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2.
Eur J Cancer ; 148: 124-133, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743481

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to report the uptake of hysterectomy and/or bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) to prevent gynaecological cancers (risk-reducing surgery [RRS]) in carriers of pathogenic MMR (path_MMR) variants. METHODS: The Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD) was used to investigate RRS by a cross-sectional study in 2292 female path_MMR carriers aged 30-69 years. RESULTS: Overall, 144, 79, and 517 carriers underwent risk-reducing hysterectomy, BSO, or both combined, respectively. Two-thirds of procedures before 50 years of age were combined hysterectomy and BSO, and 81% of all procedures included BSO. Risk-reducing hysterectomy was performed before age 50 years in 28%, 25%, 15%, and 9%, and BSO in 26%, 25%, 14% and 13% of path_MLH1, path_MSH2, path_MSH6, and path_PMS2 carriers, respectively. Before 50 years of age, 107 of 188 (57%) BSO and 126 of 204 (62%) hysterectomies were performed in women without any prior cancer, and only 5% (20/392) were performed simultaneously with colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery. CONCLUSION: Uptake of RRS before 50 years of age was low, and RRS was rarely undertaken in association with surgical treatment of CRC. Uptake of RRS aligned poorly with gene- and age-associated risk estimates for endometrial or ovarian cancer that were published recently from PLSD and did not correspond well with current clinical guidelines. The reasons should be clarified. Decision-making on opting for or against RRS and its timing should be better aligned with predicted risk and mortality for endometrial and ovarian cancer in Lynch syndrome to improve outcomes.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557277

RESUMO

We provide an overview of the challenges that low-resource setting cities are facing, including a lack of global implementation of cancer screening programs, accurate data and statistics that may aid the health authorities and guide future public health activities, as well as reorient strategies, interventions and budgets to promote lifestyles that help prevent disease. Current cancer care does not fully reflect ethnic, cultural, environmental and resource differences. Herein, we described a snapshot of the cancer mortality and morbidity from a hospital that cares a rural and low-income population from Peru, called Chimbote (316,966 inhabitants) and showed the limitation of access to oncological care and genetic services. The city is located in the region of Ancash, which is a department of Northern Peru. Of note, we identified a greater proportion of cancer cases than previously described, with a young age of onset and differential profile of the most frequent cancers. With the emergence of increasingly effective interventions, it becomes paramount that populations living in resource-limited settings have access to cancer services and participate in genetics and genomic research.


Assuntos
Medicina de Precisão , População Rural , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Peru/epidemiologia
5.
Genet Med ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257847

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine impact of risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) on gynecological cancer incidence and death in heterozygotes of pathogenic MMR (path_MMR) variants. METHODS: The Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database was used to investigate the effects of gynecological risk-reducing surgery (RRS) at different ages. RESULTS: Risk-reducing hysterectomy at 25 years of age prevents endometrial cancer before 50 years in 15%, 18%, 13%, and 0% of path_MLH1, path_MSH2, path_MSH6, and path_PMS2 heterozygotes and death in 2%, 2%, 1%, and 0%, respectively. Risk-reducing BSO at 25 years of age prevents ovarian cancer before 50 years in 6%, 11%, 2%, and 0% and death in 1%, 2%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. Risk-reducing hysterectomy at 40 years prevents endometrial cancer by 50 years in 13%, 16%, 11%, and 0% and death in 1%, 2%, 1%, and 0%, respectively. BSO at 40 years prevents ovarian cancer before 50 years in 4%, 8%, 0%, and 0%, and death in 1%, 1%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Little benefit is gained by performing RRS before 40 years of age and premenopausal BSO in path_MSH6 and path_PMS2 heterozygotes has no measurable benefit for mortality. These findings may aid decision making for women with LS who are considering RRS.

