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1.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 140: 111298, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220626

RESUMO

This study was aimed at comparing the toxicity effects on cell viability and the obesogenic activity of Bisphenol A (BPA) and its analogues, Bisphenol S (BPS) and Bisphenol F (BPF), by in vitro assays with a preadipocytic 3T3-L1 cell line. To compare the toxic potential and select the concentrations of each chemical not showing a decrease in cell viability, MTT assay was performed. The cell phenotype was determined in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes by red oil O staining. To determine the expression levels of the different adipogenic proteins the Western Blot test was performed. The results from MTT assay showed a greater toxic effect of BPA - at equal and even lower concentrations-than its analogues. However, BPS followed by BPF showed a greater neutral lipid storage capacity than BPA, which was reflected in the increase of the protein expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma γ (PPARγ) and acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4). In summary, these BPA analogues -especially BPS- present a greater endocrine potential activity than BPA.

2.
Environ Res ; 161: 399-408, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29197758

RESUMO

In the framework of the FP7 ECsafeSeafood project, 62 seafood samples commercialized in Europe Union from several representative species - mackerel, tuna, salmon, seabream, cod, monkfish, crab, shrimp, octopus, perch and plaice - were analysed for residues of 21 personal care products (PCPs), including 11 UV-filters (UV-Fs) and 10 musk fragrances (musks). PCPs analysis were performed by Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective Rugged, Safe (QuEChERS), combined with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) or dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE), followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The results showed the presence in a wide range of samples of nine out of eleven UV-Fs compounds analysed, namely 2-ethylhexyl salicylate (EHS), 2-ethylhexyl,4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidenecamphor (4-MBC), benzophenone-1 (BP1), benzophenone-3 (BP3), isoamyl-4-methoxycinnamate (IMC), 2,2'-dihydroxy-4,4'-dimethoxybenzophenone (DHMB), homosalate (HS), and octocrylene (OC), whereas galaxolide (HHCB), galaxolide lactone (HHCB-lactone), and tonalide (AHTN) were the most found musks. The potential risks to human health associated with the exposure to eight of the more prevalent PCPs - EHS, EHMC, 4-MBC, BP1, BP3, IMC, HHCB, and AHTN - through seafood consumption were assessed for consumers from five European countries (Belgium, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain). Results showed that the human exposure to UV-Fs and musks estimated from the concentration values found in seafood and the daily consumption of concerned seafood species, were far below toxicological reference values.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados , Odorantes , Alimentos Marinhos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Odorantes/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
3.
Reprod Toxicol ; 60: 133-9, 2016 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26900051

RESUMO

It has been demonstrated that exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can induce toxicological effects in rodents. In this study, we investigated whether sub-chronic oral exposure to different doses of polyvinil pyrrolidone (PVP)-coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) (50, 100 and 200mg/kg/day) could induce harmful effects on epididymal sperm rat parameters. Sperm motility, viability and morphology were examined. Moreover, a histological evaluation of testis and epididymis was also performed. High doses of PVP-AgNPs showed higher sperm morphology abnormalities, while a progressive, but not significant effect, was observed in other sperm parameters. The current results suggest that oral sub-chronic exposure to PVP-AgNPs induces slight toxicological effects in sperm rat parameters.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Povidona/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Animais , Epididimo/anatomia & histologia , Epididimo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Povidona/química , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Prata/química , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/anormalidades , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Testículo/anatomia & histologia , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Environ Res ; 143(Pt B): 65-71, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25985745

