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1.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443362

RESUMO

The polyphenol content of tea depends on the growing region, harvest date, the production process used, and the brewing parameters. In this study, research was undertaken that included an analysis of the influence of the brewing process parameters on the content of total polyphenols (Folin-Ciocalteu), epigallocatechin gallate (HPLC), and antioxidant activity (against DPPH radicals) of fresh tea shrub leaves grown from Taiwan and of teas obtained from them (oolong, green in bags, and green loose from the spring and autumn harvest). The antioxidant potential was determined in the methanol and aqueous extracts, as well as in infusions that were obtained by using water at 65 or 100 °C and infusing the tea for 5 or 10 min. The highest content of total polyphenols and epigallocatechin gallate was found in green tea extracts from the spring harvest. However, in the case of infusions, the highest content of these compounds was found in green tea in bags. Steaming at 100 °C for 10 min, turned out to be the most favourable condition for the extraction. Oolong tea, brewed at 100 °C for 5 min was characterised by the highest antioxidant activity against stable DPPH radicals.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Camellia sinensis/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Folhas de Planta/química , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Água/química
2.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203271

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to find the effect of kale and dietary fibre (DF) on the physicochemical properties, nutritional value and sensory quality of multigrain bars. A recipe of multigrain bars was prepared with the addition of fresh kale (20% and 30%) and DF preparations (apple, blackcurrant, chokeberry and hibiscus). The bars were baked at 180 °C for 20 min. These snack bars, based on pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, flaxseed and wholegrain oatmeal, are a high-calorie product (302-367 kcal/100 g). However, the composition of the bars encourages consumption. In addition to the ability to quickly satisfy hunger, such bars are rich in many natural ingredients that are considered pro-health (high fibre content (9.1-11.6 g/100 g), protein (11.2-14.3 g/100 g), fat (17.0-21.1 g/100 g, including unsaturated fatty acids), carbohydrates (20.5-24.0 g/100 g), as well as vitamins, minerals and a large number of substances from the antioxidant group. The addition of kale caused a significant increase of water content, but reduction in the value of all texture parameters (TPA profiles) as well as calorific values. The content of polyphenols was strongly and positively correlated with the antioxidant activity (r = 0.92). In the bars with 30% addition of kale (422 mg GA/100 g d.m.), the content of polyphenols was significantly higher than based ones (334 mg GA/100 g d.m.). Bars with the addition of the DF were characterized by a higher antioxidant activity, and the content of carotenoids, chlorophyll A and B and polyphenols. High sensory quality was demonstrated for all (from 4.8 to 7.1 on a 10-point scale). The addition of fibre preparations was also related to technological aspects and allows to create attractive bars without additional chemicals.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Brassica/química , Fibras na Dieta , Grão Comestível/química , Ingestão de Energia , Lanches , Valor Nutritivo
3.
Molecules ; 25(23)2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255419

RESUMO

Japanese quince has high health value, but due to its taste and texture, it is difficult to eat raw. The use of innovative drying methods to produce dried snack foods from these fruits may be of interest to producers and consumers. The physicochemical and sensory properties of 3 mm slices of Japanese quince fruit (with skin, without seeds) obtained by osmotic pre-treatment in chokeberry and apple juice concentrates, and with the use of convection (convective drying, C-D), freeze-drying (F-D), and convection-microwave-vacuum drying (hybrid) are assessed. The methods of drying osmo-dehydrated slices do not affect the dry matter content. In most dried quince, the water activity is 0.40 or lower. Pre-osmotic dehydration and drying have a significant impact on the mechanical and acoustic properties of quince chips. Sensory attractive chips emit loud acoustic emission (AE) during the breaking test. Chips that are osmo-dehydrated in a mixture of chokeberry juice concentrate and sucrose and dried by a hybrid method are attractive. They have a dark red color given by chokeberry concentrate and a slight sweet (with a slight sour-bitter) taste. The sensory evaluation was useful for determining the quality of the chips in terms of their texture (crispness) tested by mechanical methods. Their sensory ratings (overall desirability as weight of color, taste, crispness, and flavor) are high and similar (from 3.8 to 4.1). The use of innovative drying methods with pre-osmotic treatment allows obtaining dried material with properties comparable to those obtained by the F-D method, but in a much shorter time, i.e., with lower energy and using a simple method.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Químicos , Análise de Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Rosaceae/química , Lanches , Paladar , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise
4.
Molecules ; 25(23)2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276446

