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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over-the-counter analgesic use during pregnancy, particularly acetaminophen, may be associated with negative developmental outcomes in children. OBJECTIVE: Estimate associations of prenatal and early-life exposure to acetaminophen in early childhood with cognitive, motor, and language skills in two birth cohorts. METHODS: The American Project Viva cohort (1217 mother-child pairs enrolled 1999-2002) assessed cognition at approximately 3 years using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and the Wide Range Achievement of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA). The Brazilian 2015 Pelotas Birth Cohort (3818 mother-child pairs) assessed cognition at 2 years using the INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Assessment. We used linear regression to estimate associations of acetaminophen use during pregnancy (Project Viva and Pelotas) and infancy (Project Viva) with children's cognitive scores adjusted for maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, education, parity, race/ethnicity, smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy, depression during pregnancy, antibiotic and ibuprofen use during pregnancy, household income, and child's sex. RESULTS: In Project Viva, exposure to acetaminophen in both the 1st and 2nd trimester of pregnancy was associated with lower WRAVMA drawing scores (ß -1.51, 95% CI -2.92, -0.10). However, in Pelotas, exposure to acetaminophen in both the 1st and 2nd trimester of pregnancy was not associated with INTER-NDA motor scores (ß 0.02; 95% CI -0.05, 0.09) and was associated with higher INTER-NDA total scores (ß 0.08, 95% CI 0.01, 0.16). Other comparisons did not show evidence for any associations. CONCLUSIONS: Inconsistencies and lack of specificity of the findings did not clarify the research question considering that we still have a large variability and uncertainty to define the risk or safety in the use of acetaminophen related to cognition in early childhood. More studies using better exposure assessment and better confounding variables are needed to clarify these associations.

2.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 410, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies of healthcare service use during the pregnancy-postpartum cycle often rely on self-reported data. The reliability of self-reported information is often questioned as administrative data or medical records, such as antenatal care cards, are usually preferred. In this study, we measured the agreement of antenatal care indicators from self-reported information and antenatal care cards of pregnant women in the 2015 Pelotas Birth Cohort, Brazil. METHODS: In a sample of 3923 mothers, indicator agreement strengths were estimated from Kappa and prevalence-and-bias-adjusted Kappa (PABAK) coefficients. Maternal characteristics associated with indicator agreements were assessed with heterogeneity chi-squared tests. RESULTS: The self-reported questionnaire and the antenatal care card showed a moderate to high agreement in 10 of 21 (48%) antenatal care indicators that assessed care service use, clinical examination and diseases during pregnancy. Counseling indicators performed poorly. Self-reported information presented a higher frequency data and a higher sensitivity but slightly lower specificity when compared to the antenatal card. Factors associated with higher agreement between both data sources included lower maternal age, higher level of education, primiparous status, and being a recipient of health care in the public sector. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported questionnaire and antenatal care cards provided substantially different information on indicator performance. Reliance on only one source of data to assess antenatal care quality may be questionable for some indicators. From a public health perspective, it is recommended that antenatal care programs use multiple data sources to estimate quality and effectiveness of health promotion and disease prevention in pregnant women and their offspring.

3.
J Phys Act Health ; : 1-8, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate whether engagement in leisure-time physical activity before or during pregnancy is associated with low back pain (LBP) outcomes during pregnancy and postpartum prevalence of LBP in women who reported LBP during pregnancy. METHODS: Data from the 2015 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, were used. Demographic, socioeconomic, and gestational characteristics, as well as physical activity prior to and during pregnancy were recorded at perinatal assessment. LBP outcomes during pregnancy (pain intensity, activity limitation, and care seeking) and postpartum (prevalence of LBP) were collected at the 1-year follow-up. RESULTS: Pain intensity, care seeking, and prevalence of LBP postpartum period were not associated with physical activity either before or during pregnancy. However, women engaged in physical activity during pregnancy and at least for 2 trimesters had lower odds ratio of activity limitation associated with LBP during pregnancy (odds ratio: 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.41 to 0.88; odds ratio: 0.20; 95% confidence interval, 0.04 to 0.86, respectively). CONCLUSION: Meeting the recommended levels of physical activity during pregnancy is associated with less activity limitation related to LBP during pregnancy. However, physical activity levels, either before or during pregnancy, were not associated with pain intensity, care seeking, and postpartum LBP.

