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1.
Ecol Lett ; 22(3): 506-517, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609108

RESUMO

Earth system models (ESMs) use photosynthetic capacity, indexed by the maximum Rubisco carboxylation rate (Vcmax ), to simulate carbon assimilation and typically rely on empirical estimates, including an assumed dependence on leaf nitrogen determined from soil fertility. In contrast, new theory, based on biochemical coordination and co-optimization of carboxylation and water costs for photosynthesis, suggests that optimal Vcmax can be predicted from climate alone, irrespective of soil fertility. Here, we develop this theory and find it captures 64% of observed variability in a global, field-measured Vcmax dataset for C3 plants. Soil fertility indices explained substantially less variation (32%). These results indicate that environmentally regulated biophysical constraints and light availability are the first-order drivers of global photosynthetic capacity. Through acclimation and adaptation, plants efficiently utilize resources at the leaf level, thus maximizing potential resource use for growth and reproduction. Our theory offers a robust strategy for dynamically predicting photosynthetic capacity in ESMs.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Dióxido de Carbono , Fotossíntese , Adaptação Fisiológica , Nitrogênio , Folhas de Planta , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(51): E10937-E10946, 2017 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29196525

RESUMO

Our ability to understand and predict the response of ecosystems to a changing environment depends on quantifying vegetation functional diversity. However, representing this diversity at the global scale is challenging. Typically, in Earth system models, characterization of plant diversity has been limited to grouping related species into plant functional types (PFTs), with all trait variation in a PFT collapsed into a single mean value that is applied globally. Using the largest global plant trait database and state of the art Bayesian modeling, we created fine-grained global maps of plant trait distributions that can be applied to Earth system models. Focusing on a set of plant traits closely coupled to photosynthesis and foliar respiration-specific leaf area (SLA) and dry mass-based concentrations of leaf nitrogen ([Formula: see text]) and phosphorus ([Formula: see text]), we characterize how traits vary within and among over 50,000 [Formula: see text]-km cells across the entire vegetated land surface. We do this in several ways-without defining the PFT of each grid cell and using 4 or 14 PFTs; each model's predictions are evaluated against out-of-sample data. This endeavor advances prior trait mapping by generating global maps that preserve variability across scales by using modern Bayesian spatial statistical modeling in combination with a database over three times larger than that in previous analyses. Our maps reveal that the most diverse grid cells possess trait variability close to the range of global PFT means.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Plantas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Meio Ambiente , Geografia , Modelos Estatísticos , Dispersão Vegetal , Análise Espacial
3.
New Phytol ; 214(3): 1002-1018, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27389684

RESUMO

We examined whether variations in photosynthetic capacity are linked to variations in the environment and/or associated leaf traits for tropical moist forests (TMFs) in the Andes/western Amazon regions of Peru. We compared photosynthetic capacity (maximal rate of carboxylation of Rubisco (Vcmax ), and the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax )), leaf mass, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) per unit leaf area (Ma , Na and Pa , respectively), and chlorophyll from 210 species at 18 field sites along a 3300-m elevation gradient. Western blots were used to quantify the abundance of the CO2 -fixing enzyme Rubisco. Area- and N-based rates of photosynthetic capacity at 25°C were higher in upland than lowland TMFs, underpinned by greater investment of N in photosynthesis in high-elevation trees. Soil [P] and leaf Pa were key explanatory factors for models of area-based Vcmax and Jmax but did not account for variations in photosynthetic N-use efficiency. At any given Na and Pa , the fraction of N allocated to photosynthesis was higher in upland than lowland species. For a small subset of lowland TMF trees examined, a substantial fraction of Rubisco was inactive. These results highlight the importance of soil- and leaf-P in defining the photosynthetic capacity of TMFs, with variations in N allocation and Rubisco activation state further influencing photosynthetic rates and N-use efficiency of these critically important forests.


