vs. 4.78 kg, p < 0.0001). The fat mass index and fat-free mass index (taking length into account) did not differ between the groups. Nutrition had little effect on body composition. Higher protein intake at week 2 was a negative predictor of fat-free mass at discharge. CONCLUSIONS: At 4 months corrected age, preterm infants were both lighter and shorter than term controls and the absolute fat-free mass deficit remained until this age. Little effect of nutrition on body composition was observed.

9.
Acta Paediatr ; 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782205

RESUMO

AIM: There has been a lack of population-based longitudinal data on serum ferritin in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants during hospitalisation. Our aim was to fill this gap in the knowledge and investigate risk factors for elevated serum ferritin and associations between erythrocyte transfusions and longitudinal growth. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed longitudinal data on 126 VLBW infants treated at Umeå University Hospital, Sweden, between 2010 and 2013. RESULTS: The infants' mean gestational age and birthweight were 26.9 weeks and 899 g. Most (91%) received erythrocyte transfusions, and the majority had multiple erythrocyte transfusions. There was a significant correlation between serum ferritin and the volume of transfusions. Almost two-thirds had at least one serum ferritin measurement of more than 350 µg/L, indicating iron overload. In those with complete anthropometric data (n = 78), there was no significant effect of serum ferritin concentrations in relation to longitudinal growth, but there was a positive association between the erythrocyte transfusion dose and longitudinal growth in VLBW infants born before 25 weeks. CONCLUSION: This is the first population-based study to investigate longitudinal data on serum ferritin in VLBW infants during hospitalisation. The unexpected positive finding in the subgroup born at less than 25 weeks needs further research with a larger cohort.

10.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593285

RESUMO

The recently documented high survival of extremely preterm infants in Sweden is related to a high degree of centralization of pre- and postnatal care and to recently issued national consensus guidelines providing recommendations for perinatal care at 22-24 gestational weeks. The prevalence of major neonatal morbidity remains high and exceeded 60 % in a recent study of extremely preterm infants born at < 27 gestational weeks delivered in Sweden in 2014-2016 and surviving to 1 year of age. Damage to immature organ systems inflicted during the neonatal period causes varying degrees of functional impairment with lasting effects in the growing child. There is an urgent need for evidence-based novel interventions aiming to prevent neonatal morbidity with a subsequent improvement of long-term outcome.


Assuntos
Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro , Nascimento Prematuro , Displasia Broncopulmonar/epidemiologia , Displasia Broncopulmonar/fisiopatologia , Displasia Broncopulmonar/prevenção & controle , Serviços Centralizados no Hospital , Hemorragia Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Ventrículos Cerebrais/irrigação sanguínea , Ventrículos Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/fisiopatologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Assistência Perinatal/organização & administração , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/mortalidade , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/sangue , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/fisiopatologia , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/prevenção & controle , Taxa de Sobrevida , Suécia/epidemiologia
11.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 79(8): 590-594, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642699

RESUMO

Infants are at risk for iron deficiency. Despite research advances, assessing iron stores during infancy remains a challenge to the clinician. Ferritin is the first-choice laboratory marker for measuring iron stores but it is today still unclear how to evaluate reference intervals among infants. We have studied Swedish infants (n = 456), born at term after normal pregnancies. Ferritin was measured at birth (umbilical cord sample), 48-72 h, 4 months and 12 months. Lower and upper reference interval limits were constructed as the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. By a large study population, we were able to use more stringent measures to avoid interference from the acute phase response than previous reports on ferritin reference intervals. When we used mathematical transformation we furthermore avoided potential information loss in precision and confirmed earlier reports of sex differences. At the lower reference interval limits there were small differences between sexes. For the higher limits, the differences were more pronounced in the older infant. At 0-3 d of age we observed a difference between the sexes of only 5% at the upper limits. The differences peaked at 12 months, where the boys' upper 97.5th percentile was 56% compared to girls.

12.
Acta Paediatr ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557349

RESUMO

AIM: Children born preterm are at increased risk of reduced lung function. The aim was to test whether lung function was associated with pulmonary vascular resistance. METHODS: Participants were recruited from a population-based cohort born in 2004-2007. Lung function was assessed with spirometry after administration of a beta2-agonist. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 ) were determined. Estimations of pulmonary vascular resistance, arterial dimensions, right ventricular wall thickness, sphericity, and systolic (TAPSE) and diastolic functions were performed with echocardiography. Adjusted regression analyses were used to study associations. RESULTS: Sixty-six children (33 boys) born at 22-26 weeks of gestational age (birthweights 460-1134 g) were assessed at a mean age of 6.7 years. Despite large variations in lung function with FVC z-scores ranging from -4.6 to +2.8, there were no associations between lung function and pulmonary arterial pressure, right ventricular structure or function. Children with higher FVC z-scores (r = .52, ß = .55 mm, P = .015) and higher FEV1 z-scores (r = .58, ß = .73 mm, P = .001) exhibited larger pulmonary arteries. CONCLUSION: In children born extremely preterm, lung function was not associated with pulmonary vascular resistance. Routine echocardiographic evaluation of extremely preterm children may not be indicated at age 6.5 years.