4.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(7): e00072918, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411283

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe fetal, neonatal, and post-neonatal mortality and associated factors in participants of the 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort. The child mortality sub-study followed up all deaths in the first year of life. Data were collected on intrauterine fetal deaths (weight ≥ 500g and/or gestational age ≥ 20 weeks), neonatal deaths (< 28 days of life), and post-neonatal deaths (from 28 days to the end of the first year of life). Descriptive analyses using the Pearson chi-square test and a multinomial logistic regression to estimate the risk of fetal, neonatal, and post-neonatal deaths compared to live infants in the cohort (reference group) were performed. Data from 4,329 eligible births were collected, of which 54 died during the fetal period. Of the 4,275 eligible live births, 59 died in the first year of life. An association between fetal, neonatal, and post-neonatal deaths (OR = 15.60, 7.63, and 5.51 respectively) was found, as well as less than six prenatal consultations. Compared to live infants, fetal deaths were more likely to occur in non-white mothers, and neonatal deaths were 14.09 times more likely to occur in a preterm gestational age (< 37 weeks). Compared to live infants, infants that were born in a C-section delivery had 3.71 increased odds of post-neonatal death. Additionally, neonatal deaths were 102.37 times more likely to have a low Apgar score on the fifth minute after birth. These findings show the need for early interventions during pregnancy, ensuring access to adequate prenatal care.

5.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(Suppl 1): i80-i88, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Levels of child undernutrition have declined in many middle-income countries, whereas overweight and obesity have increased. We describe time trends in nutritional indicators at age 1 year in the 1982, 1993, 2004 and 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohorts. METHODS: Each study included all children born in the urban area of the city, with over 4 200 births in each cohort. Children were measured at approximately 12 months of age. Anthropometric indicators were calculated according to World Health Organization Growth Standards. Stunting and wasting were defined as <-2 Z scores for length for age and weight for length, and overweight as >2 Z scores for weight for length. Prevalence was stratified by sex, maternal skin colour and family income. RESULTS: The prevalence of stunting declined by 53% (from 8.3% to 3.9%) from 1982 to 2015. Wasting prevalence remained stable at low levels (1.8% in 1982 and 1.7% in 2015), whereas overweight increased by 88% (6.5% to 12.2%). Undernutrition was more common among boys, those born to mothers with brown or black skin colour and in the poorest quintile of families. Socioeconomic inequalities in undernutrition decreased markedly over time. Overweight was markedly more common among the rich in 1982, but fast increase among the poor eliminated socioeconomic differences by 2015, when all groups showed similar prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the rapid nutrition transition in Brazil, with marked reduction in levels and inequalities in undernutrition in parallel with a rapid increase in overweight, which became the main nutritional problem for children.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/embriologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia , Estatura , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Padrões de Referência , Organização Mundial da Saúde
6.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(Suppl 1): i26-i36, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-pregnancy nutritional status and weight gain during pregnancy have short- and long-term consequences for the health of women and children. This study was aimed at evaluating maternal height,- and overweight or obesity at the beginning of the pregnancy and gestational weight gain, according to socioeconomic status and maternal skin colour of mothers in Pelotas, a southern Brazilian city, in 1982, 1993, 2004 and 2015. METHODS: In 1982, 1993, 2004 and 2015, the maternity hospitals in Pelotas were visited daily, all deliveries were identified and mothers who lived in the urban area of the city were interviewed. Maternal weight at the beginning of the pregnancy was self-reported by the mother or obtained from the antenatal card. Maternal height was collected from the maternity records or measured by the research team. Overweight or obesity was defined by a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. Gestational weight gain was evaluated according to the Institute of Medicine guidelines. RESULTS: In the four cohorts, we evaluated 19 931 women. From 1982 to 2015, the prevalence of overweight or obesity at the beginning of the pregnancy increased from 22.1% to 47.0% and height increased by an average of 5.2 cm, whereas gestational weight gain did not change. Socioeconomic status was positively associated with maternal height, and the difference between the poorest and the wealthiest decreased. Overweight or obesity was lower among those mothers in the extreme categories of family income. CONCLUSIONS: Over the 33-year span, mothers were taller at the beginning of the pregnancy, but the prevalence of overweight or obesity more than doubled.