Assuntos
Altitude , Florestas , Umidade , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Clima Tropical , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Cinética , Modelos Biológicos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Peru , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Temperatura Ambiente
4.
New Phytol ; 210(3): 1130-44, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26719951

RESUMO

Simulations of photosynthesis by terrestrial biosphere models typically need a specification of the maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax ). Estimating this parameter using A-Ci curves (net photosynthesis, A, vs intercellular CO2 concentration, Ci ) is laborious, which limits availability of Vcmax data. However, many multispecies field datasets include net photosynthetic rate at saturating irradiance and at ambient atmospheric CO2 concentration (Asat ) measurements, from which Vcmax can be extracted using a 'one-point method'. We used a global dataset of A-Ci curves (564 species from 46 field sites, covering a range of plant functional types) to test the validity of an alternative approach to estimate Vcmax from Asat via this 'one-point method'. If leaf respiration during the day (Rday ) is known exactly, Vcmax can be estimated with an r(2) value of 0.98 and a root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 8.19 µmol m(-2) s(-1) . However, Rday typically must be estimated. Estimating Rday as 1.5% of Vcmax, we found that Vcmax could be estimated with an r(2) of 0.95 and an RMSE of 17.1 µmol m(-2) s(-1) . The one-point method provides a robust means to expand current databases of field-measured Vcmax , giving new potential to improve vegetation models and quantify the environmental drivers of Vcmax variation.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Luz , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Plantas/metabolismo , Respiração Celular , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Cinética , Estômatos de Plantas/fisiologia , Temperatura Ambiente
5.
Ecol Evol ; 6(20): 7352-7366, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28725403

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to systematically analyze the potential and limitations of using plant functional trait observations from global databases versus in situ data to improve our understanding of vegetation impacts on ecosystem functional properties (EFPs). Using ecosystem photosynthetic capacity as an example, we first provide an objective approach to derive robust EFP estimates from gross primary productivity (GPP) obtained from eddy covariance flux measurements. Second, we investigate the impact of synchronizing EFPs and plant functional traits in time and space to evaluate their relationships, and the extent to which we can benefit from global plant trait databases to explain the variability of ecosystem photosynthetic capacity. Finally, we identify a set of plant functional traits controlling ecosystem photosynthetic capacity at selected sites. Suitable estimates of the ecosystem photosynthetic capacity can be derived from light response curve of GPP responding to radiation (photosynthetically active radiation or absorbed photosynthetically active radiation). Although the effect of climate is minimized in these calculations, the estimates indicate substantial interannual variation of the photosynthetic capacity, even after removing site-years with confounding factors like disturbance such as fire events. The relationships between foliar nitrogen concentration and ecosystem photosynthetic capacity are tighter when both of the measurements are synchronized in space and time. When using multiple plant traits simultaneously as predictors for ecosystem photosynthetic capacity variation, the combination of leaf carbon to nitrogen ratio with leaf phosphorus content explains the variance of ecosystem photosynthetic capacity best (adjusted R2 = 0.55). Overall, this study provides an objective approach to identify links between leaf level traits and canopy level processes and highlights the relevance of the dynamic nature of ecosystems. Synchronizing measurements of eddy covariance fluxes and plant traits in time and space is shown to be highly relevant to better understand the importance of intra- and interspecific trait variation on ecosystem functioning.

6.
New Phytol ; 209(1): 17-28, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26249015

RESUMO

The first generation of forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments has successfully provided deeper understanding about how forests respond to an increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Located in aggrading stands in the temperate zone, they have provided a strong foundation for testing critical assumptions in terrestrial biosphere models that are being used to project future interactions between forest productivity and the atmosphere, despite the limited inference space of these experiments with regards to the range of global ecosystems. Now, a new generation of FACE experiments in mature forests in different biomes and over a wide range of climate space and biodiversity will significantly expand the inference space. These new experiments are: EucFACE in a mature Eucalyptus stand on highly weathered soil in subtropical Australia; AmazonFACE in a highly diverse, primary rainforest in Brazil; BIFoR-FACE in a 150-yr-old deciduous woodland stand in central England; and SwedFACE proposed in a hemiboreal, Pinus sylvestris stand in Sweden. We now have a unique opportunity to initiate a model-data interaction as an integral part of experimental design and to address a set of cross-site science questions on topics including responses of mature forests; interactions with temperature, water stress, and phosphorus limitation; and the influence of biodiversity.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Eucalyptus/fisiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Árvores/fisiologia , Atmosfera , Austrália , Biodiversidade , Brasil , Clima , Desidratação , Inglaterra , Eucalyptus/efeitos dos fármacos , Florestas , Fósforo/deficiência , Floresta Úmida , Solo , Árvores/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
New Phytol ; 206(2): 614-36, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25581061