RESUMO

In the last decades, awareness regarding personal care products (PCP), i.e. synthetic organic chemicals frequently used in cosmetic and hygienic products, has become a forward-looking issue, due to their persistency in the environment and their potential multi-organ toxicity in both human and wildlife. Seafood is one of the most significant food commodities in the world and, certainly, one of the most prone to bioaccumulation of PCP, what can consequently lead to human exposure, especially for coastal population, where its consumption is more marked. The aim of this work was to evaluate the co-occurrence of musk fragrances and UV-filters in both seafood and macroalgae collected in different European hotspots (areas with high levels of pollution, highly populated and near wastewater treatment plants). Despite the fact that UV-filters were detected in three different kind of samples (mussel, mullet, and clam), in all cases they were below the limit of quantification. Galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) were the musk fragrances most frequently detected and quantified in samples from the European hotspots. Cashmeran (DPMI) was also detected in most samples but only quantified in two of them (flounder/herring and mullet). The highest levels of HHCB and AHTN were found in mussels from Po estuary.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Perfumes/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Alga Marinha/química , Protetores Solares/análise , Animais , Bivalves/química , Europa (Continente) , Peixes/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Alimentos Marinhos/normas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
5.
Arch. prev. riesgos labor. (Ed. impr.) ; 16(4): 190-191, oct.-dic. 2013.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-129196

RESUMO

La construcción en Constantí (Condado de Tarragona, Cataluña) de la primera, y hasta ahora la única incineradora de residuos peligrosos (IRP) en España, terminó en 1999. En este estudio medimos las concentraciones de determinadas sustancias orgánicas en la sangre y la orina de los trabajadores de la IRP. Las muestras se recogieron en 2011, perteneciendo a 18 hombres y 9 mujeres trabajadores de la instalación después de aproximadamente 12 años de operaciones regulares en las instalaciones. Los resultados se compararon con valores de referencia obtenidos al inicio de la puesta en marcha de la IRP, así como con los datos disponibles para 2008, 2009 y 2010. Se analizaron los niveles en plasma de hexaclorobenceno (HCB), bifenilos policlorados (PCB 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, y 180), dibenzo-p-dioxinas y dibenzofuranos (PCDD/Fs), y los niveles en orina de 2,4 - y 2,5-diclorofenol (DCP), 2,4,5 - y 2,4,6-triclorofenol (TCP), pentaclorofenol (PCP) y 1-hidroxipireno (HP-1).En plasma, las concentraciones medias fueron las siguientes: 10,8 μg/kg de lípidos para el HCB; 0,8 μg/kg de lípidos paraPCB28; 0,3 μg/kg de lípidos para PCB52; 0,5 μg/kg de lípidos para PCB101; 42,2 μg/kg de lípidos para PCB138; 18,5 μg/kg de lípidos para PCB153 y 51,2 μg/kg de lípidos para PCB180. Para PCDD/Fs, la concentración media fue de 4,6 ng EQT-I/kg lípidos (4,7 ng lípidos EQT-OMS/kg). Estos niveles, así como los que se encontraron en las muestras de orina, son coincidentes con niveles disponibles en los estudios previos realizados en la misma empresa. Los niveles detectados no indican exposiciones laborales en los trabajadores de la IRP a PCDD/Fs ni a las otras sustancias orgánicas evaluadas. Sin embargo, estos resultados deben considerarse con precaución ya que el número de participantes es limitado y no se dispone de datos sobre las concentraciones en el aire de las sustancias químicas consideradas. En consecuencia, no permiten derivar conclusiones para la aplicación de medidas de higiene industrial en otras IRP (AU)