Assuntos
Estatura , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Estado Nutricional , Gravidez , Prevalência , Classe Social , Ganho de Peso
8.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(7): e00072918, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1011704

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe fetal, neonatal, and post-neonatal mortality and associated factors in participants of the 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort. The child mortality sub-study followed up all deaths in the first year of life. Data were collected on intrauterine fetal deaths (weight ≥ 500g and/or gestational age ≥ 20 weeks), neonatal deaths (< 28 days of life), and post-neonatal deaths (from 28 days to the end of the first year of life). Descriptive analyses using the Pearson chi-square test and a multinomial logistic regression to estimate the risk of fetal, neonatal, and post-neonatal deaths compared to live infants in the cohort (reference group) were performed. Data from 4,329 eligible births were collected, of which 54 died during the fetal period. Of the 4,275 eligible live births, 59 died in the first year of life. An association between fetal, neonatal, and post-neonatal deaths (OR = 15.60, 7.63, and 5.51 respectively) was found, as well as less than six prenatal consultations. Compared to live infants, fetal deaths were more likely to occur in non-white mothers, and neonatal deaths were 14.09 times more likely to occur in a preterm gestational age (< 37 weeks). Compared to live infants, infants that were born in a C-section delivery had 3.71 increased odds of post-neonatal death. Additionally, neonatal deaths were 102.37 times more likely to have a low Apgar score on the fifth minute after birth. These findings show the need for early interventions during pregnancy, ensuring access to adequate prenatal care.


O estudo teve como objetivo descrever a mortalidade fetal, neonatal e pós-neonatal e fatores associados em participantes da coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas, Brasil, de 2015. O sub-estudo sobre mortalidade infantil acompanhou todos os óbitos no primeiro ano de vida. Foram coletados os dados sobre natimortos (com peso ao nascer ≥ 500g e/ou idade gestacional ≥ 20 semanas), óbitos neonatais (< 28 dias de vida) e óbitos pós-neonatais (entre 28 dias e o final do primeiro ano de vida). Foram realizadas análises descritivas com o teste de qui-quadrado de Pearson e regressão logística multinominal para estimar o risco de morte fetal, neonatal e pós-neonatal, comparado com as crianças vivas na coorte (grupo de referência). Foram coletados os dados de 4.329 nascimentos elegíveis, dos quais 54 natimortos. Dos 4.275 nascidos vivos elegíveis, 59 faleceram no primeiro ano de vida. A análise mostrou uma associação entre morte fetal, neonatal e pós-neonatal (OR = 15,60, 7,63 e 5,51, respectivamente) e menos de seis consultas de pré-natal. Quando comparados aos nascidos vivos, os natimortos apresentaram maior probabilidade de ter mãe não-branca, e o óbito neonatal mostrou probabilidade 14,09 vezes maior de ocorrer com prematuridade (idade gestacional < 37 semanas). Crianças nascidas por cesariana mostraram probabilidade 3,71 vezes maior de óbito pós-neonatal. Além disso, os óbitos neonatais mostraram probabilidade 102,37 maior de Apgar baixo no quinto minuto. Os achados mostram a necessidade de intervenções precoces durante a gravidez para poder garantir uma assistência pré-natal adequada.