RESUMO

Leaf dark respiration (Rdark ) is an important yet poorly quantified component of the global carbon cycle. Given this, we analyzed a new global database of Rdark and associated leaf traits. Data for 899 species were compiled from 100 sites (from the Arctic to the tropics). Several woody and nonwoody plant functional types (PFTs) were represented. Mixed-effects models were used to disentangle sources of variation in Rdark . Area-based Rdark at the prevailing average daily growth temperature (T) of each site increased only twofold from the Arctic to the tropics, despite a 20°C increase in growing T (8-28°C). By contrast, Rdark at a standard T (25°C, Rdark (25) ) was threefold higher in the Arctic than in the tropics, and twofold higher at arid than at mesic sites. Species and PFTs at cold sites exhibited higher Rdark (25) at a given photosynthetic capacity (Vcmax (25) ) or leaf nitrogen concentration ([N]) than species at warmer sites. Rdark (25) values at any given Vcmax (25) or [N] were higher in herbs than in woody plants. The results highlight variation in Rdark among species and across global gradients in T and aridity. In addition to their ecological significance, the results provide a framework for improving representation of Rdark in terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) and associated land-surface components of Earth system models (ESMs).


Assuntos
Ciclo do Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Aclimatação , Respiração Celular , Clima , Modelos Teóricos , Fenótipo , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Temperatura Ambiente
8.
Ecol Evol ; 4(16): 3218-35, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25473475

RESUMO

Great uncertainty exists in the global exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere. An important source of this uncertainty lies in the dependency of photosynthesis on the maximum rate of carboxylation (V cmax) and the maximum rate of electron transport (J max). Understanding and making accurate prediction of C fluxes thus requires accurate characterization of these rates and their relationship with plant nutrient status over large geographic scales. Plant nutrient status is indicated by the traits: leaf nitrogen (N), leaf phosphorus (P), and specific leaf area (SLA). Correlations between V cmax and J max and leaf nitrogen (N) are typically derived from local to global scales, while correlations with leaf phosphorus (P) and specific leaf area (SLA) have typically been derived at a local scale. Thus, there is no global-scale relationship between V cmax and J max and P or SLA limiting the ability of global-scale carbon flux models do not account for P or SLA. We gathered published data from 24 studies to reveal global relationships of V cmax and J max with leaf N, P, and SLA. V cmax was strongly related to leaf N, and increasing leaf P substantially increased the sensitivity of V cmax to leaf N. J max was strongly related to V cmax, and neither leaf N, P, or SLA had a substantial impact on the relationship. Although more data are needed to expand the applicability of the relationship, we show leaf P is a globally important determinant of photosynthetic rates. In a model of photosynthesis, we showed that at high leaf N (3 gm(-2)), increasing leaf P from 0.05 to 0.22 gm(-2) nearly doubled assimilation rates. Finally, we show that plants may employ a conservative strategy of J max to V cmax coordination that restricts photoinhibition when carboxylation is limiting at the expense of maximizing photosynthetic rates when light is limiting.