6.
Rev. Fac. Med. (Bogotá) ; 68(4): 597-602, oct.-dic. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149561

RESUMO

Resumen Los avances en la investigación clínica, genética y molecular del cáncer colorrectal (CCR) realizados durante los últimos años han permitido su detección temprana, así como su tratamiento oportuno. Sin embargo, uno de los mayores desafíos de esta enfermedad es su naturaleza heterogénea y la participación de diversas vías moleculares en su carcinogénesis. La implementación de las tecnologías ómicas -como la genómica, la proteómica, la transcriptómica y la epigenómica- en la investigación biomédica de pacientes con CCR hereditario ha permitido identificar nuevos genes o polimorfismos de nucléotido único (SNP, por su sigla en inglés) que afectan la expresividad del cáncer. Por otra parte, las herramientas bioinformáticas han contribuido a generar nuevas hipótesis sobre el CCR, orientando el abordaje de estos pacientes hacia una medicina personalizada. Este avance científico y tecnológico tiene un impacto en la salud, tanto a nivel individual como colectivo, por lo que es importante reflexionar sobre la viabilidad de desarrollar estrategias de salud pública para la implementación de un programa integral y genético de prevención y manejo del cáncer en Perú, en especial del CCR hereditario.


Abstract Progress in clinical, genetic and molecular research of colorectal cancer (CRC) in recent years has allowed its early detection and timely and targeted treatment. However, one of the greatest challenges is the heterogeneous nature of CRC and the involvement of various molecular pathways in its carcinogenesis. The implementation of technologies known as omics -such as genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics and epigenomics- in biomedical research on patients with hereditary CRC has allowed the identification of new genes or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that affect the expressivity of cancer. Bioinformatics tools have also contributed to generate new hypotheses about CRC, guiding the approach to these patients towards personalized medicine. This scientific and technological progress has an impact on health, both at the individual and the collective level, so it is important to reflect on the feasibility of developing public health strategies for the implementation of a comprehensive and genetic program for the prevention and treatment of cancer in Peru, especially hereditary CRC.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683684

RESUMO

Individuals with Lynch syndrome (LS), one of the most common inherited cancer syndromes, are at increased risk of developing malignancies, in particular colorectal cancer (CRC). Regular colonoscopy with polypectomy is recommended to reduce CRC risk in LS individuals. However, recent independent studies demonstrated that a substantial proportion of LS individuals develop CRC despite regular colonoscopy. The reasons for this surprising observation confirmed by large prospective studies are a matter of debate. In this review, we collect existing evidence from clinical, epidemiological and molecular studies and interpret them with regard to the origins and progression of LS-associated CRC. Alongside with hypotheses addressing colonoscopy quality and pace of progression from adenoma to cancer, we discuss the role of alternative precursors and immune system in LS-associated CRC. We also identify gaps in current knowledge and make suggestions for future studies aiming at improved CRC prevention for LS individuals.

9.
J Clin Med ; 9(7)2020 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708519

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To survey risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) practice and advice regarding hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women with Lynch syndrome. METHODS: We conducted a survey in 31 contributing centers from the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD), which incorporates 18 countries worldwide. The survey covered local policies for risk-reducing hysterectomy and BSO in Lynch syndrome, the timing when these measures are offered, the involvement of stakeholders and advice regarding HRT. RESULTS: Risk-reducing hysterectomy and BSO are offered to path_MLH1 and path_MSH2 carriers in 20/21 (95%) contributing centers, to path_MSH6 carriers in 19/21 (91%) and to path_PMS2 carriers in 14/21 (67%). Regarding the involvement of stakeholders, there is global agreement (~90%) that risk-reducing surgery should be offered to women, and that this discussion may involve gynecologists, genetic counselors and/or medical geneticists. Prescription of estrogen-only HRT is offered by 15/21 (71%) centers to women of variable age range (35-55 years). CONCLUSIONS: Most centers offer risk-reducing gynecological surgery to carriers of path_MLH1, path_MSH2 and path_MSH6 variants but less so for path_PMS2 carriers. There is wide variation in how, when and to whom this is offered. The Manchester International Consensus Group developed recommendations to harmonize clinical practice across centers, but there is a clear need for more research.