El objetivo del presente estudio fue describir la mortalidad fetal, neonatal y postneonatal, así como sus factores asociados, en participantes de una cohorte de nacimientos en Pelotas, Brasil, durante 2015. La mortalidad infantil se siguió mediante un sub-estudio de todas las muertes durante el primer año de vida. Se recogieron datos de muertes intrauterinas fetales (peso al nacer ≥ 500g y/o edad gestacional ≥ 20 semanas), muertes neonatales (< 28 días de vida), y muertes postneonatales (desde los 28 días hasta el primer año de vida). Se usaron análisis descriptivos usando el test chi-cuadrado de Pearson y se realizó una regresión logística multinomial para estimar el riesgo de las muertes fetales, neonatales y postneonatales, comparadas con los niños vivos en la cohorte (grupo de referencia). Se recogieron datos de 4.329 nacimientos elegibles de los que 54 murieron durante el periodo fetal. De los 4.275 nacimientos vivos elegibles, 59 murieron durante el primer año de vida. Se estableció una asociación entre las muertes fetales, neonatales y postneonatales (OR = 15,60; 7,63 y 5,51, respectivamente) y contar con menos de seis consultas prenatales. Cuando se comparan con los niños vivos, las muertes fetales tenían una probabilidad mayor si contaban con una madre que no fuera blanca, además, había más de 14,09 veces más probabilidades de que se produjeran con una edad gestacional pretérmino (< 37 semanas). Cuando lo comparamos con los niños vivos, los niños que nacieron en la sección de partos por cesárea tuvieron una oportunidad 3,71 superior de muerte postneonatal. Asimismo, las muertes neonatales fueron 102,37 veces más propensas de tener un bajo Apgar en el quinto minuto tras el nacimiento. Estos resultados mostraron la necesidad de intervenciones tempranas durante el embarazo, asegurando el acceso a un cuidado prenatal adecuado.

9.
Public Health Nutr ; 21(14): 2654-2664, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29766835

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of consumption of dairy products and physical activity (PA) with bone mineral density (BMD). DESIGN: Cohort study with children from the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort. SETTING: Pelotas, a medium-sized Brazilian city. SUBJECTS: The study started in 2004 and mothers/children were interviewed/measured periodically from birth to age 6 years. PA was measured by maternal proxy at 4 and 6 years and by accelerometry at 6 years. Consumption of dairy products was measured using 24 h food recall (at 4 years) and FFQ (at 6 years). Total-body and lumbar-spine BMD (g/cm2) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: At 6 years, BMD was measured in 3444 children and 2636 children provided data on objectively measured PA by accelerometry. Consumption of dairy products at 4 years was associated with higher lumbar-spine BMD at 6 years in boys, while current consumption was positively associated with BMD in both sexes (P < 0·001). PA assessed by maternal report at 4 and 6 years of age was associated with higher BMD at 6 years in boys. PA assessed by accelerometry was positively related to total-body and lumbar-spine BMD in boys and lumbar-spine BMD in girls. We did not find evidence for an interaction between PA and consumption of dairy products on BMD. CONCLUSIONS: We observed positive and independent longitudinal and cross-sectional associations between consumption of dairy products and PA with BMD in the total body and at the lumbar spine in young children.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Laticínios , Exercício , Absorciometria de Fóton , Acelerometria , Brasil , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
11.
J Sci Med Sport ; 20(1): 17-25, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27372276