The construction in Constantí (Tarragona County, Catalonia) of the first, and up till now the only hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) in Spain, finished in 1999. In this study, we measured the concentrations of a number of organic substances determined in blood and urine of the HWI workers. Samples of 18 men and 9 women, classified according to the irrespective workplaces, were collected in 2011, after approximately 12 years of regular operations in the facility. The current results were compared with those of the baseline survey, as well as with the most recent surveys performed in 2008, 2009and 2010. Plasma analyses were carried out for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs 28, 52, 101,138, 153, and 180) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), while the levels of 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol (DCP), 2,4,5- and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP), pentachlorophenol (PCP) and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP)were measured in urine samples. In plasma, the mean concentrations were the following: 10.8 μg/kg lipid for HCB; 0.8 μg/kg lipid for PCB28; 0.3 μg/kg lipid for PCB52; 0.5 μg/kg lipid for PCB101; 42.2 μg/kg lipid for PCB138; 18.5 μg/kg lipid forPCB153, and 51.2 μg/kg lipid for PCB180. For PCDD/Fs, the mean concentration was 4.6 ng I-TEQ/kg lipid (4.7 ng WHOTEQ/kg lipid). These levels, as well as those found in urine samples, are in agreement with the data of previous surveys performed in the same area. The current results in HWI workers do not show any evident sign of occupational exposure to PCDD/Fs and other organic substances. However, these results must be considered only as an indication of potential exposure, as the study presents notable limitations, such as the reduced number of participants and the lack of data relative to the air concentrations of chemicals. Consequently, general conclusions cannot be derived and the results should not be used as a basis for the implementation of industrial hygiene measures in other HWIs (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Resíduos Perigosos/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Dioxinas/isolamento & purificação , Eliminação de Resíduos Perigosos , Armazenamento de Resíduos Perigosos , Contêineres de Resíduos Perigosos
6.
Environ Int ; 39(1): 172-80, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22208757

RESUMO

A total of 27 per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were determined in both house dust (n=10) and indoor air (n=10) from selected homes in Catalonia, Spain. Concentrations were found to be similar or lower than those previously reported for household microenvironments in other countries. Ten PFCs were detected in all house dust samples. The highest mean concentrations corresponded to perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), 10.7 ng/g (median: 1.5 ng/g) and 10.4 ng/g (median: 5.4 ng/g), respectively, while the 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) was the dominating neutral PFC at a concentration of 0.41 ng/g (median: 0.35 ng/g). The indoor air was dominated by the FTOHs, especially the 8:2 FTOH at a mean (median) concentration of 51 pg/m(3) (median: 42 pg/m(3)). A limited number of ionic PFCs were also detected in the indoor air samples. Daily intakes of PFCs were estimated for average and worst case scenarios of human exposure from indoor sources. For toddlers, this resulted in average intakes of ∑ionic PFCs of 4.9ng/day (0.33 ng/kg(bw)/day for a 15 kg toddlers) and ∑neutral PFCs of 0.072 ng/day (0.005 ng/kg(bw)/day) from house dust. For adults, the average daily intakes of dust were 3.6 and 0.053 ng/day (0.05 and 0.001 ng/kg(bw)/day for a 70 kg adult) for ∑ionic and ∑neutral PFCs, respectively. The average daily inhalation of ∑neutral PFCs was estimated to be 0.9 and 1.3 ng/day (0.06 and 0.02 ng/kg(bw)/day) for toddlers and adults, respectively. For PFOS, the main ionic PFC detected in indoor air samples, the median intakes (based on those samples where PFOS was detected), resulted in indoor exposures of 0.06 and 0.11 ng/day (0.004 and 0.002 ng/kg(bw)/day) for toddlers and adults, respectively. Based on previous studies on dietary intake and drinking water consumption, both house dust and indoor air contribute significantly less to PFC exposure within this population.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Adulto , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Água Potável/química , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
7.
Curr Alzheimer Res ; 7(5): 401-8, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19939225

RESUMO

Although it is well established that aluminum (Al) is neurotoxic, the potential role of this element in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not well established. In this study, we evaluated the effects of oral Al exposure on spatial learning, memory and neurogenesis in Tg2576 mice, an animal model of AD in which Abeta plaques start to be deposited at 9 months of age. Aluminum was given as Al lactate (11 mg/g of food) for 6 months. At 11 months of age a water maze test was carried out to evaluate learning and memory. Subsequently, mice were injected with bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and sacrificed 24 hours or 28 days after the last injection in order to assess proliferation, survival and differentiation of neurons. We observed impaired acquisition in the water maze task in Al-treated Tg2576 mice, as well as worse memory in the Al-exposed groups. In terms of neurogenesis, no effects of aluminum were observed in proliferation, survival and differentiation. The results of this investigation suggest that Tg2576 mice fed for 210 days with rodent chow supplemented with Al lactate at 11 mg/g of food have impaired spatial learning although their neurogenesis remains unmodified.