11.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549215

RESUMO

Lynch syndrome (LS) is associated with the highest risk of colorectal (CRC) and several extracolonic cancers. In our effort to characterize LS families from Latin America, this study aimed to describe the spectrum of neoplasms and cancer risk by gender, age and gene, and survival in 34 Chilean LS families. Of them, 59% harbored path_MLH1, 23% path_MSH2, 12% path_PMS2 and 6% path_EPCAM variants. A total of 866 individuals at risk were identified, of which 213 (24.6%) developed 308 neoplasms. In males, CRC was the most common cancer (72.6%), while females showed a greater frequency of extracolonic cancers (58.4%), including uterus and breast (p < 0.0001). The cumulative incidence of extracolonic cancers was higher in females than males (p = 0.001). Path_MLH1 variants are significantly more associated with the development of CRC than extracolonic tumors (59.5% vs. 40.5%) when compared to path_MSH2 (47.5% vs. 52.5%) variants (p = 0.05018). The cumulative incidence of CRC was higher in path_MLH1/path_MSH2 carriers compared to path_PMS2 carriers (p = 0.03). In addition, path_MSH2 carriers showed higher risk of extracolonic tumors (p = 0.002). In conclusion, this study provides a snapshot of the LS profile from Chile and the current LS-associated diagnostic practice and output in Chile. Categorizing cancer risks associated with each population is relevant in the genetic counselling of LS patients.

12.
Fam Cancer ; 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507935

RESUMO

The Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD) has been developed as an international, multicentre, prospective, observational study that aims to provide age and organ-specific cancer risks according to gene and gender, estimates of survival after cancer and information on the effects of interventions. Recent reports from PLSD provided improved estimates of cancer risks and survival and showed that different time intervals between surveillance colonoscopies did not affect the incidence, stage or prognosis of colorectal cancer. The PLSD reports suggest that current management guidelines for Lynch syndrome should be revised in light of the different gene and gender-specific cancer risks and the good prognosis for the most commonly associated cancers.In this review, we describe the discrepancies between the current management guidelines for Lynch Syndrome and the most recent prospective observational studies, indicating the areas of further research.

13.
Fam Cancer ; 19(4): 323-336, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363481

RESUMO

Germline pathogenic variants in the DNA mismatch repair genes (MMR): MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2, are causative of Lynch syndrome (LS). However, many of the variants mapping outside the invariant splice site positions (IVS ± 1, IVS ± 2) are classified as variants of unknown significance (VUS). Three such variants (MLH1 c.588+5G>C, c.588+5G>T and c.677+5G>A) were identified in 8 unrelated LS families from Argentina, Brazil and Chile. Herein, we collected clinical information on these families and performed segregation analysis and RNA splicing studies to assess the implication of these VUS in LS etiology. Pedigrees showed a clear pattern of variant co-segregation with colorectal cancer and/or other LS-associated malignancies. Tumors presented deficient expression of MLH1-PMS2 proteins in 7/7 of the LS families, and MSI-high status in 3/3 cases. Moreover, RNA analyses revealed that c.588+5G>C and c.588+5G>T induce skipping of exon 7 whereas c.677+5G>A causes skipping of exon 8. In sum, we report that the combined clinical findings in the families and the molecular studies provided the evidences needed to demonstrate that the three MLH1 variants are causative of LS and to classify c.588+5G>C and c.677+5G>A as class 5 (pathogenic), and c.588+5G>T as class 4 (likely-pathogenic). Our findings underline the importance of performing clinical and family analyses, as well as RNA splicing assays in order to determine the clinical significance of intronic variants, and contribute to the genetic counseling and clinical management of patients and their relatives.