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Identify perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy to inform future interventions aimed at improving physical activity levels in pregnancy. DESIGN: PubMed/Medline and Web of Science databases were systematically searched using a reference period between 1986 and January/2016. METHODS: A comprehensive search strategy was developed combining the following keywords: (barriers OR constraints OR perceptions OR attitudes) AND (physical activity OR exercise OR motor activity) AND (pregnancy OR pregnant women OR antenatal OR prenatal). Thematic synthesis was conducted to analyze the data. A socioecological model was used to categorize the reported barriers. RESULTS: Twelve quantitative studies and 14 qualitative studies were included. Barriers belonging to the intrapersonal level of the socioecological model were the most reported in the studies and were categorized in five themes as follows: (1) Pregnancy-related symptoms and limitations; (2) Time constraints; (3) Perceptions of already being active, (4) Lack of motivation and (5) Mother-child safety concerns. At the interpersonal level, barriers were coded into two descriptive themes: (1) Lack of advice and information and (2) Lack of social support. Two other themes were used to summarize Environmental, Organizational and Policy barriers: (1) Adverse weather and (2) Lack of resources. CONCLUSIONS: A range of relevant barriers to leisure-time physical-activity engagement during pregnancy were identified in this literature review. Pregnancy-related symptoms and limitations barriers were the most reported in studies, regardless of study design. Mother-child safety concerns, lack of advice/information and lack of social support were also important emphasized pregnancy-related barriers to be targeted in future interventions.


Assuntos
Exercício , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Atividades de Lazer , Motivação , Gestantes/psicologia , Apoio Social , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Tempo
12.
PLoS One ; 9(10): e110050, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25350666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal physical activity during pregnancy could alter offspring's IQ and neurodevelopment in childhood. METHODS: Children belonging to a birth cohort were followed at 3, 12, 24 and 48 months of age. Physical activity during pregnancy was assessed retrospectively at birth. Neurodevelopment was evaluated by Battelle's Development Inventory (12, 24 and 48 months) and IQ by the Weschler's Intelligence Scale (48 months). Neurodevelopment was based on Battelles' (90th percentile) and also analyzed as a continuous outcome. IQ was analyzed as a continuous outcome. Potential confounders were: family income, mother's age, schooling, skin color, number of previous births and smoking; and newborns': preterm birth, sex and low birth weight. RESULTS: From birth to 48 months, sample size decreased from 4231 to 3792. Crude analysis showed that IQ at 48 months was slightly higher (5 points) among children from active women. The Battelle's score at 12 and 24 months was higher among offspring from active mothers. After controlling for confounders, physical activity during pregnancy was positively associated to the Battelle's Inventory at 12 months IQ, however, at 48 months no association was observed. CONCLUSION: Physical activity during pregnancy does not seem to impair children's neurodevelopment and children from active mothers presented better performance at 12 months.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Inteligência , Atividade Motora , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
Prev Med ; 62: 201-7, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24589441