Assuntos
Compostos de Alumínio/toxicidade , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Lactatos/toxicidade , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Neurogênese/genética , Comportamento Espacial/fisiologia , Administração Oral , Doença de Alzheimer/induzido quimicamente , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Animais , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Espacial/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Exp Neurol ; 214(2): 293-300, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18834880

RESUMO

The effects of a very low oral dose of Al on spatial learning and neurogenesis were evaluated in a transgenic mouse (Tg 2576) model of Alzheimer disease. At 5 months of age, wild and Tg 2576 mice received a diet supplemented with Al lactate at 0 and 1 mg/g of diet for 120 days. The experimental groups (n=7-8) were: control wild, Al-treated wild, control transgenic, and Al-treated transgenic. After 3 months of Al exposure, activity in an open-field and learning in a water maze were evaluated. At the end of the behavioral testing, in order to study cell proliferation and differentiation in the hippocampus, mice were injected with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and sacrificed 1 or 28 days after the last BrdU injection. Tg 2576 mice were impaired in both acquisition and retention of the water maze task, showing higher amounts of beta-amyloid fragments in brain. Aluminum exposure impaired learning and memory in wild mice and increased the total number of proliferating cells in the dentate gyrus of hippocampus. The low Al doses here experimented suggest that this element might impair cognition in the general population at doses comparable to current levels of human exposure. Although these doses are not enough to interact with the amyloidogenic pathway, an increase in cell proliferation can indicate a reactive response of the brain to Al insult. Further investigations should be performed to corroborate the effects observed at very low doses of Al and to study the potential effects derived from a longer exposure period.


Assuntos
Alumínio/toxicidade , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Divisão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Giro Denteado/efeitos dos fármacos , Giro Denteado/metabolismo , Giro Denteado/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Percepção Espacial/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 79(2): 130-4, 2007 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17492387

RESUMO

In recent years, incineration has been demonstrated to be a commercially available technology for hazardous waste (HW) disposal (Richter and Johnke, 2004). However, because of the potential adverse effects of toxic emissions, waste incinerators are still an important cause for concern for the public. In spite of that, compliance with current EU emissions has vastly reduced the probability of adverse health effects (Glorennec et al., 2005). With respect to metals, a number of studies have shown that these elements are emitted by industrial, medical and municipal waste incinerators (Schumacher et al., 1997; Rimmer et al., 2006). Filter ash is an especially problematic residue because it contains high metal concentrations (Lisk et al., 1989). After combustion in modern HW incinerators (HWIs), metals contained in HW are mainly collected in bottom and fly ash, with only small quantity of metals being discharged from the stack as particulate matter or vapor (Jung et al., 2004). However, the atmospheric emission of these elements is a matter of concern.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Resíduos Perigosos/análise , Incineração , Metais/análise , Plantas/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Ecossistema , Medição de Risco , Espanha , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Chemosphere ; 67(9): S295-300, 2007 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17207841