13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11767, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409852

RESUMO

Human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) composition varies among lactating mothers and changes during the course of lactation period. Interindividual variation is largely driven by fucosyltransferase (FUT2 and FUT3) polymorphisms resulting in 4 distinct milk groups. Little is known regarding whether maternal physiological status contributes to HMO variability. We characterized the trajectories of 20 major HMOs and explored whether maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (ppBMI), mode of delivery, or parity may affect milk HMO composition. Using longitudinal breastmilk samples from healthy mothers (n = 290) across 7 European countries, we characterized HMO composion and employed mixed linear models to explore associations of maternal characteristics with individual HMOs. We observed HMO-specific temporal trajectories and milk group dependencies. We observed relatively small but significant differences in HMO concentrations based on maternal ppBMI, mode of delivery and parity. Our findings suggest that HMO composition to be regulated time-dependently by an enzyme as well as substrate availability and that ppBMI, mode of delivery, and parity may influence maternal physiology to affect glycosylation marginally within the initital period of lactation. Our observational study is the largest European standardized and longitudinal (up to 4 months) milk collection study assessing HMO concentrations and basic maternal characteristics. Time of lactation and milk groups had the biggest impact on HMO variation. Future studies need to elucidate these observations and assess the physiological significance for the breastfed infant.

14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12382, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434987

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11589, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406230

RESUMO

Human milk delivers an array of bioactive components that safeguard infant growth and development and maintain healthy gut microbiota. Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is a biologically functional fraction of milk increasingly linked to beneficial outcomes in infants through protection from pathogens, modulation of the immune system and improved neurodevelopment. In the present study, we characterized the fecal microbiome and metabolome of infants fed a bovine MFGM supplemented experimental formula (EF) and compared to infants fed standard formula (SF) and a breast-fed reference group. The impact of MFGM on the fecal microbiome was moderate; however, the fecal metabolome of EF-fed infants showed a significant reduction of several metabolites including lactate, succinate, amino acids and their derivatives from that of infants fed SF. Introduction of weaning food with either human milk or infant formula reduces the distinct characteristics of breast-fed- or formula-fed- like infant fecal microbiome and metabolome profiles. Our findings support the hypothesis that higher levels of protein in infant formula and the lack of human milk oligosaccharides promote a shift toward amino acid fermentation in the gut. MFGM may play a role in shaping gut microbial activity and function.

16.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 69(2): 259-270, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095091

RESUMO

Nutritional guidelines and requirements for late or moderately preterm (LMPT) infants are notably absent, although they represent the largest population of preterm infants. The European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Committee on Nutrition (CoN) performed a review of the literature with the aim to provide guidance on how to feed infants born LMPT, and identify gaps in the literature and research priorities.Only limited data from controlled trials are available. Late preterm infants have unique, often unrecognized, vulnerabilities that predispose them to high rates of nutritionally related morbidity and hospital readmissions. They frequently have feeding difficulties that delay hospital discharge, and poorer rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration compared with term infants. This review also identified that moderately preterm infants frequently exhibit postnatal growth restriction.The ESPGHAN CoN strongly endorses breast milk as the preferred method of feeding LMPT infants and also emphasizes that mothers of LMPT infants should receive qualified, extended lactation support, and frequent follow-up. Individualized feeding plans should be promoted. Hospital discharge should be delayed until LMPT infants have a safe discharge plan that takes into account local situation and resources.In the LMPT population, the need for active nutritional support increases with lower gestational ages. There may be a role for enhanced nutritional support including the use of human milk fortifier, enriched formula, parenteral nutrition, and/or additional supplements, depending on factors, such as gestational age, birth weight, and significant comorbidities. Further research is needed to assess the benefits (improved nutrient intakes) versus risks (interruption of breast-feeding) of providing nutrient-enrichment to the LMPT infant.

17.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 68(5): 742-760, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Palm oil (PO) is used in infant formulas in order to achieve palmitic acid (PA) levels similar to those in human milk. PA in PO is esterified predominantly at the SN-1,3 position of triacylglycerol (TAG), and infant formulas are now available in which a greater proportion of PA is in the SN-2 position (typical configuration in human milk). As there are some concerns about the use of PO, we aimed to review literature on health effects of PO and SN-2-palmitate in infant formulas. METHODS: PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were systematically searched for relevant studies on possible beneficial effects or harms of either PO or SN-2-palmitate in infant formula on various health outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 12 relevant studies using PO and 21 studies using SN-2-palmitate. Published studies have variable methodology, subject characteristics, and some are underpowered for the key outcomes. PO is associated with harder stools and SN-2-palmitate use may lead to softer stool consistency. Bone effects seem to be short-lasting. For some outcomes (infant colic, faecal microbiota, lipid metabolism), the number of studies is very limited and summary evidence inconclusive. Growth of infants is not influenced. There are no studies published on the effect on markers of later diseases. CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to suggest that PO should be avoided as a source of fat in infant formulas for health reasons. Inclusion of high SN-2-palmitate fat blend in infant formulas may have short-term effects on stool consistency but cannot be considered essential.