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a prospective association between physical activity (PA) and bone mineral density (BMD) in young adults. METHOD: Total body (TB), lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) BMD were measured in participants from the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 30 y. PA was evaluated at 15, 18 (males) and 23 y. RESULTS: 3454 young adults were scanned (DXA) at least at one anatomical site. In males, PA at 15 y was associated with LS density (ß=0.061 g/cm(2); 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.015; 0.108). A positive dose-response effect was found for the association between PA at 18 y and BMD. Males in the two highest quartiles of PA at 23 y had significantly greater BMD at all anatomical sites than males in the lowest quartile. We observed greater BMD at 30 y in boys who were active at least in one of the assessments (18 or 23 y) compared to inactive boys at both ages. Females in the highest quartile of PA at 23 y showed greater FN density at 30 y (ß=0.020; 95%CI: 0.001; 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: A physically active pattern is important to BMD across the first three decades of life. Potential beneficial effects of PA were not entirely lost with advancing age in male young adults.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Colo do Fêmur/fisiologia , Vértebras Lombares/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Colo do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Phys Act Health ; 11(1): 38-44, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23249630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations between exposure to the Exercise Orientation Service (EOS) program and physical activity (PA) and quality of life (QoL) in adults from Vitoria, Brazil. METHODS: A phone survey was conducted with 2023 randomly selected participants (≥ 18 years) to measure awareness about the program, participation in the program, PA levels, and QoL. The associations were tested using Poisson and Linear regression models. RESULTS: 31.5% reported awareness about the program, 1.5% reported current participation, and 5.8% reported previous participation. Participation was higher among women (2.1%), older subjects (2.8%), and those reporting morbidities (2.4%). Awareness was higher among middle-aged persons (36.0%) and highly educated participants (37.1%). Current participation (PR = 2.22; 95% CI = 1.65-2.99) and awareness (PR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.02-1.30) were associated with leisure-time PA (LTPA). CONCLUSION: Exposure to the program was not associated with QoL but was consistently associated with sufficient levels of LTPA among adults from Vitoria, Brazil.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Participação Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Conscientização , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição de Poisson , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Phys Act Health ; 10(8): 1145-52, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23223711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess physical activity (PA) patterns (intensity and prevalence) in children according to demographic, socioeconomic, and familiar characteristics. METHODS: In 2010, a cross-sectional study of 239 children aged 4-11 was conducted, in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. PA was measured by accelerometry and classified in different intensities. Insufficient physical activity was defined as less than 60 min/day of moderate-to-vigorous PA. Descriptive analyses of accelerometry-related variables were presented. Multivariate Poisson regression models were used to estimate the association between physical insufficient PA and covariates. RESULTS: For both sexes, around 65% of the registered time was spent in sedentary activities and less than 20 min/day in vigorous activity. Age and economic status were inversely associated to PA in all categories of PA. Moderate and vigorous activities means were higher in boys than in girls. The prevalence of insufficient PA was 34.5% in girls and 19.5% in boys. CONCLUSIONS: We found important differences in physical activity patterns according to sex and economic status, as well as a significant decline in time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA with increasing age. Understanding the relationship between these sociodemographic factors is important to tackle low levels of PA.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Actigrafia/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício , Atividade Motora , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
Pediatrics ; 129(5): 860-8, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22473365

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Coffee and other caffeinated beverages are commonly consumed in pregnancy. In adults, caffeine may interfere with sleep onset and have a dose-response effect similar to those seen during insomnia. In infancy, nighttime waking is a common event. With this study, we aimed to investigate if maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and lactation leads to frequent nocturnal awakening among infants at 3 months of age. METHODS: All children born in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, during 2004 were enrolled on a cohort study. Mothers were interviewed at delivery and after 3 months to obtain information on caffeine drinking consumption, sociodemographic, reproductive, and behavioral characteristics. Infant sleeping pattern in the previous 15 days was obtained from a subsample. Night waking was defined as an episode of infant arousal that woke the parents during nighttime. Multivariable analysis was performed by using Poisson regression. RESULTS: The subsample included 885 of the 4231 infants born in 2004. All but 1 mother consumed caffeine in pregnancy. Nearly 20% were heavy consumers (≥300 mg/day) during pregnancy and 14.3% at 3 months postpartum. Prevalence of frequent nighttime awakeners (>3 episodes per night) was 13.8% (95% confidence interval: 11.5%-16.0%). The highest prevalence ratio was observed among breastfed infants from mothers consuming ≥300 mg/day during the whole pregnancy and in the postpartum period (1.65; 95% confidence interval: 0.86-3.17) but at a nonsignificant level. CONCLUSIONS: Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and by nursing mothers seems not to have consequences on sleep of infants at the age of 3 months.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Cafeína/efeitos adversos , Comportamento do Lactente/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Vigília/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Nível de Alerta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brasil , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Distribuição de Poisson , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Public Health Nutr ; 15(12): 2237-45, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22464063