RESUMO

In this study, the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in milk from women living in the vicinity of a new hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) in Catalonia, Spain, were determined. The study was performed after 4 years of regular operations in the facility and the present PCB levels were compared with baseline concentrations obtained in a pre-operational program. PCBs and PBDEs levels were determined by HRGC/HRMS in 15 samples. In the present study planar PCBs ranged from 1.3 to 6.3 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat with a mean value of 3.8 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat. After adding dioxin-like mono-ortho-PCBs the total PCB-TEQ concentrations ranged from 3.8 to 13.3 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat (mean value: 8.7 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat). A comparison of the current data with those obtained in the baseline study showed significant decreases for both planar and total WHO-TEQ of PCBs: 47.9% and 44.6%, respectively. PCB concentrations in milk of women living in urban zones were higher than those living near industrial areas (10.1 and 7.4 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat, respectively). Mean PBDE concentrations were 2.2 and 2.5 ng/g fat for women living in urban and industrial zones, respectively. Dietary intake of PCBs and PBDEs for a standard adult woman samples were 898 and 843 ng/day for PCBs, and 72 and 63 ng/day for PBDEs, for residents in urban and industrials areas, respectively. This study suggests that dietary intake is more relevant for human exposure to PCBs and PBDEs than living near the HWI.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Incineração , Leite Humano/química , Éteres Fenílicos/análise , Bifenil Polibromatos/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Adulto , Cidades , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Resíduos Perigosos , Habitação , Humanos , Indústrias , Éteres Fenílicos/metabolismo , Éteres Fenílicos/toxicidade , Bifenil Polibromatos/metabolismo , Bifenil Polibromatos/toxicidade , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Espanha
11.
Environ Int ; 32(1): 52-7, 2006 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15990169

RESUMO

In July 2003, duplicated samples of roots, stems and leaves of sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) were collected in 25 points of an area under direct influence of the municipal landfill site (MLS) and medical waste treatment system (MWTS) of Ribeirao Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The following concentrations (mg/kg) were found in roots: Cd, 0.22+/-0.12; Cr, 64.3+/-48.7; Cu, 140.6+/-27.7; Hg, 0.04+/-0.02; Mn, 561.6+/-283.3; Pb, 7.9+/-2.1 and Zn, 177.4+/-64.9. For some metals, these levels are higher than the concentrations previously reported for different plants, reaching, in some cases, values that might be considered toxic for vegetables. Metal levels in stems were 80-90% of those found in roots, while the concentrations detected in leaves were significantly lower than those in roots. The present results suggest that MLS and MWTS activities might have been increasing metal concentrations in edible tissues of sugar cane grown in the area under their influence. Moreover, the traditional agricultural practices in the production of sugar cane could be also another determinant factor to reach the current metal levels. The results of this study indicate that sugar cane is a crop that is able to grow in areas where metals in soils are accumulated.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/química , Eliminação de Resíduos , Saccharum/química , Brasil
12.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 49(3): 290-8, 2005 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16132416

RESUMO

In 1998 and 2001, the levels of a number of elements (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Tl, and V) were determined in 40 soil and 40 herbage samples collected near a new hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) (Constantí, Catalonia, Spain). In 2003, soil and herbage samples were again collected at the same sampling points in which samples had been taken in the previous surveys. During the period 1998-2003, As, Be, Cr, Ni, and V levels showed significant increases in soils. In contrast, the levels of Cd, Hg, and Sn significantly decreased. With respect to herbage, while Cr, Mn, and V concentrations significantly increased, those of As levels diminished. On the other hand, human health risks derived from metal ingestion and inhalation of soils were also assessed. In relation to noncarcinogenic risks, all elements presented a value inside the safe interval. In turn, Cd and Cr were also in the safe interval of carcinogenic risks, whereas in contrast As levels clearly exceeded the regulatory limits concerning carcinogenic risks. According to the results of the previous (2001) and current (2003) surveys, the fluctuations in the metal concentrations suggest that the influence of the HWI is minimal in relation to other metal pollution sources in the area.


Assuntos
Resíduos Perigosos , Incineração , Metais Pesados/análise , Plantas/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Análise de Componente Principal , Medição de Risco , Espanha
13.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 43(12): 1713-21, 2005 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16002201