18.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215866, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002705

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) may predict an increased risk of an adverse cardiometabolic profile later in life, but long-term effects in different populations and birth weight strata are still unclear. We explored laboratory markers of cardiometabolic risk in children born with marginally LBW (2000-2500 g). METHODS: This was a prospective longitudinal cohort study including 285 Swedish marginally LBW children and 95 normal birth weight (NBW, 2501-4500 g) controls. At 3.5 and 7 years of age, blood samples for glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), cholesterol, triglycerides, high- and low density lipoprotein (HDL and LDL), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) were assessed and compared between the groups. RESULTS: No significant differences in levels of insulin, HOMA-IR, hs-CRP or blood lipids were observed between marginally LBW and NBW children. At 7 years there was a higher proportion of marginally LBW children with elevated levels of insulin, defined as above the 90th percentile of the control group (21% vs 8.6%, p = 0.038). This association was, however, confounded by maternal ethnicity. In marginally LBW children born small for gestational age (SGA), mean fasting glucose was significantly higher compared to controls (4.7 vs 4.5 mmol/L, p = 0.020). CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant differences in insulin, insulin resistance, hs-CRP or blood lipids between the marginally LBW children and controls. The subgroup of marginally LBW children born SGA may present early signs of glucose imbalance already at school age.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional/sangue , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , Apolipoproteína B-100/sangue , Peso ao Nascer , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Resistência à Insulina , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Suécia , Triglicerídeos/sangue
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865975

RESUMO

Dietary supplementation with bovine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) concentrates has recently emerged as a possible means to improve the health of infants and young children. Formula-fed infants are of special interest since infant formulas traditionally have lower concentrations of biologically active MFGM components than human milk. We identified 6 double-blind randomized controlled trials (DBRCT) exploring the effects of supplementing the diet of infants and children with bovine MFGM concentrates. Two studies found a positive effect on cognitive development in formula-fed infants. Three studies found a protective effect against infections at different ages during infancy and early childhood. We conclude that supplementation with MFGM during infancy and childhood appears safe, and the studies indicate positive effects on both neurodevelopment and defense against infections, especially in formula-fed infants. However, due to the small number of studies and the heterogeneity of interventions and outcomes, more high-quality DBRCTs are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn on the likely health benefits of MFGM supplementation to infants and children.

20.
JAMA ; 321(12): 1188-1199, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912837

RESUMO

Importance: Since 2004-2007, national guidelines and recommendations have been developed for the management of extremely preterm births in Sweden. If and how more uniform management has affected infant survival is unknown. Objective: To compare survival of extremely preterm infants born during 2004-2007 with survival of infants born during 2014-2016. Design, Setting and Participants: All births at 22-26 weeks' gestational age (n = 2205) between April 1, 2004, and March 31, 2007, and between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2016, in Sweden were studied. Prospective data collection was used during 2004-2007. Data were obtained from the Swedish pregnancy, medical birth, and neonatal quality registries during 2014-2016. Exposures: Delivery at 22-26 weeks' gestational age. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was infant survival to the age of 1 year. The secondary outcome was 1-year survival among live-born infants who did not have any major neonatal morbidity (specifically, without intraventricular hemorrhage grade 3-4, cystic periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity stage 3-5, or severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Results: During 2004-2007, 1009 births (3.3/1000 of all births) occurred at 22-26 weeks' gestational age compared with 1196 births (3.4/1000 of all births) during 2014-2016 (P = .61). One-year survival among live-born infants at 22-26 weeks' gestational age was significantly lower during 2004-2007 (497 of 705 infants [70%]) than during 2014-2016 (711 of 923 infants [77%]) (difference, -7% [95% CI, -11% to -2.2%], P = .003). One-year survival among live-born infants at 22-26 weeks' gestational age and without any major neonatal morbidity was significantly lower during 2004-2007 (226 of 705 infants [32%]) than during 2014-2016 (355 of 923 infants [38%]) (difference, -6% [95% CI, -11% to -1.7%], P = .008). Conclusions and Relevance: Among live births at 22-26 weeks' gestational age in Sweden, 1-year survival improved between 2004-2007 and 2014-2016.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Feminino , Viabilidade Fetal , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Suécia/epidemiologia
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