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the predictors of change in physical activity (PA) from early to mid adolescence in a cohort of adolescents. DESIGN: Prospective, population-based birth cohort study. PA level was evaluated by means of questionnaire, and was analysed in continuous form (min/week) and as a trajectory (inactive-inactive, inactive-active, active-inactive, active-active) based on the cut-off point of 300 min/week. SETTING: Pelotas, a city of 340 000 inhabitants in southern Brazil. SUBJECTS: Adolescents (n 4120) followed from 11 to 15 years of age. RESULTS: Maternal PA change and more exposure to outdoors were directly associated with a positive change in PA level (min/week) for both genders. Higher maturation status (among boys) and later menarche were also associated with positive PA change in min/week. Predictors to remain inactive were: maternal PA change (inverse association), more exposure to outdoors, higher socio-economic level, fear of living in the neighbourhood and non-overweight girls. Predictors to become inactive were higher socio-economic level among boys and increase in screen time among girls. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrates that social, family, biological, behavioural and environmental factors exert an important role in the PA change among youngsters as they move into adolescence. These findings may be relevant to the design of policies and intervention programmes aimed at promoting PA in teenagers.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Exercício , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Brasil , Criança , Meio Ambiente , Medo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Crescimento , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Menarca , Mães , Sobrepeso , Estudos Prospectivos , Valores de Referência , Características de Residência , Fatores Sexuais , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Rev. saúde pública ; 46(2): 327-333, Apr. 2012. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-618487

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Analisar fatores associados à prática de atividade física durante a gestação e sua relação com indicadores de saúde materno-infantil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado com todos os nascimentos ocorridos em maternidades no município de Rio Grande, RS, durante o ano de 2007 (N = 2.557). As informações foram obtidas por entrevista, por meio de um questionário pré-codificado aplicado às mães. Os desfechos de saúde materno-infantil analisados foram: hospitalização durante a gravidez, parto por cesárea, prematuridade (idade gestacional menor de 37 semanas), baixo peso ao nascer (< 2.500 g) e morte fetal. RESULTADOS: Relataram ter praticado atividade física durante a gestação 32,8 por cento (IC95 por cento 31,0;34,6) das mães. Os fatores associados à prática de atividade física na gestação, após ajustes para possíveis confundidores, foram: idade materna (associação inversa), escolaridade (associação direta), ser primigesta, ter feito pré-natal, e ter recebido orientação para a prática de exercícios durante o pré-natal. Mulheres que praticaram atividade física durante a gestação mostraram menor probabilidade de realização de cesariana e de terem filho natimorto. Não houve associação entre atividade física e parto prematuro, hospitalização e baixo peso ao nascer. CONCLUSÕES: Apenas um terço das mães relatou ter praticado atividade física durante a gestação. Esse comportamento foi mais frequente entre mulheres mais jovens, com maior escolaridade e que receberam orientação. Mulheres que praticaram atividade física durante a gestação realizaram menos cesarianas e tiveram menor ocorrência de natimorto.


OBJECTIVE: To analyze factors associated with the practice of physical activity during pregnancy and its relationship to maternal and child health indicators. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out with all births that occurred at maternity hospitals in the municipality of Rio Grande (Southern Brazil) during the year of 2007 (N = 2,557). Information was collected through interviews, by means of a pre-coded questionnaire administered to the mothers. The analyzed maternal and child health outcomes were: hospitalization during pregnancy, cesarean delivery, preterm birth (gestational age < 37 weeks), low birth weight (< 2500g), and fetal death. RESULTS: A total of 32.8 percent of mothers (95 percentCI 31.0;34.6) reported having practiced physical activity during pregnancy. The factors associated with practice of physical activity during pregnancy, after adjusting for potential confounders, were: maternal age (inverse association), level of schooling (direct association), mother's first pregnancy, having received prenatal care, and having been instructed in physical activity during prenatal care. Women who practiced physical activity during pregnancy were less likely to deliver surgically and to have a stillbirth. There was no association between physical activity and preterm birth, hospitalization, and low birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: Only one third of mothers reported having practiced physical activity during pregnancy. This behavior was more frequent among younger women with higher level of schooling who were advised during prenatal care. Women who practiced physical activity during pregnancy had fewer cesarean sections and lower occurrence of stillbirths.