RESUMO

The dietary intake of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) by elite sportsmen and sportswomen of Catalonia, Spain, was assessed. In 2000, food samples were randomly acquired in various cities of Catalonia. Analysis of the above pollutants were determined according to the appropriate analytical techniques (ICP-MS, HRGC/HRMS, HPLC). In general terms, elite sportsmen and sportswomen showed a higher intake of Cd, Hg, Pb, HCB, PCNs, PCDD/Fs and PAHs than the general population, while it was lower for PCDEs (both sexes), and PCBs and PBDEs (women). According to the FAO/WHO provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) for metals, the WHO tolerable daily intake (TDI) for HCB, and the US EPA's reference dose (RfD) for PAHs, the dietary intakes of environmental pollutants should not mean a potential toxic hazard. However, the WHO-TDI for PCDD/Fs and "dioxin-like" PCBs is exceeded in sportsmen. The current results indicate that the consumption of those food groups showing the highest contribution to the intake of these pollutants should be diminished. In relation to this, the reduction of the consumption of dairy products and cereals would be important.


Assuntos
Dieta , Poluentes Ambientais/administração & dosagem , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Esportes , Arsênico/administração & dosagem , Arsênico/análise , Benzofuranos/administração & dosagem , Benzofuranos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Análise de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Rememoração Mental , Metais Pesados/administração & dosagem , Metais Pesados/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/administração & dosagem , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/administração & dosagem , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análogos & derivados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Espectrofotometria/métodos
14.
Int J Radiat Biol ; 81(3): 205-9, 2005 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16019929

RESUMO

The aim was to study the effects of radiofrequency (Rf) in a mice strain characterized by age-determined carcinogenesis of lymphatic tissues. Mice were treated with a 1?h/week Rf exposure for 4 months. A group submitted to sham exposure was used as control animals. The evolution of carcinogenesis was followed up to 18 months. The maximal life span of control mice was about 24 months. All dead animals were clinically and histologically examined to give an age-determined comparative quantification of the evolving carcinogenesis. A radiocalcium tracer method permitted the evaluation of Rf effects on transmembrane transport of extracellular calcium at 1 and 24 h after exposure. The determination of induced lipid peroxidation completed this second study. The findings show that Rf provoked an earlier general lymphocyte cell infiltration, formation of lymphoblastic ascites and extranodal tumours of different histological types, as well as an increased early mortality. The results suggest that in Rf-exposed mice, carcinogenesis may be induced earlier and with different pathological forms than in control animals. The modifications in cellular calcium homeostasis and the age-determined thymus involution appear to be important factors involved in this carcinogenesis process.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Homeostase/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/etiologia , Ondas de Rádio/efeitos adversos , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos
16.
Chemosphere ; 57(1): 43-9, 2004 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15288198

RESUMO

In this study, the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) in breast milk from mothers living in the vicinity of a new hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) were determined. Monitoring was performed after three years of regular operations in the facility and the present results were compared with baseline concentrations obtained in a pre-operational program. PCDD/PCDF levels were determined by HRGC/HRMS in 15 samples. In the present study, PCDD/PCDF concentrations ranged from 4.9 to 39.9 pg I-TEQ/g fat (5.1-46.8 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat), with a median value of 7.7 pg I-TEQ/g fat (9.1 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat). In the baseline survey, PCDD/PCDF concentrations ranged between 5.9 and 17.1 pg I-TEQ/g fat, with a median value of 11.7 pg I-TEQ/g fat. In relation to this, a percentage of reduction of 34.2% was noted. This decrease is in agreement with the relevant reduction found in the dietary intake of PCDD/PCDFs between both surveys. The results of the present study, as well as other recent environmental and biological data, indicate that living in the vicinity of this HWI should not mean additional health risks due to PCDD/PCDFs for the general population.


Assuntos
Dioxinas/análise , Exposição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Furanos/análise , Leite Humano/química , Adulto , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Incineração , Espanha
17.
Environ Pollut ; 132(1): 1-11, 2004 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15276268