14.
J Investig Med ; 68(5): 985-991, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184228

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the frequency of the somatic BRAF p.V600E in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) in Mexico and compare it with those estimated for Latin American and Caribbean populations. One hundred and one patients with CRC with AJCC stages ranging I-IV from Western Mexico were included, out of which 55% were male and 61% had AJCC stage III-IV, with a mean age of 60 years. PCR-Sanger sequencing was used to identify the BRAF p.V600E variant. In addition, a systematic literature search in PubMed/Medline database and Google of the 42 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean led to the collection of information on the BRAF p.V600E variant frequency of 17 population reports. To compare the BRAF variant prevalence among populations, a statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism V.6.0. We found that 4% of patients with CRC were heterozygous for the p.V600E variant. The χ2 test showed no significant difference (p>0.05) in p.V600E detection when comparing with other Latin American and Caribbean CRC populations, except for Chilean patients (p=0.02). Our observational study provides the first evidence on the frequency of BRAF p.V600E in patients with CRC from Western Mexico, which is 4%, but increases to 7.8% for all of Latin America and the Caribbean. The patient mean age and genetic descent on the observed frequencies of the variant in populations could influence the frequency differences.

15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(2)2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050665

RESUMO

The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [1]: The authors would like to replace Table 3 in [1]. The corrections are correcting typographical errors when translating our database in BIC format to HGVS nomenclature, and removing four carriers which had zero follow-up time. [...].

17.
Genet Med ; 22(1): 15-25, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337882

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants affecting MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 cause Lynch syndrome and result in different but imprecisely known cancer risks. This study aimed to provide age and organ-specific cancer risks according to gene and gender and to determine survival after cancer. METHODS: We conducted an international, multicenter prospective observational study using independent test and validation cohorts of carriers of class 4 or class 5 variants. After validation the cohorts were merged providing 6350 participants and 51,646 follow-up years. RESULTS: There were 1808 prospectively observed cancers. Pathogenic MLH1 and MSH2 variants caused high penetrance dominant cancer syndromes sharing similar colorectal, endometrial, and ovarian cancer risks, but older MSH2 carriers had higher risk of cancers of the upper urinary tract, upper gastrointestinal tract, brain, and particularly prostate. Pathogenic MSH6 variants caused a sex-limited trait with high endometrial cancer risk but only modestly increased colorectal cancer risk in both genders. We did not demonstrate a significantly increased cancer risk in carriers of pathogenic PMS2 variants. Ten-year crude survival was over 80% following colon, endometrial, or ovarian cancer. CONCLUSION: Management guidelines for Lynch syndrome may require revision in light of these different gene and gender-specific risks and the good prognosis for the most commonly associated cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/economia , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Mutação , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/mortalidade , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Penetrância , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida
18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18555, 2019 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811167

RESUMO

We have surveyed 191 prospectively sampled familial cancer patients with no previously detected pathogenic variant in the BRCA1/2, PTEN, TP53 or DNA mismatch repair genes. In all, 138 breast cancer (BC) cases, 34 colorectal cancer (CRC) and 19 multiple early-onset cancers were included. A panel of 44 cancer-predisposing genes identified 5% (9/191) pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants and 87 variants of uncertain significance (VUS). Pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were identified mostly in familial BC individuals (7/9) and were located in 5 genes: ATM (3), BRCA2 (1), CHEK2 (1), MSH6 (1) and MUTYH (1), followed by multiple early-onset (2/9) individuals, affecting the CHEK2 and ATM genes. Eleven of the 87 VUS were tested, and 4/11 were found to have an impact on splicing by using a minigene splicing assay. We here report for the first time the splicing anomalies using this assay for the variants ATM c.3806A > G and BUB1 c.677C > T, whereas CHEK1 c.61G > A did not result in any detectable splicing anomaly. Our study confirms the presence of pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in genes that are not routinely tested in the context of the above-mentioned clinical phenotypes. Interestingly, more than half of the pathogenic germline variants were found in the moderately penetrant ATM and CHEK2 genes, where only truncating variants from these genes are recommended to be reported in clinical genetic testing practice.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Adulto , Idade de Início , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo Genético , Estudos Prospectivos , Processamento de RNA/genética
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636762