OBJETIVO: Analizar factores asociados con la práctica de actividad física durante la gestación y su relación con indicadores de salud materno-infantil. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal realizado con todos los nacimientos ocurridos en maternidades en el municipio de Rio Grande, Sur de Brasil, durante el año 2007 (N=2.557). Las informaciones fueron obtenidas por entrevista, por medio de un cuestionario pre-codificado aplicado a las madres. Los desenlaces de salud materno-infantil analizados fueron: hospitalización durante el embarazo, parto por cesárea, prematuridad (edad gestacional menor de 37 semanas), bajo peso al nacer (<2500 g) y muerte fetal. RESULTADOS: Informaron haber practicado actividad física durante la gestación 32,8 por ciento (IC95 por ciento 31,0; 34,6) de las madres. Los factores asociados con la práctica de actividad física en la gestación, posterior a los ajustes para posibles confundidores, fueron: edad materna (asociación inversa), escolaridad (asociación directa), ser primigestante, haber hecho prenatal, y haber recibido orientación para la práctica de ejercicios durante el prenatal. Mujeres que practicaron actividad física durante la gestación mostraron menor probabilidad de realización de cesárea y de tener hijo natimuerto. No hubo asociación entre actividad física y parto prematuro, hospitalización y bajo peso al nacer. CONCLUSIONES: Sólo un tercio de las madres informó haber practicado actividad física durante la gestación. Este comportamiento fue más frecuente entre mujeres más jóvenes, con mayor escolaridad y que recibieron orientación. Mujeres que practicaron actividad física durante la gestación realizaron menos cesáreas y tuvieron menor ocurrencia de natimuerto.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem , Exercício/psicologia , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Saúde Materno-Infantil , Centros de Saúde Materno-Infantil/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/psicologia , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Idade Materna , Resultado da Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Pediatr Exerc Sci ; 24(1): 58-71, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22433265

RESUMO

This study aimed to: 1) describe the change in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) during early-to-mid adolescence; 2) analyze the tracking of LTPA; 3) identify the predictors of LTPA change. 4,120 adolescents were from 11 to 15 years old. Outcome was self-reported LTPA (min/wk). Boys increased their LTPA level over the four years (mean: 75 min/wk; 95%CI: 49,100), whereas a decrease was observed among girls (mean: -42 min/wk; 95%CI: -57,-28). Likelihood to be active at 15 years of age was 50% higher (95%CI: 39-62) among those who were active at 11 years. The main predictor of LTPA change was the number of physical activities performed at baseline. Regular physical activity early in life can predict this behavior afterward.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Adolescente , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Atividades de Lazer , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Esportes/fisiologia , Estatística como Assunto
20.
Rev Saude Publica ; 46(2): 327-33, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22331181

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze factors associated with the practice of physical activity during pregnancy and its relationship to maternal and child health indicators. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out with all births that occurred at maternity hospitals in the municipality of Rio Grande (Southern Brazil) during the year of 2007 (N = 2,557). Information was collected through interviews, by means of a pre-coded questionnaire administered to the mothers. The analyzed maternal and child health outcomes were: hospitalization during pregnancy, cesarean delivery, preterm birth (gestational age < 37 weeks), low birth weight (< 2500g), and fetal death. RESULTS: A total of 32.8% of mothers (95%CI 31.0;34.6) reported having practiced physical activity during pregnancy. The factors associated with practice of physical activity during pregnancy, after adjusting for potential confounders, were: maternal age (inverse association), level of schooling (direct association), mother's first pregnancy, having received prenatal care, and having been instructed in physical activity during prenatal care. Women who practiced physical activity during pregnancy were less likely to deliver surgically and to have a stillbirth. There was no association between physical activity and preterm birth, hospitalization, and low birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: Only one third of mothers reported having practiced physical activity during pregnancy. This behavior was more frequent among younger women with higher level of schooling who were advised during prenatal care. Women who practiced physical activity during pregnancy had fewer cesarean sections and lower occurrence of stillbirths.


Assuntos
Exercício/psicologia , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Centros de Saúde Materno-Infantil/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Idade Materna , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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