RESUMO

The levels of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 24 soil and 12 wild chard samples collected in Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain), an area with an important number of chemical and petrochemical industries. Samples were also collected in urban/residential zones and in presumably unpolluted sites (control samples). In soils, the sum of the 16 PAHs ranged between 1002 and 112 ng/g (dry weight) for samples collected near chemical industries and unpolluted sites, respectively. With the exception of acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, anthracene and benzo[k]fluoranthene, no significant differences in the levels of the remaining PAHs were found among the different zones of sample collection. In chard samples, the highest value (sum of 16 PAHs) was observed in the residential area, followed by the industrial and the unpolluted zones, with concentrations of 179, 58 and 28 ng/g (dry weight), respectively. In general terms, the current PAH concentrations in soil and vegetation are lower than the levels reported in a number of investigations from different regions and countries. They are also below the maximum PAH concentrations allowed by the Catalan legislation for different uses of soil.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris/química , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Acenaftenos/análise , Antracenos/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Indústria Química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fluorenos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Espanha , Saúde da População Urbana
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 322(1-3): 63-70, 2004 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15081738

RESUMO

To assess the dietary intake of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by the population of Catalonia, Spain, a total-diet study was carried out. Concentrations of HCB were determined in food samples randomly acquired in seven cities of Catalonia between June and August 2000. A total of 11 food groups were included in the study. HCB levels were determined by HRGC/HRMS. Estimates of average daily food consumption were obtained from recent studies. HCB intake was estimated for five population groups: children (aged 4 to 9 years), adolescents (aged 10 to 19 years), male and female adults (aged 20 to 65 years), and seniors (aged >65 years). In general, HCB residues in foods were rather low excepting dairy products with a mean concentration of 0.869 ng/g wet weight. Total dietary intakes of HCB (microgram per kilogram body weight/day) were the following: children (0.0064), adolescents (0.0031), female adults (0.0025), male adults (0.0024) and seniors (0.0019). All these values are considerably lower than the WHO tolerable daily intake (TDI), which is 0.17 microg kg(-1) day(-1) for non-cancer effects and 0.16 microg kg(-1) day(-1) for neoplastic effects in humans.


Assuntos
Dieta , Exposição Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Hexaclorobenzeno/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Laticínios , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 321(1-3): 59-69, 2004 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15050385

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), and vanadium (V) in soil and chard samples collected in various industrial sites of Tarragona County (Spain), an area with an important number of petrochemical industries. Samples were also collected in urban (Tarragona downtown) and presumably unpolluted (blank samples) sites. Human health risks derived from metal inhalation and ingestion of soils were also assessed. With the exception of an increase in the levels of Cd and V, significant differences in soil samples from the industrial and the unpolluted zone were not found. In chard samples, significant differences between collection sites were only noted for V concentrations. For non-carcinogenic risks, the current levels of metals in the industrial area were lower than those considered as safe for the general population. In relation to carcinogenic risks, only As ingestion and Cr inhalation in the industrial zone might potentially cause an increase of the cases of cancer. A Kohonen self-organized map (an Artificial Neural Network) showed differences in metal concentrations according to the zone of origin of the samples. The current results suggest that although in general terms the petrochemical complex is not a relevant metal pollution source for the area, attention should be paid to As, Cr and V.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris/química , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Análise de Variância , Indústrias Extrativas e de Processamento , Redes Neurais de Computação , Espanha
20.
Chemosphere ; 54(10): 1375-82, 2004 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14659939

RESUMO

Artificial neural network (ANN) has been recently introduced as a tool for data analysis. In this study, Kohonen's self-organizing maps (SOMs), a special type of neural network, were applied to a set of PCDD/PCDF concentrations found in 54 human milk and 83 food samples, which were collected in a number of countries all over the world. Data were obtained from the scientific literature. The purpose of the study was to find a potential relationship between PCDD/PCDF congener profiles in human milk and the dietary habits of the different countries in which samples were collected. The comparison of the SOM component planes for human milk and foodstuffs indicates that those countries with a greater fish consumption show also higher PCDD/PCDF concentrations in human milk. SOMs enable both the visualization of sample units and the visualization of congener distribution.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/análise , Dioxinas/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Leite Humano/química , Redes Neurais de Computação , Algoritmos , Análise por Conglomerados , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Humanos
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