9.
Glob Ecol Biogeogr ; 23(8): 935-946, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26430387

RESUMO

AIM: The accurate mapping of forest carbon stocks is essential for understanding the global carbon cycle, for assessing emissions from deforestation, and for rational land-use planning. Remote sensing (RS) is currently the key tool for this purpose, but RS does not estimate vegetation biomass directly, and thus may miss significant spatial variations in forest structure. We test the stated accuracy of pantropical carbon maps using a large independent field dataset. LOCATION: Tropical forests of the Amazon basin. The permanent archive of the field plot data can be accessed at: http://dx.doi.org/10.5521/FORESTPLOTS.NET/2014_1. METHODS: Two recent pantropical RS maps of vegetation carbon are compared to a unique ground-plot dataset, involving tree measurements in 413 large inventory plots located in nine countries. The RS maps were compared directly to field plots, and kriging of the field data was used to allow area-based comparisons. RESULTS: The two RS carbon maps fail to capture the main gradient in Amazon forest carbon detected using 413 ground plots, from the densely wooded tall forests of the north-east, to the light-wooded, shorter forests of the south-west. The differences between plots and RS maps far exceed the uncertainties given in these studies, with whole regions over- or under-estimated by > 25%, whereas regional uncertainties for the maps were reported to be < 5%. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Pantropical biomass maps are widely used by governments and by projects aiming to reduce deforestation using carbon offsets, but may have significant regional biases. Carbon-mapping techniques must be revised to account for the known ecological variation in tree wood density and allometry to create maps suitable for carbon accounting. The use of single relationships between tree canopy height and above-ground biomass inevitably yields large, spatially correlated errors. This presents a significant challenge to both the forest conservation and remote sensing communities, because neither wood density nor species assemblages can be reliably mapped from space.

11.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 366(1582): 3316-29, 2011 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22006971

RESUMO

The rate of above-ground woody biomass production, W(P), in some western Amazon forests exceeds those in the east by a factor of 2 or more. Underlying causes may include climate, soil nutrient limitations and species composition. In this modelling paper, we explore the implications of allowing key nutrients such as N and P to constrain the photosynthesis of Amazon forests, and also we examine the relationship between modelled rates of photosynthesis and the observed gradients in W(P). We use a model with current understanding of the underpinning biochemical processes as affected by nutrient availability to assess: (i) the degree to which observed spatial variations in foliar [N] and [P] across Amazonia affect stand-level photosynthesis; and (ii) how these variations in forest photosynthetic carbon acquisition relate to the observed geographical patterns of stem growth across the Amazon Basin. We find nutrient availability to exert a strong effect on photosynthetic carbon gain across the Basin and to be a likely important contributor to the observed gradient in W(P). Phosphorus emerges as more important than nitrogen in accounting for the observed variations in productivity. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of future tropical forests under a changing climate.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Modelos Biológicos , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/química , Árvores/química , Atmosfera/química , Brasil , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Simulação por Computador , Nitrogênio/química , Fósforo/química , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clima Tropical , Madeira/química , Madeira/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
Oecologia ; 157(2): 197-210, 2008 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18543002

RESUMO

Leaf water (18)O enrichment (Delta(o)) influences the isotopic composition of both gas exchange and organic matter, with Delta(o) values responding to changes in atmospheric parameters. In order to examine possible influences of plant parameters on Delta(o) dynamics, we measured oxygen isotope ratios (delta(18)O) of leaf and stem water on plant species representing different life forms in Amazonia forest and pasture ecosystems. We conducted two field experiments: one in March (wet season) and another in September (dry season) 2004. In each experiment, leaf and stem samples were collected at 2-h intervals at night and hourly during the day for 50 h from eight species including upper-canopy forest trees, upper-canopy forest lianas, and lower-canopy forest trees, a C(4) pasture grass and a C(3) pasture shrub. Significant life form-related differences were detected in (18)O leaf water values. Initial modeling efforts to explain these observations over-predicted nighttime Delta(o) values by as much as 10 per thousand. Across all species, errors associated with measured values of the delta(18)O of atmospheric water vapor (delta(v)) appeared to be largely responsible for the over-predictions of nighttime Delta(o) observations. We could not eliminate collection or storage of water vapor samples as a possible error and therefore developed an alternative, plant-based method for estimating the daily average delta(v) value in the absence of direct (reliable) measurements. This approach differs from the common assumption that isotopic equilibrium exists between water vapor and precipitation water, by including transpiration-based contributions from local vegetation through (18)O measurements of bulk leaf water. Inclusion of both modified delta(v) and non-steady state features resulted in model predictions that more reliably predicted both the magnitude and temporal patterns observed in the data. The influence of life form-specific patterns of Delta(o) was incorporated through changes in the effective path length, an important but little known parameter associated with the Péclet effect.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Água/química , Ritmo Circadiano , Umidade , Modelos Biológicos , Isótopos de Oxigênio , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Temperatura Ambiente , Água/metabolismo
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