RESUMO

The visible trend in the development of the snack market focuses on the use of innovative technologies such as low-temperature or hybrid processes that allow the preservation of native ingredients of raw plant materials. In addition, the high antioxidant potential of, for example, chokeberry fruit can be used to support technological processes and create new products. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of using chokeberry juice concentrate as a component of an osmotic solution to enrich apple samples with natural bio-ingredients and obtain dried apples with increased content of ingredients with antioxidant properties; pro-healthy apple chips. The research material consisted of apples that underwent osmotic dehydration in solutions of sucrose or sucrose and chokeberry juice concentrate and then were dried by the freeze-drying or the hybrid method. The freeze-drying was more beneficial for maintaining the vitamin C content, while the use of the hybrid method resulted in the preservation of more polyphenolic compounds. The sensory evaluation indicated the need to modify the composition of the osmoactive solution. Due to the use of chokeberry juice concentrate, the content of vitamin C, polyphenols, and the antioxidant activity of dried apples was increased.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Malus/química , Photinia/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Convecção , Dessecação , Liofilização , Frutas/química , Micro-Ondas , Osmose , Polifenóis/análise , Vácuo
5.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167405

RESUMO

In this study, the impacts of two different pear cultivars, "Conference" and "Alexander Lucas", on the kinetics and the final quality of samples dried by convection (CD) and microwave-convection (MCD) methods, were investigated. The quality of dried material was evaluated by the analysis of water activity, porosity, color, acoustic emission (AE) and mechanical and sensory properties. The required drying time to obtain 0.2 kg H2O/kg dry solid (d.s.) was longer for "Conference" than "Alexander Lucas" and was 20 min by CD and 5 min by MCD. The pear cultivar, in conjunction with the drying method (CD or MCD), affected the number of AE events and the work of breaking. The CD pear of the "Conference" cultivar was characterized by higher force, higher breaking work and stronger AE relative to the CD pear of the "Alexander Lucas" cultivar. There were no differences in taste or overall quality, but the hardness was higher for the CD "Conference" pear. A principal component analysis showed that panelists preferred dried fruit with good taste and overall quality but lower hardness. A positive correlation was found between the number of acoustic events and sensory hardness; thus, an acoustic method can be useful for effectively evaluating the texture of dried pears. These results show that the dried pear slices that generated fewer AE events upon breaking were perceived as better by the panelists.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Liofilização , Frutas/química , Pyrus/química , Acústica , Cor , Dessecação , Dureza , Cinética , Micro-Ondas , Fenóis/análise , Porosidade , Análise de Componente Principal , Estresse Mecânico , Paladar , Água/química
6.
Foods ; 9(8)2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824136

RESUMO

This paper analyses the semi-industrial process of spray drying chokeberry juice with carbohydrate polymers used as a carrier. Tapioca dextrin (Dx) was proposed and tested as an alternative carrier and it was compared with maltodextrin carriers (MDx), which are the most common in industrial practice. The influence of selected process parameters (carrier type and content, inlet air temperature, atomiser speed) on the characteristics of dried chokeberry powder was investigated. The size and microstructure of the powder particles, the bulk and apparent density, porosity, flowability, yield and bioactive properties were analysed. In comparison with MDx, the Dx carrier improved the handling properties, yield and bioactive properties. An increase in the Dx carrier content improved the phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, flowability and resulted in greater yield of the powder. An increase in the drying temperature increased the size of particles and improved powder flowability but it also caused a greater loss of the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. The rotary atomizer speed had the most significant effect on the bioactive properties of obtained powders, which increased along with its growth. The following conditions were the most favourable for chokeberry juice with tapioca dextrin (Dx) as the carrier: inlet air temperature, 160 °C; rotary atomizer speed, 15,000 rpm; and Dx carrier content, 60%.

7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(20)2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614766

RESUMO

The study concentrates on researching possibilities of using computer image analysis and neural modeling in order to assess selected quality discriminants of spray-dried chokeberry powder. The aim of the paper is the quality identification of chokeberry powders on account of their highest dying power, the highest bioactivity, as well as technologically satisfying looseness of the powder. The article presents neural models with vision techniques backed up by devices such as digital cameras, as well as an electron microscope. The reduction in size of input variables with PCA has an influence on improving the processes of learning data sets, thus increasing the effectiveness of identifying chokeberry fruit powders included in digital pictures, which is shown in the results of the conducted research. The effectiveness of image recognition is presented by classifying abilities, as well as low Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), for which the best results are achieved with a typology of network type Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP). The selected networks type MLP are characterized by the highest degree of classification at 0.99 and RMSE at 0.11 at most at the same time.

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