RESUMO

Background: We previously reported that in pathogenic mismatch repair (path_MMR) variant carriers, the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) was not reduced when colonoscopy was undertaken more frequently than once every 3 years, and that CRC stage and interval since last colonoscopy were not correlated. Methods: The Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD) that records outcomes of surveillance was examined to determine survival after colon cancer in relation to the time since previous colonoscopy and pathological stage. Only path_MMR variants scored by the InSiGHT variant database as class 4 or 5 (clinically actionable) were included in the analysis. Results: Ninety-nine path_MMR carriers had no cancer prior to or at first colonoscopy, but subsequently developed colon cancer. Among these, 96 were 65 years of age or younger at diagnosis, and included 77 path_MLH1, 17 path_MSH2, and 2 path_MSH6 carriers. The number of cancers detected within < 1.5, 1.5-2.5, 2.5-3.5 and at > 3.5 years after previous colonoscopy were 9, 43, 31 and 13, respectively. Of these, 2, 8, 4 and 3 were stage III, respectively, and only one stage IV (interval 2.5-3.5 years) disease. Ten-year crude survival after colon cancer were 93, 94 and 82% for stage I, II and III disease, respectively (p < 0.001). Ten-year crude survival when the last colonoscopy had been < 1.5, 1.5-2.5, 2.5-3.5 or > 3.5 years before diagnosis, was 89, 90, 90 and 92%, respectively (p = 0.91). Conclusions: In path_MLH1 and path_MSH2 carriers, more advanced colon cancer stage was associated with poorer survival, whereas time since previous colonoscopy was not. Although the numbers are limited, together with our previously reported findings, these results may be in conflict with the view that follow-up of path_MMR variant carriers with colonoscopy intervals of less than 3 years provides significant benefit.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858900

RESUMO

Background: Recent epidemiological evidence shows that colorectal cancer (CRC) continues to occur in carriers of pathogenic mismatch repair (path_MMR) variants despite frequent colonoscopy surveillance in expert centres. This observation conflicts with the paradigm that removal of all visible polyps should prevent the vast majority of CRC in path_MMR carriers, provided the screening interval is sufficiently short and colonoscopic practice is optimal. Methods: To inform the debate, we examined, in the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD), whether the time since last colonoscopy was associated with the pathological stage at which CRC was diagnosed during prospective surveillance. Path_MMR carriers were recruited for prospective surveillance by colonoscopy. Only variants scored by the InSiGHT Variant Interpretation Committee as class 4 and 5 (clinically actionable) were included. CRCs detected at the first planned colonoscopy, or within one year of this, were excluded as prevalent cancers. Results: Stage at diagnosis and interval between last prospective surveillance colonoscopy and diagnosis were available for 209 patients with 218 CRCs, including 162 path_MLH1, 45 path_MSH2, 10 path_MSH6 and 1 path_PMS2 carriers. The numbers of cancers detected within < 1.5, 1.5-2.5, 2.5-3.5 and at > 3.5 years since last colonoscopy were 36, 93, 56 and 33, respectively. Among these, 16.7, 19.4, 9.9 and 15.1% were stage III-IV, respectively (p = 0.34). The cancers detected more than 2.5 years after the last colonoscopy were not more advanced than those diagnosed earlier (p = 0.14). Conclusions: The CRC stage and interval since last colonoscopy were not correlated, which is in conflict with the accelerated adenoma-carcinoma paradigm. We have previously reported that more frequent colonoscopy is not associated with lower incidence of CRC in path_MMR carriers as was expected. In contrast, point estimates showed a higher incidence with shorter intervals between examinations, a situation that may parallel to over-diagnosis in breast cancer screening. Our findings raise the possibility that some CRCs in path_MMR carriers may spontaneously disappear: the host immune response may not only remove CRC precursor lesions in path_MMR carriers, but may remove infiltrating cancers as well. If confirmed, our suggested interpretation will have a bearing on surveillance policy for path_MMR carriers.

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